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the apple or pear. The only precaution that is necessary in this operation is, to take prominent buds from the first growth of this season, as inany of the family have made a second growth this month. Variegated hollies may now be grafted and budded with the greatest freedom. The rhododendron being thinrinded, it does best by side grafting, and buds of it also had better be inserted after the manner of side-grafting, with a portion of the soft wood retained behind the bud; all autumn buds may thus be inserted. I scarcely ever used clay in the first instance for excluding the air from these experimental buds and grafts, so that, with this useful precaution, there will be no fear of success. The following observations may be useful to those little versed in these matters. Insert autumn grafts as you would buds, leave about an inch of the graft out, at the top of the incision, and use the firm part of this summer's growth for the stock. If the bark of the stock be very ihin, or if it does not part freely from the wood, you had better put in the grafts and buds as in side-grafting, cutting out a thin slice, and preparing the
grafts so as to fit the place; and tie rather gently, as the stock is soft, for fear of bruising the bark. If the graft be put in on the north side of the stock, it will be an additional security from the heat of the sun. The best grafting clay is made by putting a lump of soft clay in the bottom of a small pot, with a little water over it; then stir it with a stick until it is rather thicker than paint, and with a small brush, made with strips of matting tied to a little stick, paint over the tying; and, while the paint is wet, dust a little dry sand or mould over it. When it becomes dry, no rain will wash it off, and the sand will keep it from crack. ing. (D. Beaton, in Gard. Chron. for Sept. 2. 1843, p. 616.)
Disbudding Shoots with the Leaves on. - This is practised by Mr. James Roberts, the author of the Culture of the Vine under Glass, a book that ranks with the Treatise of Mr. Hoare. While the leaves are yet green, the shoots or spurs are divested of such buds as are not intended to produce fruit the following season. The result of this is, that the organisable matter prepared by 50 or 100 leaves is concentrated in 20 or 30 buds, instead of being divided among three or four times that number, as it is by the general system of management. Though this is merely an extended application of the principle of the concentration of the sap practised in disbudding and various allied operations, yet it is one of immense importance when applied to the vine, and to the shoots of ligneous plants with the leaves on. The buds, in consequence of having so much sap concentrated in them, become highly excitable, and, with the slightest application of heat in early spring, they push with the greatest vigour. There may, under certain circuinstances, be a fear of the premature bursting of the buds ; but this, in general, may be prevented by leaving two or three small laterals on the most vertical part of the vine. Though Mr. Roberts, who is decidedly the inventor of this system, has chiefly applied it to vines under glass, yet it is said to be equally applicable to out-of-door vines. Of course, if it is applicable to one bud-bearing plant, it must be applicable to all, whether ligneous or herbaceous. “You may,” Mr. Roberts observes," proceed to disbud, beginning at the bottom of the vine, leaving a bud you think well placed on the side of the shoot (preferring that to either the top or under side); then cut clean out the two following, leaving the fourth, taking out the next two, and so on till you reach 8 or 9 feet in height, as to that length the cane must be cut back. Proceed again at the bottom, disbudding the other side in the same manner, so that, in that length, you will be able to leave eight or ten permanent eyes to form fruit-bearing spurs for the following year, or five on each side. I particularly caution against injuring the leaves when the bud is cut out, as they may not naturally drop for weeks after, and may yet be useful in more perfectly maturing the stem and remaining buds. In a few days the wounds or cuts will have dried up; touch them with a little paint, keep them cool and dry until the leaves have commenced dropping generally." (W. P. Ayres, in Gard. Chron. for 1843, p. 677.)
An imperishable Bread, made of flour and rice meal, and in every respect well tasted and wholesome, is said to have been invented by Mr. Alzard.
