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brassicas should, in my opinion, have the preference by all means. My practice, for years, has been to follow, on the principal of my broccoli or other brassica ground, with
peas; no manure. The peas I follow with celery chiefly, which I grow in what is termed the Scotch way, viz., 5- or 6-feet beds. Now, by sowing two rows of peas at a time, I gain thereby, when the peas are drawn, a celery bed; and the celery being pricked out at a good distance, say nearly 6 in. apart, is prepared to await the removal of the peas successively. As to celery, I sow it late, and grow it quick: this is the true recipe for having tender and crisp celery. The celery ground is, of course, in a state of high preparation for any crop that requires rich soil, such as cauliflowers, broccoli, asparagus, &c.
With regard to asparagus, I make it a rule to break up a bed or beds every year, and to plant an equal quantity: this I plant on the celery ground, and the beds I intend for asparagus I dig and manure very deep; putting old half-rotten leaves in the bottom, and planting the celery in the old manure at top. When the celery is removed this ground is in excellent order for asparagus, which I plant in the beginning of May, when the asparagus is 6 in. high. Now the beds being about 6 ft. wide, I plant two rows in a bed, 30 in. between the rows, and the plants a foot apart; leaving a shoulder of 18 in. on each side the bed: this plan answers admirably. The old beds of asparagus which are broken up are forced in the autumn, and generally obtained by Christmas; and I have strong plants planted in rows a yard apart, of three years' standing, which I take up and force in succession. These last are grown in a peculiar way, expressly for forcing. I have a deal to say about asparagus, but I must reserve it for a future opportunity. To return to the remainder of the celery ground: I crop it chiefly with beans and broccoli
, putting the broad beans in rows 4 ft. apart, in successive plantings; and drawing drills and planting my broccoli, in the course of July, between the beans. This, be it understood, is all late spring broccoli, including some middle as Granger's, Knight's protecting, &c. My Cape and other autumn broccoli and cauliflowers are in another plot, constituting a different rotation. The beans form an excellent shade for a while to the broccoli, and, when they are pulled up, the bean soil is earthed up the broccoli stems; and, if the broccoli is not too large, a row of coleworts is planted in September between each two rows of broccoli.
The broccoli ground, in April, is followed in part by carrots, without manure, and perhaps parsneps, or beet.
Potatoes I have not named, as they deserve a separate notice. I will, however, observe that potatoes, with a slight coat of
manure, form the best preparation of any thing I know for the brassicas, or, in fact, for any crop whatever.
I ought to have said that I run rope-yarn and stakes round all my prime asparagus, as much fine asparagus is injured by the winds in the growing season, rocked about, and broken; the consequence of which is, that the fine large buds are pushed prematurely in the summer season, and twenty small heads take their place.
I have a mode of cultivating all my fruit-tree borders, without ever digging above 6 in. deep; but this I mean to say something about at a future period.
Oulton Park, near Tarporley, Cheshire, Oct. 2. 1843.
Art. VIII. The History of the Introduction of the Swedish Turnip
into Britain. By the Rev. THOMAS Newcome, Rector of Shenley, Hertfordshire.
Our common friend, the Rev. J. Mitford, has recommended me to communicate to you what I consider to be the true history of the introduction of that valuable plant the Swedish turnip into this island.
It is now about fifty years since the late Sir David Kinloch of Gilmerton, near Edinburgh, gave some of the seed to my father, the Rev. Henry Newcome, Vicar of Gresford, Denbighshire, and a near neighbour to Sir Forster Canliffe of Acton Park, near Wrexham; who married a daughter of Sir David Kinloch. This latter baronet told my father that “ a Swedish nobleman had given the seed to him.” I well remember my father growing about half or three quarters of an acre of the seed, and selling it to the late Mr. Mason of Fleet Street, an eminent seedsman, for, I believe, the sum of 701. ; and this was the first seed sold in London.
you know a more authentic account of the introduction of the Swede turnip, you will, of course, not take any notice of, nor publish, this my account of the matter; but, though writing from mere impression and memory, I believe this is substantially the true one.
I have often heard my father declare that “ he was the first to teach the people in North Wales to hoe their turnips ;” and that he astonished the natives by ploughing up old furze, or gorse, roots with a Hertfordshire wheeled plough, imported from this parish to that of Gresford, near Chester. He was the first who ploughed in that county with two horses abreast; while, at that day, all the farmers ploughed their light gravelly soil with four horses at length!
