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hot water in a close place, for it will sometimes touch the young and tender leaves and shoots. Beware of that. When the plant has been stunted and starved, I have applied the water as high as 154°, and the vermin came off like the peelings of onions, and the plant acquired new life, and grew afterwards amazingly; but if you should use the water at 150° in the spring of the year, when the plants are growing freely, and the foliage and the shoots are young and tender, more especially if the place where you use it should be close, and the steam cannot get away quickly enough, the plant will be scalded. On the other hand, if the plant be taken into a shed, or some such place, or if you give the house in which it is a little air, there is not the least danger of scalding, and the plant will derive wonderful benefit from the syringing. I manage thus : I get two bricks, lay them in such a manner as to support the pot, and place it between them, the rim of the pot resting on the two bricks, so as to admit of the plant being raised or lowered in an oblique position without touching the ground (see fig. 7.): this will also admit of turning the plant round at pleasure, so as to allow of syringing every part of the plant, as well over the surface of the leaves and heads of flowers, as on the under side of them, so that hot water may touch every part of the plant except the roots. Syringing answers bet- Fig. 7. Mode of placing Plants in Pots when they
are to be syringed with hot Water to kill Insects. ter, according to my own practice, than pouring on the water from a watering-pot, which would probably scald the plant, in the same manner as dipping it in water would do. For instance, if you syringe water at 150° heat against the back of your hand, it will only give you a smarting twinge for a moment; but if you dip the other hand into the same pot of water, it will scald it severely. Practice will soon teach you, if you persevere.
Manure Water. - What is it?' It is composed of sheepdung, cow-dung, soot, lime, and nitrate of soda, all mixed together, to be applied to the constitution of the plant as we see it requires it.
And now for Charcoal, that astonishing material, that purifier of all things. I have proved the use of charcoal in some thousands of instances. Did I not point it out to you when you were here? I do not claim making the discovery, for I do not know but that thousands have seen the same effects of charcoal in woods as I have done, for I have seen it in different parts of the country for the last twelve years at least; but I have not seen it put into practice, nor heard of any person using it, until within the last eighteen months or so. As I have stated in my first letter [p. 558. of our last volume], I came to think of trying it because I saw nature making use of it. In a place where scarcely a bush or a weed would grow; where there was a yellow stiff clay, and the subsoil was a rock of clay and gravel; where the clay had been poached about in wet weather; and where rusty-coloured mineral springs oozed out and ran about, I have seen, from charcoal dust being put on it accidentally, the barren spot become rich and luxuriant. Was not that enough to make me look about, and consider if I could not turn this to good account? I did so, and I have used charcoal ever since, more or less, as I could get it. I put it in bags and place it in cisterns of water, and into the manured water; I mix it amongst the earth, and drain almost every plant with it; and I am perfectly satisfied of its attractive purifying qualities. I was a long time before I could understand so much about it; but now I shall continue to use it, and I hope to keep my plants in the same healthy state in which you have lately seen them.
Bicton Gardens, October 11. 1842.
How to make the most of a Cottage of only Two Rooms.
Much has been said of late of mechanics' cottages, and some designs have recently been published of dwellings for this class of persons, that have contained five rooms; but we all know that mechanics in general (unless they depend on lodgers) have not the good fortune to enjoy this extent of accommodation. This is not the state of things that ought to be, but it is the state of things as they are; for many mechanics are obliged to be content with even one room, and they consider themselves well off when they have two. At the same time many liberal noblemen build houses for their labourers containing five rooms, and even more, with a deal of external ornament to boot; but this is the exception, not the rule; therefore we must try to make the most of a two-roomed cottage; and the accompanying plans are submitted for that purpose.
Fig. 8. is the plan of a two-roomed cottage before it was altered. It was originally a wheelwright's shop, and the land
lord, in converting it into a dwelling, just put a fireplace in each end, and the division down the middle; the two windows were the shop windows, and the two doors were originally one
large door for the wheelright. The out-buildings were made similar to those of fig. 9. There was no proper situation for a bed, and as soon as the door was opened the bed was exposed; besides, the rooms were very cold in winter from having no passage or inner door. The occupant wished to get rid of these grievances, as well as to have a kitchen, parlour, and bed-room in effect), without the expense of building an additional room. To accomplish this I converted the house into fig. 9. by putting up a wainscot division in the east room (the building faces the south), making a closet in the passage, leaving sufficient room behind it for the length of a bed. Concealed beds are very much the fashion in Scotland, and I believe, too, in France. An upper chamber is, however, always preferable for a bedroom where it can be had ; but when it cannot, a well-aired bed recess, with a neat curtain in front, leaves a sitting-room tidy, and conveys the idea of a respectable family. A window was made in the east end of the house, as the front window was too small, and the door of the west room was converted into a window. The occupant has been so well pleased with the new arrangement of his house, that he has had the parlour painted, papered, and carpeted. The exact amount of the mason's and joiner's bills was 61. 10s. 3d.; and let landlords just look to the additional comfort that this small amount affords. I have not sent you the elevation, for it is not handsome, and has not been altered; but for the matter of 41. 10s. I could beautify the exterior with lime, trellising, &c., so as to make the house an object of interest. In the improved plan (fig. 9.), a is the lobby;
b, kitchen, where a press bedstead might be put if there were any children; c, pantry; d, wood; e, privy; f, ashes; g, coals; and h is the parlour, in which is the recess for the bed (0) with a tasteful curtain in front. This recess is well aired by an opening through to the kitchen, close to the ceiling. To give some idea of the comfort of the room, I would just observe, that in the bottom of the new window there is a large covered box which serves as a wash-hand stand for the wife when there is any one in the kitchen, and for the husband on a Sunday while the wife is engaged in the other room with her culinary matters; it also serves to hold brushes, combs, &c., to prevent the room having the appearance of a bed-room, while the top, at other times, answers the purpose of a work-table. The sofa is placed at I, the clock in case at m, a chest of drawers at n, and tables at o. The closet (p) was made for holding clothes, linen, &c., and any thing that would, if left in the parlour, make it look like a bed-room.
