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means it will be brought within the compass of the eye, seen as a painted landscape in a frame, and any errors in its composition detected.
Fig. 128. shows the same landscape viewed from a lower point of sight, in which every object takes its proper place.
In laying out a piece of ground with a view to produce the best effect, care should be taken to bring forward all the most prominent objects with a background by no means complex, but produced either by objects in shadow or by broad and flat masses of foliage. Small parts, such as stems of trees, or any objects producing sharp or straight lines, always confuse and cut into the form of the design.
5. Brecknock Crescent, Camden New Town, 1840.
Art. III. Phrenology for Gardeners and their Patrons. By
THOMAS JONES. I ENTIRELY agree with you(p.552.)“that young gardeners ought to be phrenologists to a certain extent," to assist them in estimating the character of one another, as well as of those they have to deal with. I have, therefore, drawn up for you a short article on the subject, which I have illustrated with engravings; and, as I have had these made at my own expense, I hope you will find room for the article in your December Number, though I admit that it is not altogether suited to a Gardener's Magazine. You have very wisely stated (Vol. III. p. 432.) that it is by bringing other arts and sciences to bear upon the art or science which we wish to cultivate, that the greatest progress is to be made; allow me therefore to recommend phrenology to gardeners, as a science that will aid them in their choice of apprentices, journeymen, and labourers; and to masters, as an assistance in the choice of gardeners. The science of phrenology is neither more
than doing that from the knowledge of certain principles which we all do involuntarily; that is, form an opinio every individual at first sight, from his personal appearance. For the principles of this science, I must refer you to the works of Mr. Combe, and to the Phrenological Journal; and, to give you confidence in my opinion, that it is destined, at no distant period, to effect most important changes in the system of education, and in the choice of all servants, whether public or private, and let me add, also in the choice of husbands or wives, and friends, I will refer you to the progress this science is making throughout Europe, and especially in Germany. I shall commence by recommending gardeners to endeavour to ascertain the defects of their own temperaments and organic conformation. Having arrived at this knowledge, they will be enabled, to a
certain extent, to guard against the errors to which, by their particular variety of constitution, they are destined to be the most prone. When blamed for anything by their masters, they will be the more likely to acknowledge their error and amend, when they find that the fault was one which, from their constitutional tendency, they were very likely to commit; therefore, not only teach them how to choose workmen of different kinds, but how to manage them. Men and women of no education, or without that substitute for it, the cultivation which is given by constant intercourse with educated people, must necessarily be the slaves of their temperament; and, therefore, a head gardener may tell pretty nearly what he has to expect from a garden labourer as soon as he sees him. He will foresee his faults and virtues, and shape his treatment to him accordingly.
Gardeners out of place are not likely often to have a choice of situations and of masters; but sometimes they have; and it must be useful to them to know that, all other circumstances, such as duty, wages, prospects, &c., alike, the lord, or the lady, with a broad full chest, broad erect forehead, and not much exceeding the middle size (fig. 129.), will naturally be the most
kind and generous
as I am
(fig. 130.), or a defective facial angle (fig. 131.) instead of the angle of intelligence (fig. 132.), though the inestimable blessing of education, and the intercourse of high and polished society, neutralise or counteract the former to such a degree as to put its possessor almost on a footing with the man of native strength of mind.
But if this kind of knowledge is of importance to a gardener in the choice of an employer or of labourers, it is of still greater importance to him in the choice of a wife. Nothing good is to be expected from an uneducated woman, unless she has
an ample chest and attenuated extremities. It is true, personal attraction is but a small item of what makes up the sum of happiness, either in the married or the single state ; but there can hardly
Fig. 129. Broad Chest, and broad
Narrow and contracted Chest, and narrow Forehead.
be such a thing as happiness
extremities come as near as posFig. 131. Defective sible to those of the Venus de Fig. 132. Angle of Facial Angle.
Intelligence. Medicis (fig. 133.); and a woman should choose a husband of a form, and with extremities, coming as near as possible to those of the Apollo Belvedere
(fig. 134.). Full-sized statues of these models of beauty and perfection ought to be in every garden, and in the hall of every gentleman's house; and casts of them (which may be had very perfect of their kind at 78. each) on the chimney-piece of every cottage, as a beau idéal to operate on the imagination on the principle of the peeled rods of Jacob. *
* Long-continued wars tend to degenerate the human race, by laying hold of the tallest men, and those possessed of the most robust health, and sweeping them off without their leaving offspring. It would be much better for the human race to select for soldiers none but little men ; or to admit all capable men, and, when the capacity was equal, to take little men in preference. (Annales de la Hygiène Publique, as quoted in For. Quart. Rev.)
I hope it will not be thought from anything that I have advanced in this speculation, that I make light of everything that is not perfect beauty or vigorous mind; far otherwise. The great object of human life is happiness; and, provided an individual has tolerable health and sustenance, happiness is always within his power, whatever may be his temperament or configuration. Happiness lies in health and in the power of the mind to accommodate itself to the circumstances in which it
be placed ; in two words, health and contentment. Every body has these words in his mouth ; but, to turn them to account, it is necessary to cultivate the conditions of being which they indicate; to preserve and strengthen health, and to reason with ambitious, envious, and covetous feelings. The nice point is, to know how far to bend our wishes to our circumstances, and how far to endeavour to raise our circumstances to our desires.
London, Nov. 1843.
Art. IV. Some Account of the principal Cemeteries in the United
States, particularly those in the Neighbourhood of Philadelphia. By James Mease, Esq., M.D.
TAERE are several graveyards or cemeteries in the vicinity of Philadelphia, and all but one are formed upon the principle of joint stock companies. The first was laid out by the late James Ronaldson, a Scotchman, sixteen years since, and is now the property of his brother Richard. It is a short distance beyond the south bounds of the city proper, and is divided into 900 lots, each 8 ft. by 10 ft. A number of evergreen and other trees are planted in the enclosure, which is surrounded by a brick wall about 5 ft. high, and surmounted by an iron railing. 7000 bodies have already been interred in it. The price of a single grave is only 6 dollars. The superintendant resides on the spot. It is a beautiful place.
2. Laurel Hill is 31 miles north of the city, on the river Schuylkill. The part devoted to interments embraces about twenty acres, and is laid out in the most tasteful manner. The entrance is a specimen of Doric architecture, through which is a pleasing vista, and on each side are lodges for the accommodation of the gravedigger and gardener; and within is a neat cottage for the superintendant, a Gothic chapel for funeral service, a large dwellinghouse for visitors, a handsome receiving tomb, stabling for forty carriages, and a greenhouse. Besides the native forest trees on the place, several hundreds more, and many ornamental shrubs, have been planted. The lots are enclosed by iron railings. There have been 767 interments in six