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certain extent, to guard against the errors to which, by their particular variety of constitution, they are destined to be the most prone. When blamed for anything by their masters, they will be the more likely to acknowledge their error and amend, when they find that the fault was one which, from their constitutional tendency, they were very likely to commit; therefore, not only teach them how to choose workmen of different kinds, but how to manage them. Men and women of no education, or without that substitute for it, the cultivation which is given by constant intercourse with educated people, must necessarily be the slaves of their temperament; and, therefore, a head gardener may tell pretty nearly what he has to expect from a garden labourer as soon as he sees him. He will foresee his faults and virtues, and shape his treatment to him accordingly.
Gardeners out of place are not likely often to have a choice of situations and of masters; but sometimes they have; and it must be useful to them to know that, all other circumstances, such as duty, wages, prospects, &c., alike, the lord, or the lady, with a broad full chest, broad erect forehead, and not much exceeding the middle size (fig. 129.), will naturally be the most
kind and generous
as I am
(fig. 130.), or a defective facial angle (fig. 131.) instead of the angle of intelligence (fig. 132.), though the inestimable blessing of education, and the intercourse of high and polished society, neutralise or counteract the former to such a degree as to put its possessor almost on a footing with the man of native strength of mind.
But if this kind of knowledge is of importance to a gardener in the choice of an employer or of labourers, it is of still greater importance to him in the choice of a wife. Nothing good is to be expected from an uneducated woman, unless she has an ample chest and attenuated extremities. It is true, personal attraction is but a small item of what makes up the sum of happiness, either in the married or the single state ; but there can hardly
Fig. 129. Broad Chest, and broad
Narrow and contracted Chest, and narrow Forehead.
be such a thing as happiness
man should make
extremities come as near as posFig. 131. Defective sible to those of the Venus de Fig. 132. Angle of Facial Angle.
Intelligence. Medicis (fig. 133.); and a woman should choose a husband of a form, and with extremities, coming as near as possible to those of the Apollo Belvedere
(fig. 134.). Full-sized statues of these models of beauty and perfection ought to be in every garden, and in the hall of every gentleman's house; and casts of them (which may be had very perfect of their kind at 7s. each) on the chimney-piece of every cottage, as a beau idéal to operate on the imagination on the principle of the peeled rods of Jacob. *
* Long-continued wars tend to degenerate the human race, by laying hold of the tallest men, and those possessed of the most robust health, and sweeping them off without their leaving offspring. It would be much better for the human race to select for soldiers none but little men ; or to admit all capable men, and, when the capacity was equal, to take little men in preference. (Annales de la Hygiène Publique, as quoted in For. Quart. Rev.)
I hope it will not be thought from anything that I have advanced in this speculation, that I make light of everything that is not perfect beauty or vigorous mind; far otherwise. The great object of human life is happiness; and, provided an individual has tolerable health and sustenance, happiness is always within his power, whatever may be his temperament or configuration. Happiness lies in health and in the power of the mind to accommodate itself to the circumstances in which it may be placed ; in two words, health and contentment. Every body has these words in his mouth ; but, to turn them to account, it is necessary to cultivate the conditions of being which they indicate; to preserve and strengthen health, and to reason with ambitious, envious, and covetous feelings. The nice point is, to know how far to bend our wishes to our circumstances, and how far to endeavour to raise our circumstances to our desires.
London, Nov. 1843.
Art. IV. Some Account of the principal Cemeteries in the United
States, particularly those in the Neighbourhood of Philadelphia. By JAMES MEASE, Esq., M.D.
THERE are several graveyards or cemeteries in the vicinity of Philadelphia, and all but one are formed upon the principle of joint stock companies. The first was laid out by the late James Ronaldson, a Scotchman, sixteen years since, and is now the property of his brother Richard. It is a short distance beyond the south bounds of the city proper, and is divided into 900 lots, each 8 ft. by 10 ft. A number of evergreen and other trees are planted in the enclosure, which is surrounded by a brick wall about 5 ft. high, and surmounted by an iron railing. 7000 bodies have already been interred in it. The price of a single grave is only 6 dollars. The superintendant resides on the spot. It is a beautiful place.
