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Art. I. Literary Notice. The following address has been printed, and sent to a number of persons, who, it is hoped, will kindly endeavour to promote the object in view. “ The Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum, in 8 vols. 8vo, 4 of letterpress and
four of plates. Price 101. With upwards of 2000 woodcuts interspersed with the letterpress.
N.B. The plates, if required, will be sold by themselves, but the letterpress will not be sold without the plates. The reason is, that any number of impressions may be taken from the plates whenever they are wanted; whereas the letterpress, not being stereotyped, there are of it but a limited number of copies, which cannot be increased.
The plates by themselves will be of great use to landscape artists, to the pupils in schools of design, and to all persons learning to draw trees.
A new impression of the four volumes of the plates of this work being about to be issued, with certain corrections which in the original edition could only be put in the list of errata, the author, with the approbation of his publishers and friends, thinks it may contribute to the sale of the work to inake the following statement.
The Arboretum Britannicum was got up between the years 1833 and 1838, and published on Mr. Loudon's own account at an expense of upwards of 10,0001. The greater part of this sum was owing at the completion of the work; but it sold so well, till the late depression of the book trade in 1841, that only about 2,6001. of the debt remained to be paid off at the end of that year. It is, however, necessary to observe, that this large proportion of the debt was not paid off solely by the produce of the Arboretum, but in part by the profits of Mr. Loudon's other literary property, consisting of thirteen different publications, all of which stand pledged in the hands of his publishers, Messrs. Longman, for the debt on the Arboretum. This debt, at the present time, amounts to about 2,4001. ; and hence, if 350 additional subscribers could be got, the debt would be at once liquidated, the works pledged for it set free, and Mr. Loudon or his family would enjoy the whole produce of his literary property.*
This appeal would never have been made, had not Mr. Loudon, who has been an invalid for several years, been lately seized with an inflammation of the lungs, terminating in chronic bronchitis, which, even if the disease should be considerably alleviated, will effectually prevent him from any longer pur
* It may be thought, from the well-known extensive sale, for the last twenty years, of Mr. Loudon's publications, that he ought now to be independent ; but, in consequence of too intense application while compiling the Encyclopædia of Gardening, Mr. Loudon fell into ill health in 1821, which obliged him ultimately to have his right arm amputated, his left hand being at the same time so much injured as to leave him with only the partial use of two fingers, and his left knee being anchylosed. In consequence of these bodily infirmities, Mr. Loudon has been obliged to keep an amanuensis and a draughtsman for the last twenty years, and also a servant to act as valet; and, had it not been for the expenses thus incurred, and others arising from the same source, he might have been now independent, even with. out his literary property. This explanation is due to those who are ignorant of Mr. Loudon's personal character.
suing his profession of landscape-gardener, on the produce of which profession, and on the literary labours of Mrs. Loudon, he has entirely depended for his income, since his literary property was pledged for the Arboretum. Under these circumstances Mr. Loudon feels himself justified in taking this mode of soliciting additional subscribers to the Arboretum, and in begging his friends and patrons throughout the country to assist him in obtaining them.
The Arboretum has been spoken of in the highest terms in all the principal Reviews of Europe, and in the Botanical Periodicals of North America. The Quarterly Review says:
*This book is one of solid value, worthy of a place in the library of every landed gentleman, as well as of every student of botanical, arboricultural, and horticultural science. . . . Let us warmly congratulate Mr. Loudon on having finished his Herculean task; a task which few men, except himself, would have had the courage to begin, and still fewer the perseverance to complete. The Arboretum Britannicum is complete in its kind, and it must become a standard book of reference on all subjects connected with trees.'Oct. 1838.
If, then, the Arboretum is worthy of a place in the library of every landed gentleman,' it may be permitted to its author, under his particular circumstances, to direct the attention of landed gentlemen to the book. Surely there must be more than 350 hereditary libraries that do not yet contain the work ; not to mention the libraries which some gentlemen devote to their gardeners, foresters, and bailiffs, in which the Arboretum will be found a most useful acquisition.
The following ladies, noblemen, and gentlemen, who already possess the work, on being applied to, have kindly permitted their names to be published as approving of the Arboretum, and of this address to the public:The Right Honourable Lady Rolle. Sir H. E. Bunbury. Mrs. Lawrence of Studley Royal. Sir Charles Lemon. The Duke of Northumberland. Sir Oswald Mosley. The Duke of Devonshire.
Sir William Jardine. The Duke of Buccleuch.
Sir W. J. Hooker.
The Rev. J. Mitford.
The Rev. W. T. Bree.
Captain Widdrington, R.N. The Earl of Harrington.
J. T. Brooks, Esq., Flitwick House. The Earl Fitzwilliam.
Joseph Strutt, Esq., Derby. The Earl of Radnor,
L. W. Dillwyn, Esq., Sketty Hall. The Earl of Ripon.
Gregory Gregory, Esq., Harlaxton The Earl of Lovelace.
Manor. Viscount Comberınere.
P.J. Selby, Esq., Twizell House. The Bishop of Winchester.