Shenley, Herts, Sept. 4. 1843.
ART. I. Literary Notice. The following address has been printed, and sent to a number of persons, who, it is hoped, will kindly endeavour to promote the object in view. “ The Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum, in 8 vols. 8vo, 4 of letterpress and
four of plates. Price 101. With upwards of 2000 woodcuts interspersed with the letterpress.
N. B. The plates, if required, will be sold by themselves, but the letterpress will not be sold without the plates. The reason is, that any number of impressions may be taken from the plates whenever they are wanted; whereas the letterpress, not being stereotyped, there are of it but a limited number of copies, which cannot be increased.
The plates by themselves will be of great use to landscape artists, to the pupils in schools of design, and to all persons learning to draw trees.
A new impression of the four volumes of the plates of this work being about to be issued, with certain corrections which in the original edition could only be put in the list of errata, the author, with the approbation of his publishers and friends, thinks it may contribute to the sale of the work to inake the following statement.
The Arboretum Britannicum was got up between the years 1833 and 1838, and published on Mr. Loudon's own account at an expense of upwards of 10,0001. The greater part of this sum was owing at the completion of the work; but it sold so well, till the late depression of the book trade in 1841, that only about 2,6001. of the debt remained to be paid off at the end of that year. It is, however, necessary to observe, that this large proportion of the debt was not paid off solely by the produce of the Arboretum, but in part by the profits of Mr. Loudon's other literary property, consisting of thirteen dit. ferent publications, all of which stand pledged in the hands of his publishers, Messrs. Longman, for the debt on the Arboretum. This debt, at the present time, amounts to about 2,4001. ; and hence, if 350 additional subscribers could be got, the debt would be at once liquidated, the works pledged for it set free, and Mr. Loudon or his family would enjoy the whole produce of his literary property.*
This appeal would never have been made, had not Mr. Loudon, who has been an invalid for several years, been lately seized with an inflammation of the lungs, terminating in chronic bronchitis, which, even if the disease should be considerably alleviated, will effectually prevent him from any longer pur
* It may be thought, from the well-known extensive sale, for the last twenty years, of Mr. Loudon's publications, that he ought now to be inde. pendent; but, in consequence of too intense application while compiling the Encyclopædia of Gardening, Mr. Loudon fell into ill health in 1821, which obliged him ultimately to have his right arm amputated, his left hand being at the same time so much injured as to leave him with only the partial use of two fingers, and his left knee being anchylosed. In consequence of these bodily infirmities, Mr. London has been obliged to keep an amanuensis and a draughtsman for the last twenty years, and also a servant to act as valet; and, had it not been for the expenses thus incurred, and others arising from the same source, he might have been now independent, even without his literary property. This explanation is due to those who are ignorant of Mr. Loudon's personal character.
suing his profession of landscape-gardener, on the produce of which profession, and on the literary labours of Mrs. Loudon, he has entirely depended for his income, since his literary property was pledged for the Arboretum, Under these circumstances Mr. Loudon feels himself justified in taking this mode of soliciting additional subscribers to the Arboretum, and in begging his friends and patrons throughout the country to assist him in obtaining them.
The Arboretum has been spoken of in the highest terms in all the principal Reviews of Europe, and in the Botanical Periodicals of North America. The Quarterly Review says:
*This book is one of solid value, worthy of a place in the library of every landed gentleman, as well as of every student of botanical, arboricultural, and horticultural science. . . . Let us warmly congratulate Mr. Loudon on having finished his Herculean task ; a task which few men, except himself, would have had the courage to begin, and still fewer the perseverance to complete. The Arboretum Britannicum is complete in its kind, and it must become a standard book of reference on all subjects connected with trees.'Oct. 1838.
If, then, the Arboretum is 'worthy of a place in the library of every landed gentleman,' it may be permitted to its author, under his particular circumstances, to direct the attention of landed gentlemen to the book. Surely there must be more than 350 hereditary libraries that do not yet contain the work ; not to mention the libraries which some gentlemen devote to their gardeners, foresters, and bailiffs, in which the Arboretum will be found a most useful acquisition.
The following ladies, noblemen, and gentlemen, who already possess the work, on being applied to, have kindly permitted their names to be published as approving of the Arboretum, and of this address to the public:The Right Honourable Lady Rolle. Sir H. E. Bunbury. Mrs. Lawrence of Studley Royal. Sir Charles Lemon, The Duke of Northumberland. Sir Oswald Mosley. The Duke of Devonshire.
