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The Builder ; a Builder's Newspaper and Magazine. In weekly folio numbers.
This journal is intended to be, for the various arts connected with building, what the gardening newspapers are for gardening. The first number promises well. It contains, besides an address, what the editor calls his “ Sermon,” an article on the Treatment of Workpeople by their Employers, written in an excellent spirit ; several reviews, miscellaneous paragraphs, and various notices, together occupying five pages, with the addition of eleven pages
of advertisements; in all, sixteen folio pages for 14d., or stamped to go free by post 24d.! The work is every way deserving of success, and we doubt not will obtain it. Animal Chemistry, or Organic Chemistry, in its Applications to Physiology and
Pathology. By Justus Liebig, M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S., M.R.I. A., Professor of Chemistry in the University of Giessen. Edited, from the Author's Manuscript, by William Gregory, M.D., F.R.S. E., &c. 8vo, pp. 354.
London, 1842. - There is much in this work to interest the thinking gardener, who, if he can procure the book, will find his mind enlarged by the perusal, It will probably be noticed more at length in an article which Mr. Lymburn is now kindly pre paring for us. Van Voorst's Naturalist's Pocket Almanack for 1843. London, pp. 32. 1s.
Mr. Van Voorst is the publisher of a number of works on natural history, such as Yarrell's Birds, Yarrell's Fishes, Bell's Quadrupeds, Jones's Animal Kmgdom, and twenty or thirty others, which have contributed greatly to the diffusion and popularity of natural science, and elevated Mr. Van Voorst's name to the first rank among liberal and enlightened publishers. His books are all admirably got up, and very cheap. The little book now before us is original in its plan ; the whole of the information which it contains being limited to natural history. At the end there is an account of the different Natural History Societies in London, including the Royal, Linnæan, Horticultural, Geological, Zoological, Entomological, Botanical, Microscopical, and Ornithological. Next follows an account of the metropolitan museums, libraries, and gardens. For every leaf of letter-press there is a leaf of blank paper, ruled with blue lines at the rate of eight to an inch. The Farmer's Calendar and Diary of Agriculture and Gardening for the Year
1843. London : printed for the Company of Stationers. 12mo, pp. 95. Price Is.
The agricultural calendar is by a friend of ours, of the Scotch school, who has the inanagement of three extensive farms in Wales, and we can recommend it as one of the best things of the kind. The other parts of the Farmer's Calendar are good and useful, and the work may be considered as among the best of the rural almanacks. The Literary and Scientific Register and Almanack for 1843. By J. W. G.
Gutch, M.R.C.S.L. London. pp. 187. Besides an almanack, and a number of ruled blank pages for memorandums, there are a great number of useful facts on almost every subject connected with literature, science, and every-day life ; and the price, bound, is only 3s. 6d, The British Almanack of the Society for the Diffusion of useful Knowledge for
1843. Small 8vo, pp. 96. London, 1843. Is. Companion to the Almanack, or Year-Book of General Information for 1843.
Small 8vo, pp. 260, several woodcuts. London, 1843. 2s. 6d. The first article in the Companion is on the recent applications of electricity to the arts : it treats of lightning conductors, copper sheathing, submarine operations, electric moving power in lieu of steam, &c.), electro-locomotive power, electrical telegraph, electro-metallurgy, electro-gilding and plating, electrotype, and electrotint. Such are the wonders of electricity! Passing over a number of articles, we come to Art. xv., Public Improvements, in which the new churches and other public buildings erected throughout the country are noticed, and beautiful engravings given of Wilton Church, near Salisbury, in the Lombardic style, Messrs. Wyatt and Brandon, architects, a strikingly original edifice ; Christ church, Broadway, Westminster, in the latter period of early English, Ambrose Poynter, architect; Wesleyan Theological Institution, Richmond, A. Trimen, architect ; Cambridge County Courts, in the Palladian style, Messrs. Wyatt and Brandon, architects; and Brunswick Buildings, Liverpool, A. and G. Williams, architects, a building in the Italian Palazzo style, intended to be let out as offices to different occupiers. As heretofore, we strongly recommend the Companion to every gardener who can afford it.
