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Hymenocállis Skinneriàna Herb. This plant is a native of Guatemala, where it was discovered by Mr. Skinner. (Bot. Reg., June, 1843, Misc.)
Callipsyche eucrosioides Herb. These bulbs were brought from the west coast of Mexico. They flowered without leaves in the month of March. When in leaf they so closely resemble the preceding plant as scarcely to be distinguished from it. (Bot. Reg., July, 1842, Misc.)
Crinum brachynema Herb. This is a species from Bombay. The umbel contains seventeen flowers, which are fragrant. (Bot. Reg., May, 1842, Misc.) 933. NARCISSUS Hybrids. Bot. Reg. 1843, 38.
The plate alluded to contains six hybrid narcissi, which have been raised by Mr. Herbert, between the genera of the late Mr. Haworth. By these experiments it appears evident that the supposed genera were only varieties, or, at most, species of the genus Narcissus. (Bot. Reg., Aug. 1843, Misc.)
Hemerocallideæ. 1005. AGAPA'NTHUS 8208 umbellàtus var. máximus Bot. Reg. 1843, 7.
The flowers are larger, the leaves broader, and the flower-scape very much longer than in the common kind. (Bot. Reg., Feb. 1843.)
Blandfórdia marginàta Herb. “ This handsome Australian plant was introduced by Mr. Osborn of the Fulham Nursery.” It is distinguished from B. grandiflora“ by the less erect leaves, with a rufous serrate margin, and the coppery hue of its very showy flowers.” (Bot. Reg., Nov. 1842.)
Asphodèlee. 1054. SCI'LLA 8812 peruviàna var. discolor Bot. Reg. 1843, 48.
This variety is so very distinct, that at first sight it seems to be a different species. Dr. Lindley, however, shows us that, after a careful examination, he cannot " discover any other distinction between them than that of the colour of the flowers, which in this plant are of a dingy pale fawn colour.” (Bot.
Reg., Sept. 1843.) 1016. LILIUM
3. jn Y Japan 1841. Op.l Bot. reg. 1843, 11. This plant, though very inferior to the other species which are natives of Japan, is yet a handsome half-hardy bulb. When potted, “ the bulbs should be placed rather deep, because they make fibres above the bulb, as well as below it;" and they should never be repotted except in a dormant state. (Bot. Reg., Feb. 1843.)
Bromeliàceæ. rubida Lindl. madder-coloured for $ f Pk Brazil 1841. 0 8.1 Bot. reg. 1842, 63.
This is a very handsome species of the curious genus Tillándsia, which is very
ornamental. (Bot. Reg., Nov. 1842.) 28155. psittacina
Synonyme : Vrièsia psittacina Lindl. Bot. Reg. 1843, 10. This is a new genus, formed by Dr. Lindley, in honour of Dr. de Vriese, Professor of Botany at Amsterdam. (Bot. Reg., Feb. 1843.)
(vol. x. p. 173. fúlgens Pazt.
s.p.1 Paxt. mag. bot. This very showy plant is generally treated like one of the Orchidàceæ, and grown in a basket; but it is sometimes planted in a pot, and plunged in a bark-pit like a pine-apple. (Paxt. Mag. of Bot., Sept. 1843.)
Pitcairnia undulata Scheid. A native of Brazil, with scarlet flowers. (Bot. Reg., May, 1843, Misc.)
P. micrántha Lindl. A very small species of the same genus imported from Rio in 1841. (Ibid.)
Pùya recurvāta Scheid. A Brazilian plant with a spike about a foot long, covered with white flowers. (Ibid.)
Art. XII. On Laying out and Planting the Lawn, Shrubbery, and
Flower-Garden. By the CONDUCTOR.
(Continued from p. 552.) On reading over our preceding article on this subject, we feel that we have gone rather too far in condemning young gardeners as self-conceited. We are sorry for this, because we do not wish to hurt the feelings of any person or class of persons whatever, much less the feelings of those to whom we owe so much. The truth is, the passage was written at Southampton while we were in a state of severe bodily suffering, and we had no opportunity of seeing a proof either of that article, or the article which follows it, otherwise we should certainly have softened down the sentence. However, it is much better for young gardeners if they should be blamed more than they deserve, rather than that they should be overpraised ; and they may depend upon this, that there is a general impression among the employers of gardeners, and also architects, land stewards, &c., that the young gardeners who have not seen much of the world are apt to fancy themselves wiser than they are.