The bread, it is said, will keep two centuries without the slightest alteration, if required. If this should really be the case, it will, of course, supersede in a great measure the troublesome modes of preserving wheat in sieves, and other underground excavations, now practised on the Continent, and indeed, together with rice, in most parts of the world. (Standard.) The Arab in Egypt generally buries his rice to conceal it from his enemies; often, as St. John informs us, in the floor of his miserable mud hut. — Cond.
l'erbenas and Petunias. — After seeing all about London, and collecting nearly fifty varieties of the verbena, I reduced them to twelve sorts, and three or four of these are for neutral beds ; that is, beds with no decided colour, Petunias must be dealt with in the same manner. (D. Beaton, in Gard. Chron, 1843, p. 592.)
Best time for eating Pears.- No pear, if gathered and eaten when fully ripe on the tree, is so good as when gathered as soon as it has attained its full size, and laid by in a dry place until it is ripe. (J. Hayward, in Gard. Gaz, 1843, p. 153.)
Manuring Vines. — We find several gardeners throughout the country, who have read Liebig's work, manuring their vines with the summer's prunings chopped small, and slightly dug in immediately. Of course the plan will succeed where very slight crops are to be taken, but not otherwise. — Cond,
ART. II. Domestic Notices.
ENGLAND, The Naming of the Trees and Shrubs in Kensington Gardens has had, as was anticipated, a beneficial effect upon the public mind, in awakening a spirit of enquiry, and exciting a taste for botanical and horticultural pursuits ; so much so, that gentlemen go direct from these gardens to the nurseries, with their lists made out from their own inspection. (Gard. Chron., 1843, p. 695.)
Paulownia imperialis has flowered in the greenhouse of Mrs. Wray of Oakfield near Cheltenham. The flowers are deliciously sweet, and are produced freely on very young plants, if forced for that purpose. The conditions to be attended to are, to keep the plants under-potted, to force them slowly in a cool stove, early vinery, or forcing-house, beginning early in the spring. By midsummer they will have finished their growth, have begun to show their flower-buds, and to cast their leaves; they will then require less water, and in six weeks or two months the flowers will begin to expand, and the plants, of course, will be brought into the conservatory, where they will take up little room, as they may be set anywhere, only leaving their heads of flowers free above other plants which surround them. Might not the Catálpa syringafólia be treated like Paulownia for the sake of its large trumpet-like Aowers, which are produced in abundance in the neighbourhood of London and farther south, but are seldom to be met with in colder parts of the country? (Gard. Chron., 1843, p. 698.)
American Aloe.- There is a fine specimen of this rarely flowering exotic on the lawn at Charlton House, near this town (Wantage). The Hower stem has already attained the height of 16 ft., with 25 lateral branches, and nearly 4000 blossom buds. It is hoped that when this beautiful plant is fully in flower the public may be admitted to see it. (Jackson's Oxford Journal, Sept. 16. 1843.)
SCOTLAND. Sir Walter Scott's Monument. It is well known that a number of situations have been from time to time pointed out as proper sites for this monument. In some of these it would have been founded on a visible rock, and consequently the expense of the foundation would have been trifling, or rather there would have been no expense on that account at all. The committee, however, finally fixed on a situation on the edge of the North Loch, on the south margin of Princes Street, on a piece of made ground, where, in order to procure a sufficient foundation, they have been obliged to dig down 40 or 50 ft., and bury such an immense mass of masonry, that the committee are now coming forward to solicit "auxiliary subscriptions” on account of the “heavy expenses of the substructure.” (Scotsman, Aug. 30, 1843.) Independently altogether of the “heavy expense of this substructure,” we put it to all men of common sense, whether it can be in good taste, in a locality like Edinburgh, where there are innumerable situations that supply foundations of rock rising to the surface, to build a monument, no matter for whom or for what, in a situation where any substructure is required at all. Why not have chosen a spot on the Castle Hill, or perhaps still better the Calton Hill ? The idea of burying so much money, where there never can be anything to show for it except the accounts, is in our opinion most repugnant to the feelings of a well-regulated mind, and anything but creditable to the committee. Economy of execution is one of the first things that ought to be attended to in every public or private work whatever. — Cond.