ART. I. General Notices. USE of Sulphate of Ammonia in Agriculture. - For the full developement of the capacity of the soil, and to afford a greater amount of nitrogen than what is afforded either by the ordinary manures, or the ammonia, &c., of the atmosphere, sulphate of ammonia has been introduced, and found to be a most valuable auxiliary, as a top dressing, to the farmer. It has been found to impart a greater degree of fructification to grass, wheat, and other grain, than any other dressing yet discovered, and at a less cost by 50 per cent.
The mode of application, as adopted by Mr. C. Hall, of Havering-atteBower, Essex, is as follows ::
Having selected several fields of grass, peas, turnips, and wheat, he had sown broadcast on parts of these fields in quantities, at the cost of 58. 3d., Ils. 4d., and 21s. per acre; the sulphate having cost him 178. per cwt.
The produce was kept and threshed separately, when the increase from the wheat-land was found to be as follows:
The part that was sown at the rate of 5s. 3d. per acre gave an increase of three bushels ; 1ls. 4d. gave six bushels; and 21s. upwards of nine bushels; besides a considerable increase of straw. (Phil. Mag. for December, 1842,
Agricultural Implements. — The improvements which are constantly making in agricultural implements are still greater than those which are taking place in the culture of corn and green crops. The Scotch swing plough is no longer considered the best implement of the kind, but one has been fonnd requiring considerably less draught. For measuring the power required to draw any implement, we have Cottam's Draught-Gauge, allowed by Mr. Pusey to be the best machine of the kind. We have also Cottam's Grubber, which is a great improvement on Finlayson's Harrow ; Cottam's Revolving Dibble, for dibbling wheat or beans; Cottam's One-Row Drill, for manure and seed; and Cottam's Apparatus for hatching and rearing Game and Poultry.. But, perhaps, the most remarkable agricultural machine of the present time is one imported from France, and to be seen in operation on the premises of Messrs. Graham and Co., Malin's Wharf, Fore Street, Lambeth, which completely cleanses damaged wheat, and also renders wheat that has been injured by the weevil, not only perfectly free from that insect, but weevilproof for the future. The process would be too tedious to describe here; but it is completely effective, and of immense importance with reference to the preservation of corn in granaries. Whoever wishes to know all that is
newest and best respecting agricultural implements and machines cannot do better than consult Messrs. Cottam and Hallen of London, or Messrs. Slight and Co., Edinburgh.
The oropholithe (orophē, a roof, and lithos, a stone), a composition used as a substitute for zinc, lead, tile, or slate, and apparently well adapted for covering garden and agricultural buildings, is now attracting a good deal of attention among architects. It appears to be a peculiarly hard cement, spread thinly over a surface of canvass, which may be cut up. of any convenient size. The oropholithe, as applied to buildings, will be found to recommend itself to attention by its cheapness and durability, as well as by the absence of all qualities capable of attracting electric matter, and which are more or less resident in all metallic substances. This cannot fail to render it safer than either of the metals now used on the tops of houses; while, not being liable to oxidation, and entirely impenetrable to water, it must, on both these accounts, recommend itself to the attention of builders with additional force. Independently of its durable qualities, for cheapness the oropholithe will be found unrivalled. It can be laid down at about half the price of zinc, at one quarter of that of lead, and, from the immense saving in the expenditure of time and money, at considerably less than slates and tiles. Then, its weight being so much less than that of any of these materials, the saving of timber in rafters will not be the least important consideration with the architect; as, while the new-invented material efféctually resists the action of the elements, when the amount of pressure taken from the roof is considered, the whole under-structure may be much lighter. The oropholithe being laid down on large surfaces, and its joints united by the cement of which it is made, the whole superfice of the roof appears covered with one solid sheet of the material ; and this compactness gives it such an extraordinary power of resistance that no wind storm, how violent soever, could by any, possibility remove it, while the building itself continued firm in its position. As a medium preventive of damp, as fatally injurious to buildings as to the health of their inhabitants, the oropholithe is likely to supersede the custom of stuccoing walls as at present. Lined with oropholithe, the rooms will be instantaneously fit for habitation, free from damp, and the tainted reek so disagreeable in newly built and unseasoned houses ; that is to say, for this parpose one side is covered with the material which is placed against the wall, the other, or exterior side, presents a dry surface which may be papered inmediately. The resistive qualities of the oropholithe are so great, that after years of exposure to the action of those universal solvents, air and water, no visible alteration in its structure has taken place. Hence its applicability in lining baths, tanks, cisterns, fishponds, &c., becomes manifest.” Such are the uses of this article, as stated in the prospectus. — Cond.
