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His book contains a number of designs, some of which are not badly composed, and we have selected that before us, and two or three others to be given in our next volume, as specimens of the style of flower-gardens prevalent both in France and England about the middle of the seventeenth century. There were, at the same time, flower-gardens of embroidery, as appears by the work of Boyceau, Superintendant of the Gardens of Louis XIII., published in 1638.
The figure before us may either be cut out of turf, or the beds edged with box, and the paths, which are supposed to be 3 ft. wide, graveled. The central circle ought to be a basin of water, with a white water-lily in its centre, spreading out its broad leaves to give shade to an abundant supply of gold-fish. The herbaceous plants must be a miscellaneous assemblage; and there may be, in addition, low plants of variegated box or variegated yew, clipped into the form of cones, in the roundish projections at the angles. In the centre of the two rosettes there may be a pyramid of juniper, 1 ft. on the side at the base, and not above 4 ft. high; and very small plants of variegated Cupressus thyoides may be planted in the centre of the two side roundish projections, and clipped into the form of small globes.
This was the ancient style of planting such gardens. For the modern manner we refer to Mr. Ayres.
(To be continued.)
ART. VI. Arboricultural Notices.
The Hatfield Oak (Arb. Brit., vol. iii. p. 1759. fig. 1593.) is universally called the Dool Oak (and hence it is supposed that in former times it was used as the baronial gallows], and from its great age it has no doubt a right to the name. George Chapman. 3. Arundel Street, Strand, Feb. 21. 1843.
Uses of the Larch. We chose a healthy young larch tree, peeled off the outer bark, and then cut the soft inner bark into small pieces, which we boiled, until the surface of the water in the kettle became covered with a resinous scum, which was carefully removed. The broth was then seasoned with salt and pepper, and, in spite of the remaining particles of turpentine, it tasted well and filled the stomach. We took it in moderation, and felt no ill effects from it, &c.
“ It is a great comfort to know, that, though the corn laws may remain, we can defy the monopoly of the landlords, by having larch soup, and our peck loaves made, as Humboldt advises us, of good fresh sawdust. When the earth is a little more densely inhabited, as in the space of another century or two, men will use trees, not only for shade in summer, and fuel in winter, but for food all the year round. It is some comfort to know that as long as trees exist man cannot perish by famine ; and, when he has eaten what is on his platter, he may finish sately and pleasantly by eating the platter itself, “ patulis nec parcere quadris.' (Von Wrangell's Expedition to the Polar Sea, as reviewed in Gent. Mag. vol. xviii. p. 500.)
Growth of Trees. — A plantation made in 1765, partly on swampy meadow
Circumf. at 5 ft.
on a gravellysoil, was examined twenty-one years afterwards, viz. in 1786, and the circumference of some of the best trees taken at 5 ft. above the ground. The small firs had been occasionally drawn for posts and rails ; and also as rafters for cottages; for which purpose, when peeled of the bark, they will last for seven years.
60 to 80 4 8
50 to 70 4 6 Plane
50 to 60 3 6 Acacia
50 to 60
40 to 60
30 to 50 2 9 Weymouth pines
30 to 50 2 5 Cluster ditto
30 to 50 2 10 Scotch fir
30 to 40 3 3 Spruce ditto
30 to 50 2 2 Larch
50 to 60 3 10 -(Young's Annals of Agriculture, vol. vi. p. 89.)
American Trees introduced in 1769. — In the years 1769, 1770, and 1771, I subscribed to a society then established at Edinburgh, for importing seeds of forest trees from Canada. I received a large quantity of seeds, which came up very well ; and are now growing in my plantations, in a very flourishing condition. The sorts are, the great white spruce, which, I believe, is what the nurserymen call the Newfoundland spruce; 2d, the American black spruce; 3d, the balsam fir, which is the most hardy kind, and flourishes in the most exposed situations ; 4th, the great black larix ; 5th, the grey ash; 6th, the red mespilus, which bore fruit three years ago ; 7th, the great white mespilus ; 8th, the great black birch ; 9th, hickory walnuts; 10th, black walnuts. (W. M. Beverley, of Cleveland, Yorkshire, May 25. 1786, in Annals of Agriculture, vol. vi. p. 355.)
