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years. The beauty of the establishment renders it deservedly popular. Price of a lot 8 ft. by 10 ft. 66 dollars. Recently attempts have been successfully made to plant every tree which will bear the climate, both foreign and domestic; in short, to convert the place into an arboretum. The cost of it was 100,000 dollars; and the success of the establishment may be ascribed to its beauty, perfection, excellent management, and admirable regulations.
3. Monument Cemetery consists of 12 acres, and is situated in Broad Street, continued a short distance beyond the north line of the city proper. Number of lot-holders 4361. A Gothic chapel has been erected, with a handsome spire 100 ft. high, and a house for the superintendant.
4. Philanthropic. — 3 acres 36 perches are divided into 792 lots; a part is set off for strangers, for whom 4} dollars form the burial charge; the lots of the stockholders are 8 ft. by 10 ft.
5. Union. - About 350 ft. long, by 200 ft. deep.
6. Lafayette. — About 340 ft. each way; 1400 lots, each 8 ft. by 10 ft., making four graves in each lot.
7. Machpelah. — 368 ft. by 147 ft., lots 8 ft. by 10 ft., and sell from 40 to 50 dollars each. These last four cemeteries are south of the city bounds, and are enclosed by an iron railing set either in granite or in brick. The superintendants reside on the ground, in neat brick houses.
8. The Woodlands on the west side of the Schuylkill, in sight of the city, late the elegant seat of William Hamilton, deceased, an ardent cultivater of botany. The road to the mansion is through a grove of native forest trees, and the view extensive. Seventy-five of 91 acres are to be devoted to a cemetery. No interments have yet been made.
9. Green Mount Cemetery, near Baltimore, Maryland, formerly the seat of the late Robert Oliver. Sixty acres, including the mansion, have been laid out for the purpose, and divided into 6000 lots, each 16 ft. by 20 ft. It is surrounded by a wall, with a magnificent gateway.
10. A very handsome one has been laid out at Brooklyn, Long Island, opposite to New York, on the east river. 11. Another at Salem, Massachusetts, 14 miles north-east of Boston; and one (12.) at Worcester, in the same state, 40 miles west of Boston, have recently been laid out.
13. Mount Auburn, 4 miles from Boston, was purchased in 1830, and the association incorporated the following year. The tract consists of 118 acres, and the total cost of grounds and improvements to 1838 was 34,197 dollars. The woodland is covered by forest trees of large size and various kinds; and
the tract is beautifully undulating, and contains a number of eminences and shady valleys. The principal eminence, called Mount Auburn, is 125 ft. above the level of Charles River, near a fine
sweep of which the tract is. This romantic and picturesque cemetery is the fashionable place of interment with the people of Boston. Spurzheim, who died there Nov. 10. 1832, aged 56 years, greatly lamented, was buried in it. The tomb is an elegant, but plain, oblong sarcophagus, erected by subscription, and bearing no other inscription than his name. I saw it in March, 1834.
Philadelphia, May 11. 1843.
ART. V. On Laying out and Planting the Lawn, Shrubbery, and
Flower-Garden. By the ConductOR.
(Continued from p. 635.) The design, fig. 135. is taken, with some variations, from an old book by Andrew Mollett, or Mallet, a relation and contem
Flower-Garden about the Middle of the Seventeenth Century.
porary of Claud Mollett, who was gardener to Henry IV. and Louis XIII. of France, as Andrew is said to have been to James I. of England. His title, in that capacity, was Superintendant-General of the Gardens of the King of England.
His book contains a number of designs, some of which are not badly composed, and we have selected that before us, and two or three others to be given in our next volume, as specimens of the style of flower-gardens prevalent both in France and England about the middle of the seventeenth century. There were, at the same time, flower-gardens of embroidery, as appears by the work of Boyceau, Superintendant of the Gardens of Louis XIII., published in 1638.