Mr. Ayres has said in an article that will be found in a subsequent page (p.636.), that, before censuring gardeners, we ought to have censured landscapegardeners, many of whom, he says, are equally as ignorant of the true principles of design as the working gardener. We fully acknowledge this, and we have frequently been astonished beyond measure at the plans which some of even the first nurserymen about London have sent out, and had executed, for their suburban customers. The truth is, the great majority of the employers of landscape-gardeners look out for the person whose terms are the lowest ; and, as they do not know good from bad in this art, they are contented with what is done for them by a man who perhaps cannot give a reason for any one thing that he does. It is not very likely that a man who has been brought up to the nursery business can ever have the leisure and repose necessary to cultivate a knowledge of any of the arts of design and taste, unless he have a natural turn for these pursuits ; and thence it frequently happens, that the plans of nursery landscape-gardeners will be found mere repetitions or imitations of what they have seen elsewhere.
For some years past, a change has been gradually taking place, as country gentlemen, in consequence of the general peace and their diminished incomes, have been obliged to reside more on their estates, and to direct more at. tention to improvements. Almost all the great families of the country, who are not sunk in an abyss of debt, are doing something, either in the way of building, landscape-gardening, or planting ; and though there are but a small proportion of these who employ such architects as Barry, Blore, Salvin, or Lamb, and such a landscape-gardener as Nesfield, yet there are a few ; and the result, to the thinking and observant part of landed proprietors, will show the inestimable value of good advice taken in time.
As a proof that knowledge in the employers of gardeners leads to a demand for those productions of which that knowledge has given them cognizance, we may refer to the fact of the horticultural societies throughout the country, and more especially those of London and Edinburgh. It will not be denied, that, in consequence of the superior fruits exhibited at these societies, their culture has been greatly improved throughout the whole country.
A good deal may be effected in the details of landscape-gardening by instructing practical gardeners in such matters as grouping circles of flowers or shrubs on lawns; cultivating flowers, where the gardenesque style is adopted, always in separate circles, or other forms of beds, from those which contain the shrubs ; keeping the edgings of beds, borders, and walks, always in one uniform state; keeping the walks properly filled with gravel, and the beds and borders with soil ; turfing up beds and borders of shrubs where digging is no longer of any use; not to mention a number of other points of management; and to effect this improvement is the great object of this series of articles.
A gardener may do all these things, and yet not be able to lay out an entire place containing a park and pleasure-ground, which no person without the eye of a landscape painter can have the slightest pretensions to do.
Fig. 125. A Flower-Garden with angular Beds. Design fig. 125. consists of a symmetrical assemblage of angular beds, the sides of which are partly straight and partly curved. It will therefore be very easily laid out, by first drawing it to a scale three or four times larger than the figure, and then finding the centres to each curve. These centres are found by a very simple geometrical problem, viz., three points being given not in a straight line, to find the centre of a circle whose circumference shall pass through them.
Such a design as the present is better adapted for forming an episode, than a shrubbery walk; or for placing before an Élizabethan greenhouse, than for laying out in front of a modern villa that has no pretension to style. In a place where there is a shrubbery walk of some length, flower-gardens of different characters may be introduced one after another ; but, on the lawn in front of the house, a flower-garden or the flower beds ought to be strictly in accordance with the style of the elevation.
(To be continued.)
Art. XIII. Remarks on one of the Designs in the Article “ On
Laying out and Planting the Lawn, Shrubbery, and Flower
Garden.” By W. P. Ayres. I have just been reading over your article “ On Laying out and Planting the Lawn, Shrubbery, and Flower-Garden," p. 547., and, though you have censured poor gardeners rather severely, I must confess that, as designers or even carriers out
of plans for lawns or flower-gardens, we are by no means undeserving of censure. You might, however, in passing, as well have stated that many who profess and call themselves“ landscape-gardeners” are equally ignorant of the true principles of design, as a walk through nine tenths of the gardens in the country, both public and private, will most fully testify; and I think you yourself could not name half a dozen professional landscapegardeners in the United Kingdom whom you would undertake to pronounce men who really understood their profession as an art of design and taste. A gardener of reputed eminence, at present intrusted with the formation of an extensive garden, when interrogated by a non-professional friend of mine as to the principles of constructing plant and forcing-houses, replied, “ Oh, it is merely a matter of taste :" and, while men in high places disseminate such notions, it is not to be wondered at, that landscape-gardening and garden architecture, as an art and a science, should make but very lethargic progress.