2. Laurel Hill is 3} miles north of the city, on the river Schuylkill. The part devoted to interments embraces about twenty acres, and is laid out in the most tasteful manner. The entrance is a specimen of Doric architecture, through which is a pleasing vista, and on each side are lodges for the accommodation of the gravedigger and gardener; and within is a neat cottage for the superintendant, a Gothic chapel for funeral service, a large dwellinghouse for visitors, a handsome receiving tomb, stabling for forty carriages, and a greenhouse. Besides the native forest trees on the place, several hundreds more, and many ornamental shrubs, have been planted. The lots are enclosed by iron railings. There have been 767 interments in six years. The beauty of the establishment renders it deservedly popular. Price of a lot 8 ft. by 10 ft. 66 dollars. Recently attempts have been successfully made to plant every tree which will bear the climate, both foreign and domestic; in short, to convert the place into an arboretum. The cost of it was 100,000 dollars; and the success of the establishment may be ascribed to its beauty, perfection, excellent management, and admirable regulations.
3. Monument Cemetery consists of 12 acres, and is situated in Broad Street, continued a short distance beyond the north line of the city proper. Number of lot-holders 4361. A Gothic chapel has been erected, with a handsome spire 100 ft. high, and a house for the superintendant.
4. Philanthropic. — 3 acres 36 perches are divided into 792 lots; a part is set off for strangers, for whom 4 dollars form the burial charge; the lots of the stockholders are 8 ft. by 10 ft.
5. Union.- About 350 ft. long, by 200 ft. deep.
6. Lafayette. — About 340 ft. each way; 1400 lots, each 8 ft. by 10 ft., making four graves in each lot.
7. Machpelah. -368 ft. by 147 ft., lots 8 ft. by 10 ft., and sell from 40 to 50 dollars each. These last four cemeteries are south of the city bounds, and are enclosed by an iron railing set either in granite or in brick. The superintendants reside on the ground, in neat brick houses.
8. The Woodlands on the west side of the Schuylkill, in sight of the city, late the elegant seat of William Hamilton, deceased, an ardent cultivater of botany. The road to the mansion is through a grove of native forest trees, and the view extensive. Seventy-five of 91 acres are to be devoted to a cemetery. No interments have yet been made.
9. Green Mount Cemetery, near Baltimore, Maryland, formerly the seat of the late Robert Oliver. Sixty acres, including the mansion, have been laid out for the purpose, and divided into 6000 lots, each 16 ft. by 20 ft. It is surrounded by a wall, with a magnificent gateway.
10. A very handsome one has been laid out at Brooklyn, Long Island, opposite to New York, on the east river. 11. Another at Salem, Massachusetts, 14 miles north-east of Boston; and one (12.) at Worcester, in the same state, 40 miles west of Boston, have recently been laid out.
13. Mount Auburn, 4 miles from Boston, was purchased in 1830, and the association incorporated the following year. The tract consists of 118 acres, and the total cost of grounds and improvements to 1838 was 34,197 dollars. The woodland is covered by forest trees of large size and various kinds; and
the tract is beautifully undulating, and contains a number of eminences and shady valleys. The principal eminence, called Mount Auburn, is 125 ft. above the level of Charles River, near a fine sweep of which the tract is. This romantic and picturesque cemetery is the fashionable place of interment with the people of Boston. Spurzheim, who died there Nov. 10. 1832, aged 56 years, greatly lamented, was buried in it. The tomb is an elegant, but plain, oblong sarcophagus, erected by subscription, and bearing no other inscription than his name. I saw it in March, 1834.
Philadelphia, May 11. 1843.
ART. V. On Laying out and Planting the Lawn, Shrubbery, and
Flower-Garden. By the CONDUCTOR.
(Continued from p. 635.) The design, fig. 135. is taken, with some variations, from an old book by Andrew Mollett, or Mallet, a relation and contem
Fig. 135. Flower-Garden about the Middle of the Seventeenth Century. porary of Claud Mollett, who was gardener to Henry IV. and Louis XIII. of France, as Andrew is said to have been to James I. of England. His title, in that capacity, was Superintendant-General of the Gardens of the King of England.