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AGRICULTURAL improvement on the estates of Bread, an imperishable sort, 648.
the Marquess of Waterford, 89.

Broccoli, culture of, 545.
Agriculture, the stimulus of competition in, 137. Burying grounds, thoughts on modern, 90.
Air, to dry moist, 647.
America, state of, commented upon, 324.

Cabbage, culture of, 540. American aloe, notice of one going to flower, Camellias, their hardiness supposed to be in649.

creased by raising them from seed in the open American plants, Waterer's exhibition of, in the air, 322. King's Road, 378.

Carrot, culture of, 545. Ammonia, use of sulphate of, in agriculture, 82. Caterpillar, mode of destroying the gooseberry, Araucària Cunninghàini, notice of one bearing cones, 85.

Caterpillar, description of a curious one, 652. Arboricultural notices, 269. 442. 474. 637. 668. Cauliflowers, culture of, 433. Asparagus, culture of, 429.

Celery, culture of, 431.

Cemeteries and churchyards, criticism on the Beans, culture of, 541.

articles in the Magazine, relative to, S29. 379 Bees, reason of their sometimes dying while they Cemeteries, criticism on, 185. have plenty of food, 187.

Cemeteries, uses of, 93 ; laying out, building, Besoms, method of making, for gardens, 178. and planting of, 142; working and management Bicton Gardens, their culture and management; of, 215; innovations suggested relative to the

- Letter IV. House for New Holland plants, selection of ground for, and mode of performand list of plants it contains, 21 ;-Leiter V. ing funerals, 292; design for one of moderate Orange and camellia house, 23 ; list of camel- extent on level ground, 353; design for one on lias grown at Bicton, 26; the back sheds, hilly ground, 400; present state of those in vineries, and pineries, 27 ;-Letter VI. Culture London, considered chiefly as cemetery gar. of chrysanthemums, manure-water, properties dens, 400; the present state and means of of charcoal, 28;-Letter VII. The conserva- improving country churchyards, 475; list of tories, 29; list of plants in conservatories, 30; trees, shrubs, and perennial herbaceous plants orchideous houses and stoves, 30; list of stove adapted for cemeteries and churchyards, 512 ; and orchidaceous plants at Bicton, 31;-Letter appendix, 534 ; principal ones in the neighVIII. Brooms used in the flower-garden, 46; bourhood of Philadelphia, 675. hardy trees and shrubs growing there, 47 ;-Charcoal and charcoal 'dust, first discovery of its Letter IX. Importance of cleanliness, 49; ma- action on vegetation, 140. nure-water, charcoal, 51;-Letter X. The Charcoal, its use in the culture of plants, 185. Rockery and American garden, 111 ;-Letter Chiswick Villa, notice of the grounds, 453. X1. Dimensions of a few trees in the Park, Chrysanthemums, a list of the best sorts adapted 113 ;-Letter XII. Reasons for following the for cultivation in the colder parts of the counbusiness of a market-gardener, 164;-Letter try, 373. XIII. Growing mushrooms, 234 ;-Letter XIV. Chrysanthemums, culture of, £8. Growing, training, and general management of Cicer arietinum, an excellent vegetable, 316. cricas, 301 ;-Letter XV. On the rust in Clématis azàrea grandiflora, one of the best grapes, 367; -Letter XVI. Culture of the

hardy climbers, 42. potato, 419; mismanagement it is subject to, Clematis Vitálba, notice of one, 669. and cause of curl and dry rot, 424 ;– Letter Clover, notice of the Bokhara, 187. XVII. System of kitchen-gardening, 427; cul

Conservatory climbers, 679. ture of the strawberry, 429; culture of aspara. Contributors See p. xv. gus, 429; culture of sea-kale, 430 ; culture of Cottage, how to make the most of one having celery, 431; culture of cauliflowers, 433;- only two rooms, 52. Letter XVIII. Mode of destroying the goose-Criticism on the study of bees, chemistry, and berry caterpillar, 434 ;-Letter XIX. Crane