The greatest barrier to the progress of improvement in landscape-gardening is the want of taste among the aristocracy and gentry; and, until they are somewhat better informed as to the principles of the science, so as to be capable of understanding plans that are laid before them for their approval, it is nonsense to expect much in the way of improvement from gardeners. But so soon as they shall require original designs adapted to the local peculiarities of the situation they are intended to embellish, then will they have a race of gardeners capable of doing things properly. At present the rage is for imitation; and if a gentleman requires a new flower-garden, or to alter an old one, he does not think of having an original design, but takes a pattern from some celebrated garden, as, for instance, Dropmore, Chatsworth, Woburn, or some such place; or, what is worse, collects a number of fancyformed beds from various places, and huddles them together, with about as much taste or system as an infant would display in forming a map of the world. Thus it is no uncommon thing to see a Swiss cottage with a geometrical flower-garden, and a terrace in the front ; or a splendid Italian villa surrounded by an irregular garden of common trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants. If I wished for an example of really bad taste, I would point to the flower-garden at Wimbledon, figured in the Suburban Gardener, p. 162. (see p. 650., in which we say,“ in point of general design, this flower-garden has nothing to recommend it”); indeed it is alınost inconceivable how such an abor. tion could have been jumbled together. The flower-gardens in the Horticultural Gardens at Chiswick, though of a different character, are nearly as bad, and no man could group them so as to make them look well. In making these remarks it is not my wish to give offence; but it may be fearlessly stated that the gardens in question are at least half a century behind the spirit of the age.
Again, in the gardens at Hewell, noticed with considerable commendation and éclat in the Gardener's Chronicle for 1843, p. 663., a few weeks back, there are a splendid fountain and flower-garden at the bottom of an old stone quarry, and a grass garden in the front of the conservatory; two examples of perhaps as bad taste as could well be conceived. Had they placed the fountain and dressed flower-garden in front of the conservatory, and consigned the grasses to the company of the other British plants in the rock garden, I think they would have been much more appropriately arranged. The waterdipping willow at Chatsworth was always a monstrosity in my estimation, and
would be a more fitting appendage to Vauxhall or a cockney tea-garden, than to the princely domain in which it is placed.* Look again at the gin-glass in tea-saucer fountain in the lake near Buckingham Palace, and at the cast-metal fountain in the Serpentine in Kensington Gardens. The erection and execution of these two abortions is a national disgrace. But, if one were disposed to find fault, it is not difficult to pick out subjects for censure; would it were otherwise !
Your arguments at page 551., relative to having the beds in flower-gardens of various sizes, are particularly clear; but it strikes me that in the two plans, figs. 118. and 119., you have rather exceeded your own principles, inasmuch as I think the large corner beds in fig. 118. are too large to group properly with the smaller beds ; and the same may be said of the horseshoe-shaped beds in fig. 119. Were the largest beds in the plans a little smaller, and the next sizes a trifle larger, I think the whole would be more proportionate, and I am certain could be more effectively planted. By the same rule that you very properly insist upon the beds being of various sizes, I demand to have them planted with plants proportionate to their size ; and, to effect, this the large beds must either be reduced in size, or the small ones become blanks in the garden.
In offering these remarks, I do not know whether I shall come under the lash you have directed against “the overweening self-conceit of young gardeners, especially Scotch ones ;” but, if I do, it is yourself and the West London Gardeners' Association that are to blame for having taught me to become a caviller.
Brooklands, Blackheath Park, October 7. 1843.
ART. XIV. Arboricultural Notices.
and noticed in a subsequent page.“ By various memoranda it appears that Mr. Collinson frequently employed Gordon the nurseryman to raise his seeds, particularly those from the warmer climates, and among his papers there is, in his own handwriting, the following tribute to his abilities. The skill and ingenuity of some men is surprising. On August 30. I was at James Gordon's, gardener, at the last house on the left hand at Mile End; there he showed me a pot of seedlings of the cactus, or great melon thistle, perhaps the first ever raised from seed: but what shows his great knowledge and experience in yegetation is his way of raising the finest dusty seeds; before him, I never knew or heard of any man that could raise the dusty seeds of the kalmias, rhododendrons, or azaleas. These charming hardy shrubs, that excel all others in his care, he furnishes to every curious garden; all the nurserymen and gardeners come to him for them; and this year, after more than twenty years' trial, he showed me the loblolly bay of Carolina coming up from seed in a way not to be expected ; this elegant evergreen shrub is next in beauty to the magnolias: and his sagacity in raising all sorts of plants from cuttings, roots, and layers surpasses all others ; by which our gardens are enriched with an infinite variety, and for many years I have not been a little assistant to him in procuring seeds and plants from all countries. This honourable mention of Mr. Gordon, who is now in his fifty-sixth year, is an act of gratitude due to his memory from his old friend - Peter Collinson, in my sixtyeighth year. Mill Hill, Sept. 2. 1763. The loblolly bay is the Gordònia lasiánthus, and from the circumstance here mentioned, this splendid shrub may probably have been selected, at the suggestion of Mr. Collinson, to perpetuate Mr. Gordon's name.” (H. C. p. 5.)
* This water-dipping willow, as a relic of the gardens of a former age, we should be sorry to see removed.-Cond.
3d Ser. - 1843. XI.