Art. III. Retrospective Criticism. The Improvements in Kensington Gardens. (p. 288.) – While I agree with you in admitting that great praise is due to the Earl of Lincoln, for the wish he has manifested to make the parks about the metropolis minister as much as possible to the instruction, as well as gratification, of the people, I cannot think that he has done well in introducing conspicuously the names of the trees and shrubs into our public gardens. I know that this is a favourite project of yours, and that it has originated in a most benevolent wish to blend instruction with amusement, and so to lead to a civilisation of our population. But, in the first place, I do not think that the beauty of all our parks ought to be destroyed, and all chance of a high love for the beauties of nature cut off, for the sake of instructing those who will not be at the pains to learn for themselves. Let there be, if you will, botanic gardens, where those who wish may find every kind of plant named, but let our parks be parks, and not schools; and be assured that you will attain your wish more certainly in this way than by the method you propose; for your idler will hardly recollect the name of a plant when he has had no trouble in learning it. And again, see to what your plan naturally leads. The plants are arranged, How ? - So as to produce the most beautiful scenery ? No.- Well, but so as to show their peculiar properties the best way? No.- At any rate they are grouped in classes, so as to convey broad characters to the observers ? No; they are arranged (see p. 288. 1. 2.) in alphabetical order! This reminds me of what once happened to me in walking through the conservatories at the Colosseum before they were finished. Finding the gardener disposed to converse, I entered into conversation with him as to the principles on which the planting had been conducted. He spoke in the highest terms, as well he might, of the talents of the extraordinary man who had projected the building and its accompaniments ; but added, with a feeling in which he expected me to sympathise (for from our conversation he found that I had some knowledge of plants), that it was a great pity Mr. Horner knew nothing of plants or their value. “ Why, Sir, he has arranged them solely with a view to their picturesque effect; and, in spite of my remonstrances, has removed to a distance plants that have cost five guineas, while he has placed in the front row others that are not worth one shilling!” Be it remembered that this was twenty years ago, and that there was more excuse for the gardener then than there would
be now. One word more as to the principle you advocate, before I express a doubt as to its practicability. Do ask Mr. Lamb to take up his facile pencil, and give you a design for a public building, the Houses of Parliament, the National Gallery, &c. &c., which shall be an alphabet of architecture; and when he has finished, let each member have its sign-board hung up to tell the babe in architecture that this is an Ionic volute, that a triglyph, &c. &c. Of course he will not consider proportion, or architectural or artistical effect (perish æsthetics, thought, feeling, taste !), but will take care that every member is so large, that, however distant, the eye may see it fully, so as to comprehend its exact form and position : nay, would it not be the best way to have the scaffolding up, that any one who wishes may have an opportunity of a nearer view ?. Now, if you are consistent, you ought to contend for this in our public buildings, as much as for making our parks a collection of labels. If I have thus broadly caricatured your views, it is because I know they are deeply rooted, and must therefore require a strong effort to change them. I can scarcely hope to succeed ; but, seeing that they are beginning to be acted upon in high quarters, I am anxious that, before it is too late, they should be re-examined.
And now as to its practicability. You are already complaining that the names are not sufficiently large ; and you must still complain until you get them as big as a sign-board, and entirely destroy all appearance of a garden. The remedy I should propose would be, either the establishment of a botanic garden in connexion with the park, or placing plans of the grounds in some of the structures in the park, with lists of the trees, &c., and proper references, and instructing the attendants to give assistance in finding particular plants to all enquirers.
I had intended also to have made a remark or two on your suggestion that a ruined aqueduct should be introduced, but I have not at the present moment the Magazine before me. Kent, I think, planted dead trees in his parks ; but he was soon laughed out of the practice. The time will soon come when artificial ruins will share the same fate. — T. W. Leeds. June, 1843.
It is seldom that we differ in opinion from this correspondent, to whose taste and judgment we pay great deference. On the present occasion, however, we do not exactly accord with him on any one of the points on which he has touched.