The figure before us may either be cut out of turf, or the beds edged with box, and the paths, which are supposed to be 3 ft. wide, graveled. The central circle ought to be a basin of water, with a white water-lily in its centre, spreading out its broad leaves to give shade to an abundant supply of gold-fish. The herbaceous plants must be a miscellaneous assemblage; and there may be, in addition, low plants of variegated box or variegated yew, clipped into the form of cones, in the roundish projections at the angles. In the centre of the two rosettes there may be a pyramid of juniper, 1 ft. on the side at the base, and not above 4 ft. high; and very small plants of variegated Cupressus thyoides may be planted in the centre of the two side roundish projections, and clipped into the form of small globes.
This was the ancient style of planting such gardens. For the modern manner we refer to Mr. Ayres.
(To be continued.)
ART. VI. Arboricultural Notices.
The Hatfield Oak (Arb. Brit., vol. iii. p. 1759. fig. 1593.) is universally called the Dool Oak (and hence it is supposed that in former times it was used as the baronial gallows), and from its great age it has no doubt a right to the
George Chapman. 3. Arundel Street, Strand, Feb. 21. 1843. Uses of the Larch. — “We chose a healthy young larch tree, peeled off the outer bark, and then cut the soft inner bark into small pieces, which we boiled, until the surface of the water in the kettle became covered with a resinous scum, which was carefully removed. The broth was then seasoned with salt and pepper, and, in spite of the remaining particles of turpentine, it tasted well and filled the stomach. We took it in moderation, and felt no ill effects from it, &c.
" It is a great comfort to know, that, though the corn laws may remain, we can defy the monopoly of the landlords, by having larch soup, and our peck loaves made, as Humboldt advises us, of good fresh sawdust. When the earth is a little more densely inhabited, as in the space of another century or two, men will use trees, not only for shade in summer, and fuel in winter, but for food all the year round. It is some comfort to know that as long as trees exist man cannot perish by famine ; and, when he has eaten what is on his platter, he may finish safely and pleasantly by eating the platter itself, - patulis nec parcere quadris.' (Von Wrangell's Expedition to the Polar Sea, as reviewed in Gent. Mag. vol. xviii. p. 500.)
Growth of Trees. — A plantation made in 1765, partly on swampy meadow
Circumf. at 5 ft.
on a gravelly soil, was examined twenty-one years afterwards, viz. in 1786, and the circumference of some of the best trees taken at 5 ft. above the ground. The small firs had been occasionally drawn for posts and rails ; and also as rafters for cottages; for which purpose, when peeled of the bark, they will last for seven years.
60 to 80 4 8
50 to 70 4 6 Plane
50 to 60 3 6 Acacia
50 to 60 2 4 Elm .
40 to 60 3 6 Chestnut
30 to 50 2 Weymouth pines
30 to 50 2 5 Cluster ditto
30 to 50 2 10 Scotch fir
30 to 40 3 3 Spruce ditto
30 to 50
2 2 Larch
50 to 60 3 10 -(Young's Annals of Agriculture, vol. vi. p. 89.)
American Trees introduced in 1769. - In the years 1769, 1770, and 1771, I subscribed to a society then established at Edinburgh, for importing seeds of forest trees from Canada. I received a large quantity of seeds, which came up very well; and are now growing in my plantations, in a very flourishing condition. The sorts are, the great white spruce, which, I believe, is what the nurserymen call the Newfoundland spruce ; 2d, the American black spruce; 3d, the balsam fir, which is the most hardy kind, and flourishes in the most exposed situations; 4th, the great black larix ; 5th, the grey ash; 6th, the red mespilus, which bore fruit three years ago ; 7th, the great white mespilus ; 8th, the great black birch ; 9th, hickory walnuts; 10th, black walnuts. (W. M. Beverley, of Cleveland, Yorkshire, May 25. 1786, in Annals of Agriculture, vol. vi. p. 355.)