Wirework is now being applied to a great many purposes in gardening, and to some in agriculture, and we expect shortly to be able to announce a mode of coating over wire with zinc by the galvanic process, which, without adding much to its expense, will add greatly to its durability. We have lately found, in various parts of the country, that a strained wire fence 4 ft. high can be put up cheaper, all expenses included, than a wooden fence of the same height, even without reckoning any thing for the wood. Land-owners, who have plenty of young larches and Scotch pines that might be used in making such fences, find that the labour of cutting down the trees and forming them into fences is more than the entire cost of the strained wire fence. Almost every ironmonger deals in such articles. We have before us a great many designs, by Mr. Porter of 'Thames Street, and Messrs. Cottam and Hallen of Winsley Street, London; Messrs. Young of High Street, Edinburgh ; and Mr. Samuel Taylor of Stoke Ferry, Norfolk. Mr. Taylor confines himself to the manufacture of a cheap and effective fence against hares and rabbits, which is, at the same time, an excellent substitute for hurdles or cords, as sheep-folds, and for sticks for peas, trailers in general, and other garden purposes. Mr. Porter exhibits a great variety of designs for fences and useful ornamental oba jects, as do Messrs. Cottam and Hallen; and very handsome designs, with very low prices affixed, are to be had of Messrs. Young of Edinburgh. A correspondent in Scotland, on whom we can rely, says of Messrs. Young : “They are young men who have carried into their business the scientific knowledge of the age, acquired at our cheap and greatly improved educational institutions. They are intelligent, tasteful, enthusiastic, and of a good address, and they are being very extensively employed. Sunk fences are now seldom made in Scotland, though I see you occasionally recommend them in England. A wire fence 3 ft. 6 in. high is sufficient for cattle and sheep. It consists of six horizontal wires passed through, or fastened on, wooden posts, and is put up for 9d. per yard; and with an additional wire, to render the fence 4 ft. 6 in. high, for löd. per yard; the posts being supplied and fixed in the ground by the proprietor. These posts, if tarred and charred, are found to last 20 years. The wires are generally painted with gas tar. Instead of running the wires through the wooden posts, it is found an improvement to attach them by iron staples; which admits of renewing a post when it decays, without disturbing any of the others. Very strong deer fences Messrs. Young erect at from 2s. to 3s. 6d. per yard, according to the height; the proprietor providing stones for the straining pillars, and stone or wood blocks for the intermediate uprights, &c. Curved wire fences (which are so beautifully put up by Mr. Porter, with under-ground stays, and no prop or brace of any kind shown above ground] are also put up by Messrs. Young."—W.D. S. Sept. 28. 1842.
Gregson's Green-Flesh Melon is a small fruit, seldom weighing more than three pounds, but it is decidedly the best-flavoured Cantaloup melon that I have ever tasted. The person from whom I had the fruit has grown it for many years, and never had any other variety that gave so much satisfaction. He does not know its origin.-J. B. [We have a few seeds of this melon at the service of any one who chooses to ask for them, enclosing a postage stamp.]
ITALY. UʻLMUS fúlva.— I was much surprised to read (Vol. for 1840, p. 231.) of the medical properties of the U'lmus fúlva, owing to the great quantity of mucilage with which its cellular tissue abounds; and as the mucilage is very nutritious, and as the leaves and bark of the common elm satten cattle in a short time, on account of the portion of mucilage which they also contain, we may hence conclude that cattle would fatten much more quickly if fed with the leaves of the Uʻlmus fúlva. In the Maison Rustique du XIX Siècle it is said that the leaves of the Pópulus canadensis in a green state are equivalent to the same weight of the best hay: what is meant is, that a certain weight of these leaves in a dry state nourish or fatten equal to twice (due) the weight of the best hay. A comparison of the nutritive properties of the leaves of the Canadian poplar, the common elm, and the U'Imus fúlva, is well deserving of a trial. — Giuseppe Manetti. Monza, Nov. 1. 1842.