In the first place, we positively deny that the naming of one plant of each and all of the species and varieties in our parks and public gardens would interfere with picturesque effect. There are not above 500 trees and shrubs that are suitable for being planted in public parks where the ground is not dug; and these, by whatever arrangement might be adopted (unless they were all put together in one small enclosure), would be distributed over a great many acres of surface ; and, among many thousand trees and shrubs which are not named, we do not see that the labels would intrude themselves, or that any description of general effect would be injured by them, while, to those who took an interest in trees, these labels would be extremely interesting; for the first desire that rises in the mind, when we see a new object with which we are pleased, is to know its name. For one citizen of London that has a taste for picturesque beauty or landscape composition, there are ten thousand that know nothing of either : but that ten thousand may have a curiosity to be gratified, and to them the naming may be a source of interest. We do not think it possible “ that a high love for the beauties of nature" can be cultivated in any of the London parks, peopled as they are, from morning to night, with horsemen, carriages, pedestrians, bath-chairs, troops exercising, and even policemen. Add also, that the surface of the ground is generally comparatively flat.
With respect to the shrubs, which we have stated (p. 288.) to be planted in alphabetical order, we ought to have mentioned that we totally disapprove of this arrangement anywhere, except in a nursery or in a nurseryman's catalogue. The trees in Kensington Gardens that are named were planted some
years before any idea was entertained of naming them; and hence one is named here and there without any reference to arrangement, and without the slightest injury to picturesque effect. It is impossible to walk along this belt of trees without being convinced that the names form a great source of interest to the spectators.
With respect to the shrubs that are arranged in alphabetical order, nothing can be worse; but they do not occupy a thousandth part of the surface of the gardens, and, as they will doubtless be removed, they ought not to be considered as a specimen of general arrangement. Had our correspondent seen Kensington Gardens before he produced his remarks, we are persuaded they would have been very different.
With respect to ruins, we think they ought to be very rarely introduced; but we are not so exclusive as to say that they are in no case admissible.
On the contrary, there are situations, such as where a stream is led along the side of a slope for the sake of obtaining a waterfall, where a waterfall issuing from a ruined aqueduct or the remains of a mill-course is more natural, if the expression may be used, than any piece of rockwork that can be made. Such, at least, is our opinion. We shall, however, be glad to hear all that our cor. respondent has to say against ruins. — Cond.
ART. IV. Queries and Answers. A CURIOUS Caterpillar.— I forward you a very large curious caterpillar, which was found feeding on a geranium. Its excrement is as large as that of a rabbit. When lying quiet its head looks broad and large, and, if touched, it puts out a very long trunk or snout, like a pig's. — James Barnes. Bicton Gardens, Sept. 21. 1843.
(We sent the caterpillar to Mr. Westwood, who returned us the following observations on it.)
Mr. Barnes's caterpillar is that of the common elephant hawk moth (Sphínr, or Chærocámpa, Elpènor), figured by Mr. Humphreys, in his beautiful plates of the English moths (vol. i. plate 5. fig. 7.), from a specimen “taken at Bayswater, in the possession of Miss A. Loudon ;” together with the caterpillar (fig. 8.), wbich, by the by, has the tail represented much too small, and the spottings of the body too faint. The curious property mentioned by Mr. Barnes, of stretching out the fore segments of the body into a long neck, is well known, and has led to the application of elephant moths to these insects. The French call them cochonnées ; and, from this circumstance, M. Duponchel has made them into a separate genus with the name Chærocámpa, from two Greek words, signifying a hog and caterpillar ; that is to say, a caterpillar with a snout like that of a hog.
I have not before heard of this insect feeding on geraniums. Its ordinary food is the ladies' bedstraw, willow herb, and vine ; but other instances of a similar change of food have been noticed, as in the case of the swallow-tailed moth which you sent me a little time since (see p. 460.); whilst a friend of mine has lately reared a specimen of the carpet moth (Éuthàlia impluviàta) from a caterpillar which also fed upon the geranium, its ordinary food being the birch and hazel.
Mr. Barnes's specimen had formed for itself with the bits of grass, &c., with which he had packed it in the box, an oval bed, within which it was coiled up, to undergo its chrysalis state ; but I fear it has got injured during its passage through the post-office and letter-carrier's hands. - Jno. O. Westwood, Grove Cottage, Grove Road, Hammersmith, Sept. 23. 1843.