Sir William Jardine. The Duke of Buccleuch.
Sir W. J. Hooker.
The Rev, J. Mitford.
The Rev. W. T. Bree.
Captain Widdrington, R.N. The Earl of Harrington.
J. T. Brooks, Esq., Flitwick House. The Earl Fitzwilliam.
Joseph Strutt, Esq., Derby. The Earl of Radnor.
L. W. Dillwyn, Esq., Skeity Hall. The Earl of Ripon.
Gregory Gregory, Esq., Harlaxton The Earl of Lovelace.
Manor. Viscount Comberınere.
P. J. Selby, Esq., Twizell House. The Bishop of Winchester.
Professor Henslow. Lord Monteagle.
Professor Lindley. Lord Corehouse.
Professor Royle. Sir John Trevelyan.
Dr. Neill." Some of the above noblemen and gentlemen have, unasked, kindly sent us testimonials evincing their very favourable opinion of the Arboretum, and these we shall probably publish in our next Number.
We have also received some additional subscribers, among whom are Joseph Strutt, Esq., of Derby, for ten copies, and Mrs. Lawrence of Studley Royal, one copy. Mr. Strutt took a still greater number of copies when the work was first published.
DISTRIBUTION of Sea Water all over the Country. This will be practicable by means of the railroads, which, in a short time, will cover the whole country with a sort of network of communication, radiating from the large towns in the interior to the different seaports. As the direction of these roads is straighter, and their surface nearer a level, than those of the common roads, pipes might be laid down, at a proper depth under the rails, and sea water, by the occasional aid of sea engines, conveyed everywhere, and supplied by service-pipes all along the roads. We believe the Brighton railroad has one uniform slope, from a short distance from Brighton, all the way to London ; so that, by raising the water from the sea to the highest point, it would flow to the metropolis without further trouble; and might be raised by steam to Birmingham, whence it would descend to Derby and Manchester. This would enable salt-water baths to be established in London, an object for which there was a company formed between twenty and thirty years ago. The principal question is, whether sea water could be turned to such an account, either for baths or agricultural purposes, as would pay the expense. Our agricultural chemists would soon determine this. In the mean time, we may notice the practice of preserving grass and clover in a green state in pits, by the aid of pressure and a little salt, lately come into use in Germany, as brewers' grains are about London. This will be one use, and a most important use it is; and salting spoiled hay or straw would be another. Irrigation with diluted seawater would also be found beneficial. (See Quart. Journ. Ag., Oct. 1843.)
The Distribution of filtered Sewer Water from our large towns might be effected all over the country, by similar means, along the railroads, and probably will be so in the course of another generation. At present it would not
Draining. Pipes are now made, which are adapted for carrying drains through loose sand, and which, indeed, may be used as an economical substitute for draining-tiles, and even for conveying water from one basin or pond to another. These pipes are “ made by a machine, which every brick-maker can have constructed for a very few pounds. It is merely an imitation of that by which macaroni is made in Italy. A quantity of well-tempered clay is put into a wooden or iron cylinder, in the bottom of which is an iron plate or disk, in which the exact section of the pipe is cut out ; a strong piston, forced down by any simple machinery, drives out the pipe, which is received on a wooden mould, set perpendicularly, of the size of the bore of the pipe, having a shoulder and handle at the bottom. When the pipe is 13 in. long, it is cut off with a wire; a boy seizes the handle of the mould with the pipe on it, and places the pipe on a barrow with a flat stage on it, which, when full, is wheeled away. At the moment the first boy removes the mould, another boy places another vertically, to receive the next pipe. One cylinder, when filled, will squeeze out twelve pipes, or more; it is then removed to be filled again, while it is replaced by a full one. With a little practice, the operations go on most rapidly, and the greatest portion of the labour of moulding pipes and bending them is saved. We have no doubt that, with fair competition, pipes 2 or 3 inches in interior diameter may be thus made and burned, where fuel is moderately cheap, for less than 20s. a thousand, and larger in proportion. (Gard. Chron. for 1813, p. 659.)
Forcing Hyacinths so as to bloom at Christmas. To do proper justice to forced hyacinths expected to bloom at Christmas, they ought to be potted not later than the middle of August. It is true we manage to flower them as early as Christmas, after potting them as late as the end of September and beginning of October ; but this is too much for the bulbs ; the flowers are not as