Growth of Trees at Barton, near Bury St. Edmunds. Amongst the young trees at this place are some which seem worthy of notice. In none of the books of reference do we find the rapid growth of Abies Douglasii noted as having been at all equal to what has been witnessed here. Sir Henry Bunbury received from the Horticultural Society a little plant, in a pot, in March, 1830; in the spring of 1831 it was planted out. It is now, as nearly as can be ascertained, 35 ft. high ; the spread of its branches 13 ft., and the girt of its stem, at 14 ft. from the ground, 30 in. This summer, for the first time, this beautiful tree is bearing cones. Next to the Douglàsü, Pinus Coulteri has been the most rapid in its growth. But a young P. insignis is now growing at a prodigious rate. One of the finest trees here is a Magnòlia acuminata, which was planted in August, 1825. It is about 35} ft. high, feathering to the ground on every side. The girt of its stem, at I ft., is 28 in.; at 4 ft., 24 in.; at 5} ft., 23 in. A Magnolia auriculàta, planted in Nov. 1823, is about 244 ft. high. Some persons in the neighbourhood complain that their Levant oaks (grown in a sandy soil) canker after twenty years. There are no such symptoms in those growing on clay, which are in the greatest vigour and beauty. Possibly in the former cases the roots have got down to hard chalk. (Gard. Chron. for 1813, p. 647.)
Clématis Vitálba, the common hedge clematis, in the garden of the rectoryhouse at Shenley, Herts, has two stems, each of which is as thick as the calf of a man's leg. It runs up a fir tree to the height of about 50 or 60 feet, although I suppose it is not more than twenty-five years old. –T. N. Shenley, Sept. 4. 1843.
Duvaủa longifolia Lindl.; Anacardiacee. - This species, which, like the others, is an evergreen, differs from D. dependens in its leaves not being at all serrated, and decidedly narrowed, not widened, to the base ; and also in
3d Ser. - 1843. XI.
having very short corymbs of flowers. It is much hardier than any of the others, having stood against an exposed wall in the hard winter of 1837-8, when all the others were either killed down to the ground or entirely destroyed. It grows freely in any good garden soil; flowers in June or July ; and is increased by seeds, or by cuttings of the half-ripe wood, taken off about August, and treated in the ordinary way. (Bot. Reg., Nov. 1843.)
Lonicera diversifolia Wall. Cat. No. 477.; Caprifoliacea. A hardy shrub, raised in the garden of the Horticultural Society from East India seeds. It is in the way of Lonicera Xylósteuin, the common fly honeysuckle, and has bright yellow sessile flowers, appearing in June. (Bot. Reg., Nov. 1843, Misc.)
ART. VII. On the Rotation of Crops in Kitchen-Gardens. By
Robert ERRINGTON. MR. Barnes has said, of late, some excellent things about kitchengarden cropping; he has practised, it seems, in that best of all schools, a London market-garden. As he has, however, not dwelt much on the general rotation of.crops, I beg to offer a few remarks on that head, and to detail my general practice; premising, in the first place, that the gardens of which I have the charge are a sandy loam of 26 in. on a substratum of dry red sand.
These are the days for economising manures. It is well it should be so; but, like all other public fits, it has a tendency to rush to extremes. I must, however, declare my conviction, that all the lawn-sweepings and gas water from London to John o' Groat's will never produce the cauliflowers, asparagus, celery, lettuce, &c., for which rotten muck has been so long famous. There is an old saying, “no argument like a breeches-pocket argument;” and, through this circumstance, writings on this head frequently carry more weight than they are entitled to.
One of the great secrets in working old kitchen-gardens is, to prevent, as much as possible, the Brássica tribes from following each other. I feel well assured that the digging in of the residue continually of the rotten remains of cabbages, cauliflowers, &c., has a tendency to lead to the disease called club. Raspberries and strawberries which have stood, it may be, years on the same ground offer, when broken up, an excellent opportunity for any of the brassicas ; in fact, one not to be lost. Another difficulty arises in getting proper plots for onions and carrots, as, in the great majority of old gardens, they are so liable to the grub. For my part, I have invariably found, by many years' experience, that the more ground is manured for the two latter crops, the more liable they are to the grub. Old asparagus beds are another excellent resource to fall back on; but there are generally so many candidates for ground of this kind, that the difficulty is to choose. In gardens liable to club, however,
brassicas should, in my opinion, have the preference by all means. My practice, for years, has been to follow, on the principal of my broccoli or other brassica ground, with peas; no manure. The peas I follow with celery chiefly, which I grow in what is termed the Scotch way, viz., 5- or 6-feet beds. Now, by sowing two rows of peas at a time, I gain thereby, when the peas are drawn, a celery bed; and the celery being pricked out at a good distance, say nearly 6 in. apart, is prepared to await the removal of the peas successively. As to celery, I sow it late, and grow it quick: this is the true recipe for having tender and crisp celery. The celery ground is, of course, in a state of high preparation for any crop that requires rich soil, such as cauliflowers, broccoli, asparagus, &c.