Professor Henslow. Lord Monteagle.
Professor Lindley. Lord Corehouse.
Professor Royle. Sir John Trevelyan.
Dr. Neill.” Some of the above noblemen and gentlemen have, unasked, kindly sent us testimonials evincing their very favourable opinion of the Arboretum, and these we shall probably publish in our next Number.
We have also received some additional subscribers, among whom are Joseph Strutt, Esq., of Derby, for ten copies, and Mrs. Lawrence of Studley Royal, one copy. Mr. Strutt took a still greater number of copies when the work was first published.
ART. I. General Notices.
DISTRIBUTION of Sea Water all over the Country. This will be practicable by means of the railroads, which, in a short time, will cover the whole country with a sort of network of communication, radiating from the large towns in the interior to the different seaports. As the direction of these roads is straighter, and their surface nearer a level, than those of the common roads, pipes might be laid down, at a proper depth under the rails, and sea water, by the occasional aid of sea engines, conveyed everywhere, and supplied by service-pipes all along the roads. We believe the Brighton railroad has one uniform slope, from a short distance from Brighton, all the way to London ; so that, by raising the water from the sea to the highest point, it would flow to the metropolis without further trouble; and might be raised by steam to Birmingham, whence it would descend to Derby and Manchester. This would enable salt-water baths to be established in London, an object for which there was a company formed between twenty and thirty years ago. The principal question is, whether sea water could be turned to such an account, either for baths or agricultural purposes, as would pay the expense. Our agricultural chemists would soon determine this. In the mean time, we may notice the practice of preserving grass and clover in a green state in pits, by the aid of pressure and a little salt, lately come into use in Germany, as brewers' grains are about London. This will be one use, and a most important use it is; and salting spoiled hay or straw would be another. Irrigation with diluted seawater would also be found beneficial. (See Quart. Journ. Ag., Oct. 1843.)
The Distribution of filtered Sewer Water from our large towns might be effected all over the country, by similar means, along the railroads, and probably will be so in the course of another generation. At present it would not pay.-Cond.
Draining-Pipes are now made, which are adapted for carrying drains through loose sand, and which, indeed, may be used as an economical substitute for draining-tiles, and even for conveying water from one basin or pond to another. These pipes are “made by a machine, which every brick-maker can have constructed for a very few pounds. It is merely an imitation of that by which macaroni is made in Italy. A quantity of well-tempered clay is put into a wooden or iron cylinder, in the bottom of which is an iron plate or disk, in which the exact section of the pipe is cut out ; a strong piston, forced down by any simple machinery, drives out the pipe, which is received on a wooden mould, set perpendicularly, of the size of the bore of the pipe, having a shoulder and handle at the bottom. When the pipe is 13 in, long, it is cut off with a wire; a boy seizes the handle of the mould with the pipe on it, and places the pipe on a barrow with a flat stage on it, which, when full, is wheeled away. At the moment the first boy removes the mould, another boy places another vertically, to receive the next pipe. One cylinder, when filled, will squeeze out twelve pipes, or more; it is then removed to be filled again, while it is replaced by a full one. With a little practice, the operations go on most rapidly, and the greatest portion of the labour of moulding pipes and bending them is saved. We have no doubt that, with fair competition, pipes 2 or 3 inches in interior diameter may be thus made and burned, where fuel is 'moderately cheap, for less than 20s. a thousand, and larger in proportion. (Gard, Chron, for 1843, p. 659.)
Forcing Hyacinths so as to bloom at Christmas.- - To do proper justice to forced hyacinths expected to bloom at Christmas, they ought to be potted not later than the middle of August. It is true we manage to flower them as early as Christmas, after potting them as late as the end of September and beginning of October ; but this is too much for the bulbs ; the Aowers are not as fine as from early potting, and it takes two seasons' good nursing to bring them round again, so that they will make their appearance among the early spring bulbs in the beds and borders of the flower-garden. They manage differently in Holland, where they know the nature of the plant so much better than we do, especially as exemplified in our practice. . There, from time out of mind, the first crop of forcing hyacinths is potted about the first week in August. They provide against exciting the foliage till the pots are full of roots, by a thick covering of tan, leaf-mould, or something of the kind. In about six weeks the pots are full of roots; they are then taken to cold-frames, and kept close to the glass, with plenty of air; and the natural warmth of the latter part of September and the whole of October is sufficient to bring up the foliage and flower-buds very gradually, with the least possible injury to the bulbs ; indeed, as compared with our practice, their bulbs can hardly be said to be forced at all ; and, after one season's nursing, the same bulbs are fit to be again forced, or exported in the usual course of business. If one party can procure these bulbs thus early, there is no reason why the whole trade should not be as early in the market, and save themselves and their customers much trouble. (D. Beaton, in Gard. Chron. for Aug. 19. 1843, p. 576.)