vegetable physiology, 508. necked short-handled hoes described and Cucumbers, culture of, 653. figured, 495 ;– Letter XX. Objections to the Cucumbers, culture of, in cottage gardens, 86. crane-necked hoes answered, 539; notice of Cytisus Adàmi, notice of, 315. Musa Cavendishi, Dácca, and sapiéntum, 540 ;-Letter XXI. Culture of the cabbage, Dalvey, the seat of Norman M'Leod, Esq., notice 540 ; culture of broccoli, 543 ; culture of peas, of, 416. 543 ; culture of beans and onions, 544; culture Dámmara orientalis found to succeed when of carrots, 545; culture of parsneps, spinach, grafted on the Araucaria imbricata, 184. and lettuce, 546 ;-Letter XX11. The principal Dinbur Castle, its gardens and its gardeners, causes of canker in peaches, nectarines, and 106. 413. 579. apricots, 601 ;-Letter xxIII. Notes on the Disbudding shoots with the leaves on, 648. one-shift system of potting, and on charcoal, Doryanthes excélsa, notice of one in Hower, 85. 605;-Letter XXIV. System of cucumber- Draining and fencing on the lands of the Duke growing, 653.

of Hamilton, 327. Bicton Gardens, notice of a visit to, 546.

Draining, price of, with tiles, in Northampton-
Bicton, pine-apples noticed there by Thomas shire, 327.
Bray, when on a visit, 606.

Draining-pipes made by a machine, 675.
Birds, advantages of attending to habits of, 613. Drains, mode of making turf, 134.
Books reviewed or noticed. See p. r.

Duvaủa longifolia, notice of, 669.
Botanical, Floricultural, and Arboricultural no-
tices, 445. 499. 614.

Edging of Seyssel asphalte noticed, 507. Bowood, notice of the scenery at, 680.

Elm leaves, their nutritive properties, 332.

Engravings. See p. rii.

Kensington Gardens, the naming of trees and Ericas, culture of, 301.

shrubs in, 649. Errata, 89. 90. 459. 677.

Kent, the Landscape. Gardener, answer to query Exhibitions, on horticultural, 45.

respecting. 91. Exhibitions, remarks on the London Horticultu- Kew Gardens, notice of the improvements there, ral Society's, 222.


Kitchen-Gardens, rotation of crops in, 670. Flower-garden, list of plants for, 172. 260.373. Flower-garden on gravel, remarks on a design Labels, best mode of writing, on parchment, 646. for a, 70.

Landscape composition, scenery intended to point Flower-garden, shrubbery, and lawn, on laying

out the errors frequently committed by persons out and planting the, 166. 258. 306. 371. 442. who have little knowledge of it, 6. 497.547. 634. 636. 667.

landscape-gardening, application of the principle Flower-pots, remarks on double, 187.

of the balloon to, 646 Flower.pots with hollow sides, 135.

Larch, an evergreen one discovered, 92. Flower-pots, Saul's fountain, 136.

Larch may be propagated by cutting, 92. Flower-pots, Stephens's plant-protecting, 136.

Larch, plantations at Linley, enquiry respecting, Flues, Welch's bricks for forming circular, 134.

332. Fruits. See p. xiii.

Larch, uses of the, 668. Fruits, on the preservation of, 330.

Lawn, shrubbery, and flower-garden, on laying Fruit trees, on protecting those against walls, 369. out and planting the, 166. 258. 306. 371. 442. Fruit trees, principal causes of canker in, Guí.

497. 547. 634 636. 667. Furnace, Juckes's smoke-consuming, 314.

Lettuce, culture of, 546.

Literary Notices, 133. 184. 281. 673. Gardener, how a young one should travel by rail. Lock, Baillie's rounded enamelled casc, recom

mended, 453. road, 646. Gardening tour in the North of England and Lymburn, Mr. Robert, notice of his death, 680.

Lonicera diversifolia, notice of, 670. part of Scotland, 250. Garden engine, Johnston's improved portable, Manners all over the world, approaching simi.

316. Garden-pots, notice of improvements in, 316.

larity of, 647.

Manures, on the theory of, 1.
Garden-pots, Hunt's improved, 317.
Garden walks, materials recommended by the

Manures, Professor Henslow's Lectures on, 139. ancients for making them, 331.

Melon, Gregson's green flesh, recommended, 84. Garden, a classical one, 586.

Melons grown in leaves, 86 ; on a mode of grow. Garden, a corered one, proposed to be established

ing late, 269 in Paris, 647.

Metropolitan Model Institution for improving Gardens. See Table of Contents, p. xiv.

the Dwellings of the Industrious Classes, 85. Gardens, the new Royal, at Frogmore, 138.