With regard to asparagus, I make it a rule to break up a bed or beds every year, and to plant an equal quantity: this I plant on the celery ground, and the beds I intend for asparagus I dig and manure very deep; putting old half-rotten leaves in the bottom, and planting the celery in the old manure at top. When the celery is removed this ground is in excellent order for asparagus, which I plant in the beginning of May, when the asparagus is 6 in. high. Now the beds being about 6 ft. wide, I plant two rows in a bed, 30 in. between the rows, and the plants a foot apart; leaving a shoulder of 18 in. on each side the bed: this plan answers admirably. The old beds of asparagus which are broken up are forced in the autumn, and generally obtained by Christmas ; and I have strong plants planted in rows a yard apart, of three years' standing, which I take up and force in succession. These last are grown in a peculiar way, expressly for forcing. I have a deal to say about asparagus, but I must reserve it for a future opportunity. To return to the remainder of the celery ground: I crop it chiefly with beans and broccoli, putting the broad beans in rows 4 ft. apart, in successive plantings; and drawing drills and planting my broccoli, in the course of July, between the beans. This,
This, be it understood, is all late spring broccoli, including some middle season, as Granger's, Knight's protecting, &c. My Cape and other autumn broccoli and cauliflowers are in another plot, constituting a different rotation. The beans form an excellent shade for a while to the broccoli, and, when they are pulled up, the bean soil is earthed up the broccoli stems; and, if the broccoli is not too large, a row of coleworts is planted in September between each two rows of broccoli.
The broccoli ground, in April, is followed in part by carrots, without manure, and perhaps parsneps, or beet.
Potatoes I have not named, as they deserve a separate notice. I will, however, observe that potatoes, with a slight coat of
manure, form the best preparation of any thing I know for the brassicas, or, in fact, for any crop whatever.
I ought to have said that I run rope-yarn and stakes round all my prime asparagus, as much fine asparagus is injured by the winds in the growing season, rocked about, and broken; the consequence of which is, that the fine large buds are pushed prematurely in the summer season, and twenty small heads take their place.
I have a mode of cultivating all my fruit-tree borders, without ever digging above 6 in. deep; but this I mean to say something about at a future period.
Oulton Park, near Tarporley, Cheshire, Oct. 2. 1843.
Art. VIII. The History of the Introduction of the Swedish Turnip
into Britain. By the Rev. Thomas Newcome, Rector of Shenley,
Hertfordshire. Our common friend, the Rev. J. Mitford, has recommended me to communicate to you what I consider to be the true history of the introduction of that valuable plant the Swedish turnip into this island.
It is now about fifty years since the late Sir David Kinloch of Gilmerton, near Edinburgh, gave some of the seed to my father, the Rev. Henry Newcome, Vicar of Gresford, Denbighshire, and a near neighbour to Sir Forster Canliffe of Acton Park, near Wrexham; who married a daughter of Sir David Kinloch. This latter baronet told my father that “a Swedish nobleman had given the seed to him.” I well remember my father growing about half or three quarters of an acre of the seed, and selling it to the late Mr. Mason of Fleet Street, an eminent seedsman, for, I believe, the sum of 701.; and this was the first seed sold in London. Now, if
know a more authentic account of the introduction of the Swede turnip, you will, of course, not take any notice of, nor publish, this my account of the matter; but, though writing from mere impression and memory, I believe this is substantially the true one.
I have often heard my father declare that “ he was the first to teach the people in North Wales to hoe their turnips ;” and that he astonished the natives by ploughing up old furze, or gorse, roots with a Hertfordshire wheeled plough, imported from this parish to that of Gresford, near Chester. He was the first who ploughed in that county with two horses abreast; while, at that day, all the farmers ploughed their light gravelly soil with four horses at length!
Shenley, Herts, Sept. 4. 1843.