Nelúmbium tibetiànum. - At the house of my friend George Compton, Esq., to whom Lombardy is indebted for many fine and rare plants, and who lives in the neighbourhood of Como, I saw Nelúmbium tibetiảnum in full flower in August last year (when it flowered for the first time), as well as in the same month of the present year, and which I do not think has been as yet described. He grows it in a pot 2 ft. in diameter, and 14 ft. high, filled with mould to the height of 1 ft., in which the nelumbium is planted, and from this point to the top it is kept filled with water. The flowers are rather smaller, more round (see the two figures sent), and of a darker colour than those of the Nelúmbium speciòsum. There is no difference in the leaves and smell of the flowers from the other species; therefore I consider it a variety. In the summer he keeps it exposed to the sun in the open air, and in winter he protects it in a greenhouse. — Idem.
[We have sent the figures of the two nelumbiums to Sir William J. Hooker, who sometimes publishes in the Botanical Magazine specimens of interesting plants, though they may not have been introduced.]
NORTH AMERICA, The Philadelphin Horticultural Society held their fourteenth exhibition on the 13th instant, and it will close this evening. It is more tasteful than any previous one, while the usual proportion of plants and fruits is maintained. I send you two newspapers containing accounts of particulars. There are upwards of 300 varieties of the genus Cáctus ; of rare plants there are Urània speciosa from R. S. Field, Esq. of New Jersey ; palms of several kinds from Mr. J. B. Smith ; the pitcher plant, and the butterfly plant, from Mr. R. Buist; Pandanus utilis and two species of Zàmia from G. Pepper, Esq. V. P. of the Society; Aristolochia sìpho from General R. Patterson ; mango trees, croton,
calabash tree, coffee tree, and indigo tree, from Mr. Peter Mackenzie. The fruits were superb. Apples and peaches of great size, and beautiful ; seckle pears in great perfection; large blue and yellow plums. The grapes also, foreign and domestic, were very large. I refer to the printed list.–J.M. Philadelphia, Sept. 23. 1842.
Doryánthes excélsa. — The majestic Doryánthes excélsa has been exhibited in Philadelphia for the last twelve days, by Mr. Sherwood, florist. The stem began to shoot in December last, and is now (June 18. 1842) about 12 ft. bigh. Eleven flowers have blown, and eighteen more are to come out. It is at present in the beautiful greenhouse of Mr. Pepper, to which it was removed after the exhibition of it ceased. I have not been able to see Mr. Sherwood to know the history of this specimen of the plant. — J. M. Philadelphia, June 18. 1842.
ART. III. Domestic Notices.
ENGLAND. WORMLEYBURY, in Hertfordshire, formerly the seat of the late Sir Abraham Hume, Bart , and now in possession of Cust, Esq., has been till lately in a state of deplorable neglect; but it is now being thoroughly renovated under the care of Mr. J. Harden, an intelligent and enthusiastic gardener. The noble plant of Magnòlia conspicua, of which an account was given by Sir Abraham in the first Volume of the Gardener's Magazine, is now upwards of 20 ft. high, and covered with blossom-buds. The wall trees had run quite wild, the plums and cherries having spurs a foot long; but all is now being brought into order.-D. B. Jan. 19. 1843.
À Metropolitan Model Institution for improving the Dwellings of the industrious Classes is now being formed. A main object of this institution will be to erect a building combining a number of habitations for workmen, having every requisite accommodation for health and comfort ; and to show that such buildings, when let at a reasonable rent, will afford an adequate return for the money expended. Such a combination as we have shown in the Encyclopædia of Cottage Architecture, $493., and in the Supplement to Cottage Architecture, p. 1149., under the head of “ A College for single working Men,” will probably be attempted, and we have no doubt success will be fully attained. We have been trying to get such a college erected ever since 1819.- Cond.
Araucária Cunninghami is here 10 ft. high and 8 ft. wide, with three solitary cones on the points of three of the lateral shoots of the two uppermost tiers of branches. “The cones are ovate, sessile, 1 inch in width, and half an