Mice, to destroy, 184. Gardens, Bicton, notice of, 138.

Milne, Mr. John, Nurseryman, his death noGardens and scenery around Stirling, descriptive Mistletoe, notice of, growing on the oak, 86.

ticed, 380. notice of some of the, 584. Geraniums, description of an insect which attacks Monument, Sir Walter Scoit's, 649. them, 460.

Monza, notice of the royal gardens there, 322. Gilpin,' William Sawrey, Esq.,

Landscape-Gar- | Mushrooms, abundant in 1842, 86 : culture of, 234.

Mountain ash, a remarkable one, 329. dener, notice of the death of, 332. Gladiolus cardinalis, result of an experiment

Mutual Instruction Society, notice of the meet. made in endeavouring to propagate it, 642.

ing of the Botanical section of the Tower Street,

Glasgow Cathedral saved by a gardener, 680.
Grafting and budding the rhododendron, 647.
Grapes, Cato's method of preserving, 331.

Neill, Dr., notice of a subscription for a bust Grapes, on the preservation of, 186.

of, 87; testimonial presented to him, 455. Grapes, on the probable cause of the rust in, 419.

Nelumbium tibetidnum, an account of one in Green Ay destroyed by the tree-creeper (Cérthia

flower, 84.

New Zealand Horticultural Society, notice of, familiaris), 315.

325. Greenhouses, superiority of span-roofed, 268. Ground, the most economical mode of dividing a

Notices of Gardens and Country Seats in Somer.

setshire, Devonshire, and part of Cornwall, 238. square plot of, 321. Guide-posts, on the best material for, 88.

Nurseries. See Table of Contents, p. xiv,
Nuts with a bony shell will germinate the first

year, if the shell be broken, 181.
Heat, on bottom, 113.
Heating, apparatus for, in the gardens of His Oak, notice of a large one, 86; the Hatfield, 668 ;
Grace the Duke of Wellington, 177.

use of the American white, and its introduc. Heating, Rendle's tank system described, 505. tion into England, 123. Holly, its use for shelter, 119.

Onions, culture of, 544. Hornet, its character and habits, 409.

Oropholithe, a composition used as a substitute Horticultural Society's Garden, notice of the ex. for zinc, lead, &c., 8%. hibitions in, 453.

Oven, Palmer's improved economical American, Horticultural Society, Chislehurst, 139.

recommended, 507. Horticultural Society, Lane End, 139. Horticultural Society of London, the first show Parks and pleasure-grounds, on grouping trees at Chiswick Gardens noticed, 378.

in, 118. Horticultural Society of New Zealand, notice of, Parsneps, culture of, 546. 325.

Pauló wnia imperialis, notice of one in flower, Horticultural Society of Wellington, noticed, 325.

181.619. Hothouse furnaces, mode of consuming the smoke Pea, on the culture of, 75. 543.; in pots, 77. of, 451,

Pears, best time for eating, 649. Houses, wooden ones ready made for sale, 647.

Penn, John, Esq., civil engineer, his death noHyacinths, on forcing, so as to bloom at Christ

ticed, 360. Phrenology for gardeners and their patrons, 662.

Physiology, comparative : preliminary remarks, Implements, agricultural, 82.

191 ; on organised structures in general, 191

on the elementary structure of vegetables, 195 ; Kensington Gardens and Hyde Park, hints for a general view of the vegetable kingdom, 1991 the improveinent of, 285.

on the syinmetry of organised structures, 207, Kensington Gardens, criticism on the improve. on the nature and causes of vital action, 209; ments in, 650.

on vital stimuli, 333 ; on heat as a vital stimu

mas, 678.

lus, 336; on the evolution of heat, 337 ; on Shetland, foreign trees which thrive in, 88. light as a vital stimulus, 344 ; on the develope. Shrubbery, lawn, and flower-garden, on layingment of light in plants, 'S45; on electricity as a out and planting, 166. 258. 306. 571. 442.97. vital stimulus, 347 ; on the laws of organic 547. 634. 686. 667. developement, 381; on the general view of the Smoke, the nuisance of, from the chimneys of functions of animated beings, and their mutual manufacturing establishments, 327. relations, 391 ; on ingestion and absorption of Snow-plough for walks and footpaths, 116. aliment in general, 461.509; on absorption in Soil, on pulverising, 115. vegetables, 557 ; on the circulation of the nu- Southampton, hints for the improvement of the tritive fluid, 565; on circulation in vegetables, town of, 589. 567 ; on interstitial absorption, 577.