Conservatory Climbers. At this period, when people are busily engaged in planning out new modes of heating, and re-arranging houses, pits, &c., or in contemplating new ones, let me suggest a simple, cheap, and efficient mode of rendering the conservatory superior to, and more interesting than, anything that has hitherto been done, with the exception of a few instances, which proved highly successful. It is, to clothe the rafters with the best stove and halfstove climbers for seven or eight months in the year, and thus to impart to it all the character and importance of an exotic stove, with the cool refreshing atmosphere suitable for conservatory plants, where those who cannot endure the broiling heat of the former may enjoy this luxury in a more congenial climate. Something of this kind seems now to be wanted, seeing that the better and more delicate greenhouse climbers are being encouraged as dwarf plants on trelliswork, a plan very suitable to tender and small flowering plants, but which does away altogether with our ideas of the bold unrestrained freedom of a fine climber ; and also that the stronger greenhouse climbers are now turned out against conservatory walls, so that we are left in the dilemma of having the same kinds of climbers in the conservatory as against the hot walls in the open air, or we must contrive to grow others in-doors more suitable to our tastes and ideas, or, at all events, more in accordance with the higher branches of gardening. The plan which I propose for effecting this change is exceedingly simple, and not at all expensive, having had a less economical mode for the same purpose in operation for some years, and I can speak confidently as to the result. This plan is simply to build a narrow pit along the back of the conservatory, or along one end of it, if that is not in sight of the main walks ; to keep up a constant stove-heat in this pit, to plant out stove-climbers in it, and, when they are of sufficient length, to introduce them through holes pierced in the back wall of the conservatory ; or, more in detail, to build a pit 6 ft. wide and 4 ft. high, the whole length or breadth of the conservatory, as the case may be, with glass sashes in the usual way, at an angle sufficient to leave you head-room along a path next the back wall of the conservatory. This path may be 2 ft. wide, leaving room for a bed 4 ft. wide, except the 4-inch wall along the path to keep up the soil. This bed is to be made after the manner of a vine border, well drained, with a layer of rough stones over the drainage, and a good portion of them mixed with fresh turfy loam and a little peat and leaf-mould, to the depth of 3 ft. If you wish to try the effect of bottom-heat, nothing is easier than to run a trough under the drainage, with a two-inch pipe, to heat the water after the manner of Mr. Green's pits. Mr. Rendle's plan will not answer this purpose. A common flue may be the mode of heating if you want to go the cheapest way to work, and the heat may be from 750 to 850 in summer, and from 50° to 55° in winter. (D. Beaton, in Gard. Chron. for 1843, p. 588.)
Art. II. Domestic Notices.
ENGLAND. Bowood, in Wiltshire, the seat of the Marquess of Lansdowne. To all who are fond of garden scenes, in the great style of Brown's finest works, Bowood will afford considerable amusement. The water scenes form the finest features of the place. For one idea, the imitation of a vast river, Blenheim is superior; but as a lake, this has, I think, the advantage ; the expanse of water is more varied ; the accompaniment of hanging woods, varied groves, and cultivated slopes, far richer and more animated. Some scenes are truly Elysian, and present such an assemblage of the richest features of picturesque ground, that I know no place where they may be studied to more advantage. (Young's Annals of Agriculture, vol. viii. p. 79.)
SCOTLAND. Glasgow Cathedral saved by a Gardener.- When the fanatics, in the year 1567, came to pull down the cathedral of Glasgow, a gardener, who stood by, said: “ My friends, cannot you make it a house for serving your God in your own way? For it would cost your country a great deal to build such another." The fanatics desisted; and it is the only cathedral in Scotland that remains entire, and fit for service. (Earl of Buchan's Life of Andrew Fletcher, p. 41.)
Art. III. Obituary. . DEATH of Mr. Robert Lymburn.— It is with deep regret that we have heard of the sudden death of this excellent man. Mr. Lymburn had been poorly for some months past, but appeared to have got well again. He had recently buried his mother, with whom he had lived all his life ; and he had just formed a partnership with Mr. Dreghorn, in the nursery business, at Kilmarnock. He retired to rest, in his usual health, on Monday the 30th of October last, and on the morning of Tuesday the 31st was found dead in his bed; the result, it is supposed, of an affection of the heart.
Mr. Lymburn was, perhaps, one of the best vegetable physiologists that Scotland ever produced. To an extensive practical knowledge of all the horticultural and agricultural practices of the country, he joined a thorough knowledge of chemistry, and of the functions of plants; and he was so thoroughly devoted to the subject, that he had no other recreation. As a proof, we have only to refer to his excellent articles in this Magazine; and to many papers of his in the Gardener's Chronicle. Fortunately for our readers, the MS. of the whole of the article on Comparative Physiology was received from Mr. Lymburn more than a month ago, and it will appear in the early Numbers of our succeeding Volume. Mr. Lymburn appeared to be about fifty years of age. Some of his townsmen and contemporaries will, we trust, furnish us with a biographical notice in greater detail. — Cond.
Delete Beatònia atràta Herb., and the description, in p. 624.
In p. 581., line 24. from bottom, for “ Cumberland,” read “ Westmoreland.”
See also p. 89, p. 90., and p. 459.