We have recently converted an old barn into a comfortable little two-storied cottage; the outline happened to be of a form that was easily convertible into a neat simple old English cot. Shall I send it to you? [We shall feel very much obliged for it. Such communications are the more desirable, after what our correspondent T. M. has stated respecting the converting of old stables and outhouses into human habitations, and large cottages into small ones, &c., in p. 44.]
Derbyshire, July 13. 1842.
Art. IV. Report on rare or select Articles in certain British Nur
series and private Gardens. Drawn up from personal inspection, or from communications received. By the CONDUCTOR.
(Continued from p. 40. and concluded.)
HERTFORDSHIRE. THE Sawbridgeworth Nursery; T. Rivers, jun. - We visited this nursery Oct. 20. 1842, and were much gratified by the extent of the collection, the excellence of the soil, and the great vigour of the plants. So many curious things we have scarcely ever found in any nursery. Mr. Rivers makes an extensive tour among the Continental nurserymen every year; and, as these are continually straining every nerve to procure new varieties, he seldom returns without something new. Notwithstanding this, there are still a number of things in the Jardin des Plantes, particularly acers and Polygonàceæ, which are not in British nurseries, but which Mr. Rivers might procure through M. Camuzet. (See Gard. Mag. 1840, p. 394.) We do not give the names in the following list as entirely new, though some of them are so; we give them simply as those of articles which we thought at the time were noticeable from the vigour of their growth, comparative rarity, or from the large stock in hand. If we had more leisure and room, we should notice some of Mr. Rivers's propagating-houses, as being of very judicious and economical construction, in which he has applied Arnott's stove, and the British sheet glass, in a very economical and satisfactory manner. We have taken no notice of Mr. Rivers's collection of roses, because every body knows it to be one of the most comprehensive and select in this country. They are all named with zinc labels written on with prepared ink, which Mr. Rivers finds to remain quite clear after having been in use upwards of ten years. The ink used is not that invented by M. Teichmacher, and sold by Thompson and Gordon, Fenchurch Street ; but one composed as follows: Nitrate of copper, 1 drachm; hydrochlorate of ammonia, 2 drachms; lampblack, 2 scruples; and water, 4 oz. This ink is very black and legible, and not so liable to produce a white crust as that of M. Teichmacher. After being written upon, the labels require drying in a hot sun, or on a stove, for two or three days; for, unless they are well dried, they contract a white crust, which soon covers the letters, and ends in obliterating them. Whenever this white crust appears, it should be rubbed off with linseed oil and flannel. The writing on these labels, Mr. Rivers observes, seems as if it would last for ever, for rain, frost, and sunshine seem to have no effect upon it. A cheaper label, either for a private or public garden, cannot well be.
Ranunculàceæ Clematideæ. -Clématis Viticélla major. A variety with very large blue flowers; a beautiful climber.
Clématis macropétala, Atrágene macropétala Ledebour. Has not yet bloomed here. Habit distinct. Belgium.
Berberàceæ.–Bérberis petiolaris Wallich. H. S. “This is a very distinct species, with the largest leaves of any of the simple-leaved berberries yet in. troduced. It is from the North of India, and quite hardy. It was first raised in the gardens of the Society from seed received from Dr. Royle.” – G. G.
Bérberis vulgaris spathulata. A slender-twigged variety, very distinct.
B. vulgaris foliis purpùreis, Encyc. of Trees and Shrubs, p. 1111. The purple-leaved Berberry. Its leaves and spines, in early summer, are of a deep purple colour, and the calyx of the flowers of a dark brown. A very elegant shrub. Belgium.
Bérberis vulgaris Fischèrii. Has long slender shoots ; deciduous. Belgium.
Mahònia fasciculàris hýbrida, M. rèpens fasciculàris, Encyc. of Trees and Shrubs, p. 53. Of fastigiate robust growth, the foliage very large, and the plant quite hardy. A fine variety.