Spinach, culture of, 546. Pine cones, a valuable fuel, 328.

Spiræas, North American oaks, Abiétinæ, and Pipes, Scott's patent improvements in cast iron, Cupréssinæ, notice of a collection made by the wrought iron, and soft metal, 321.

Conductor in the spring of 1843, 459. Plant.case, ladies' pocket, 134.

Squirrel, on the habits of, 117. 179. Plants, food of, and its transformation, 397. 471; Steamer, Palmer's universal, recommended, 507.

report on new or rare ones in British nur. Strawberry, culture of, 429. series, and private gardens, 34. 55; new and Street paving, an association for the promotion rare, viii. ; on the new method of potting, or of improved, 327. the one-shift system, $18.

Suburban dwellings, design for five, with their Plant-houses, yellow glass suggested for them, gardens, 607.

$32. Pleasure-grounds, shrubberies, and ornamental Tiles for paving walks, new material for, 507.

plantations, hints to proprietors who intend Tour in Brittany and Normandy. By J. Rivers, planting, 553.

jun. Dinan, 224 ; Rennes, 226; Nantes, 227; Plough, new one for raising potatoes, 137.

Angers, 228; Le Mans, 231 ; Lisieux, 2; Poor, comfortable habitations for them, with Honfleur, 23%. gardens attached, recommend

Tour, Notes made during a horticultural, from Poplar, notice of several kinds of balsam, 181. Lowther Castle in Westmoreland to Exeter in Potatoes, culture of, 419; mode of planting early Devonshire, 581.

ones, with a new planting machine, 40; planter, Trees, dimensions of, in the grounds of Flitwick Saul's, 91.

House, 641. Primrose, on the culture of the Chinese, 126. Trees, on disbarking, to increase the durability of Propagating-house, description of, heated by hot- the timber, 181. water circulated in brick troughs, 266.

Trees, on raising American, from seeds, 181.

Trees, grouping of, in parks and pleasure-grounds, Raspberries, notice of some plants growing to a 118. gigantic size at Walton Hall, 328.

Trees, large ones at Strath fieldsaye, 125. Raspberry, some account of the insects which Trees' introduced from America in 1769, 69.; attack it, 411.

many indigenous to North America not yet Remarks on one of the designs in the article, introduced, 324.

" On Laying-out and Planting the Lawn, Trees, growth of, 668. ; growth of, at Barton Shrubbery, and Flower-garden, "636.

669. Reviews. See p. V.

Trees, roots and tops of, 90. Rhododendron, list of species and varieties of, Trees, on transplanting large ones, 43. cultivated at Dysart House, 436; on grafting Turnip, history of the introduction of the Swedish, and budding it, 647.

into Britain, 672.
Rhubarb, the Victoria, best for culinary pur-
poses, 328.

U'lmus fúlva, medical properties of, 84.
Robison, Sir John, K.H., his death, 188.
Rockwork in the Walton Nursery, Liverpool, 452. Vegetables. See p. xiii.
Roller, an account of a bird so called, 18.

Verbena Melindres and Tweedieana, hardy in
Roses, notice of two new American ones, 125. some situations, 86.
Royal Agricultural Society of England, notice of Verbenas and petunias, number of sorts of, 642
the annual meeting of, 455.

Vine, grafting it, becoming general in France, se Royal Botanic Society of London, its first exhibi. Vine, on manuring, 649. tion in the gardens, Kegent's Park, noticed,378. Vineyard at Shirley, notice of, 599.

second exhibition in the Regent's Park, 454.
Rule, and the reason, the principle of the, 647. Walks made of asphalte recommended, 452.

Warping lands on the Thames, $26.
Scotch pine, a substitute for candle, 157; oil of Wasps, on destroying, 42.

turpentine distilled from its roots, 137. Wirework, its use in gardening and agriculture Sea-kale, culture of, 450.

Sea-water, distribution of, all over the country,675. Wire-worm, a trap for, 646.
Seeds, result of an experiment to show the proper Wire-worm destroyed by the mole, $15.

depth of covering for grass and clover, 308. Worms, lime-water for killing them, o.
Shephérdia argentea recommended as a fruit.
trec, 42.