Growth of Trees at Barton, near Bury St. Edmunds.- Amongst the young trees at this place are some which seem worthy of notice. In none of the books of reference do we find the rapid growth of Abies Douglasii noted as having been at all equal to what has been witnessed here. Sir Henry Bunbury received from the Horticultural Society a little plant, in a pot, in March, 1830; in the spring of 1831 it was planted out. It is now, as nearly as can be ascertained, 35 ft. high ; the spread of its branches 13 ft., and the girt of its stem, at 1} ft. from the ground, 30 in. This summer, for the first time, this beautiful tree is bearing cones. Next to the Douglàsi, Pinus Coúlteri has been the most rapid in its growth. But a young P. insígnis is now growing at a prodigious rate. One of the finest trees here is a Magnòlia acuminata, which was planted in August, 1825. It is about 35£ ft. high, feathering to the ground on every side. The girt of its stem, at I ft., is 28 in.; at 4 ft., 24 in.; at 5 ft., 23 in. A Magnòlia auriculàta, planted in Nov. 1823, is about 241 ft
. high. Some persons in the neighbourhood complain that their Levant oaks (grown in a sandy soil) canker after twenty years. There are no such symptoms in those growing on clay, which are in the greatest vigour and beauty. Possibly in the former cases the roots have got down to hard chalk. (Gard. Chron. for 1813, p. 647.)
Clématis Vitálba, the common hedge clematis, in the garden of the rectoryhouse at Shenley, Herts, has two stems, each of which is as thick as the calf of a man's leg. It runs up a fir tree to the height of about 50 or 60 feet, although I suppose it is not more than twenty-five years old. –T. N. Shenley, Sept. 4. 1843.
Duvaúa longifolia Lindl. ; Anacardiàccæ. This species, which, like the others, is an evergreen, differs from D. dependens in its leaves not being at all serrated, and decidedly narrowed, not widened, to the base ; and also in
3d Ser. - 1843. XI.
having very short corymbs of flowers. It is much hardier than any of the others, having stood against an exposed wall in the hard winter of 1837–8, when all the others were either killed down to the ground or entirely destroyed. It grows freely in any good garden soil; flowers in June or July ; and is increased by seeds, or by cuttings of the half-ripe wood, taken off about August, and treated in the ordinary way. (Bot. Reg., Nov. 1843.)
Lonicera diversifolia Wall. Cat. No. 477.; Caprifoliàcee. A hardy shrub, raised in the garden of the Horticultural Society from East India seeds. It is in the way of Lonicera Xylósteuin, the common fly honeysuckle, and has bright yellow sessile flowers, appearing in June. (Bot. Reg., Nov. 1813, Misc.)
Art. VII. On the Rotation of Crops in Kitchen-Gardens. By
ROBERT ERRINGTON. MR. BARNES has said, of late, some excellent things about kitchengarden cropping; he has practised, it seems, in that best of all schools, a London market-garden. As he has, however, not dwelt much on the general rotation of crops, I beg to offer a few remarks on that head, and to detail my general practice; premising, in the first place, that the gardens of which I have the charge are a sandy loam of 26 in. on a substratum of dry red sand.
These are the days for economising manures. It is well it should be so; but, like all other public fits, it has a tendency to rush to extremes. I must, however, declare my conviction, that all the lawn-sweepings and gas water from London to John o' Groat's will never produce the cauliflowers, asparagus, celery, lettuce, &c., for which rotten muck has been so long famous. There is an old saying, “no argument like a breeches-pocket argument;” and, through this circumstance, writings on this head frequently carry more weight than they are entitled to.
One of the great secrets in working old kitchen-gardens is, to prevent, as much as possible, the Brássica tribes from following each other. I feel well assured that the digging in of the residue continually of the rotten remains of cabbages, cauliflowers, &c., has a tendency to lead to the disease called club. Raspberries and strawberries which have stood, it may be, years on the same ground offer, when broken up, an excellent opportunity for any of the brassicas; in fact, one not to be lost. Another difficulty arises in getting proper plots for onions and carrots, as, in the great majority of old gardens, they are so liable to the grub. For my part, I have invariably found, by many years' experience, that the more ground is manured for the two latter crops, the more liable they are to the grub. Old asparagus beds are another excellent resource to fall back on; but there are generally so many candidates for ground of this kind, that the difficulty is to choose. In gardens liable to club, however,