Yucca gloridsa, notice of one in flower, 556.


London : Printed by A. Spot ISWOODE, New-Street-Square.



JANUARY, 1844.

Death of Mr. Loudon. This will be the last Number of the Gardener's Magazine, as its Founder and Conductor is no more. On the 14th of Dec. 1843, died, at his house at Bayswater, John CLAUDIUS LOUDON, Esq., who, for nearly half a century, has been before the public as a writer of numerous useful and popular works on gardening, agriculture, and architecture.

Mr. Loudon's father was a farmer, residing in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh, where he was very highly respected; but Mr. Loudon was born on April 8th, 1783, at Cambuslang, in Lanarkshire, where his mother's only sister resided, herself the mother of the Rev. Dr. Claudius Buchanan, afterwards celebrated for his philanthropic labours in India. Dr. Buchanan was several years older than Mr. Loudon, but there was a singular coincidence in many points of their history. The two sisters were, in both cases, left widows at an early age, with large families, which were brought up by the exertions of the eldest sons; and both mothers had the happiness of seeing their eldest sons become celebrated. Mr. Loudon was brought up as a landscape-gardener, and began to practise in 1803, when he came to England with numerous letters of introduction to some of the first landed proprietors in the kingdom. He afterwards took a large farm in Oxfordshire, where he resided in 1809. In the years 1813-14-15, he made the tour of Northern Europe, traversing Sweden, Russia, Poland, and Austria; in 1819 he travelled through Italy; and in 1828 through France and Germany.

Mr. Loudon's career as an author began in 1803, when he was only twenty years old, and it continued with very little interruption during the space of forty years, being only concluded by his death. The first works he published were the following:- Observations on laying out Public Squares, in 1803, and on Plantations, in 1804; a Treatise on Hothouses, in 1805, and on Country Residences, in 1806, both 4to; Hints on the Formation of Gardens, in 1812; and three works on Hothouses, in 1817 and 1818. In 1822 appeared the first edition of the Encyclopedia of Gardening; a work remarkable for the immense mass of useful matter which it

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contained, and for the then unusual circumstance of a great quantity of woodcuts being mingled with the text: this book obtained an extraordinary sale, and fully established his fame as an author.

Soon after was published an anonymous work, written either partly or entirely by Mr. Loudon, called the Greenhouse Companion ; and shortly afterwards Observations on laying out Farms, in folio, with his name.

In 1824, a second edition of the Encyclopædia of Gardening was published, with very great alterations and improvements ; _and the following year appeared the first edition of the Encyclopedia of Agriculture. In 1826, the Gardener's Magazine was commenced, being the first periodical ever devoted exclusively to horticultural subjects. The Magazine of Natural History, also the first of its kind, was begun in 1828. Mr. Loudon was now occupied in the preparation of the Encyclopedia of Plants, which was published early in 1829, and was speedily followed by the Hortus Britannicus. In 1830, a second and nearly re-written edition of the Encyclopædia of Agriculture was published, and this was followed by an entirely re-written edition of the Encyclopædia of Gardening, in 1831; and the Encyclopædia of Cottage, Farm, and Villa Architecture, the first he published on his own account, in 1832. This last work was one of the most successful, because it was one of the most useful, he ever wrote, and it is likely long to continue a standard book on the subjects of which it treats. Mr. Loudon now began to prepare his great and ruinous work, the Arboretum Britannicum, the anxieties attendant on which were, undoubtedly, the primary cause of that decay of constitution which terminated in his death. This work was not, however, completed till 1838, and in the mean time he began the Architectural Magazine, the first periodical devoted exclusively to architecture. The labour he underwent at this time was almost incredible. He had four periodicals, viz. the Gardener's, Natural History, and Architectural Magazines, and the Arboretum Britannicum, which was published in monthly numbers, going on at the same time; and, to produce these at the proper times, he literally worked night and day. Immediately on the conclusion of the Arboretum Britannicum, he began the Suburban Gardener, which was also published in 1838, as was the Hortus Lignosus Londinensis; and in 1839 appeared his edition of Repton's Landscape-Gardening. In 1840, he accepted the editorship of the Gardener's Gazette, which he retained till November, 1841; and in 1842 he published his Encyclopædia of Trees and Shrubs. In the

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