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Fig. 107. Ground Plan of a Churchyard adapted for an agricultural Parish.

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sible distance, is the best situation for an entrance; and for the following reason : that a person entering a church after the congregation has partly assembled, or, as frequently happens, after service is commenced, may gain his sitting as soon as possible, and avoid at least one half the disturbance otherwise created, by having only half the length of an aisle to traverse." With respect to the general form, this architect considers “ that plan the best which concentrates the greatest number of benches or pews within a given distance of the preacher; and hence he prefers a square to a parallelogram." He adds : “ Never let the inner entrance door of a church, open under a gallery, or the effect of the interior of the church will be irrecoverably lost. İF

you will have western entrances and western galleries, contrive to have porches or cloisters, so as to take you to the gallery front before you enter the body of the church.” (Arch. Mag., iv. p. 568.) The ground plan in fig. 107, is made in accordance with these principles : Il are the entrance porches ; mm, staircases, from which the body of the church is entered through lobbies

The inner lobbies are formed by two pairs of folding doors, with a space between, equal to the thickness of the walls of the towers which contain the stairs. The inner doors of the lobbies may be glazed with stained or painted glass. If the body of the church be fitted up with benches, the effect would harmonise better with this style of architecture ; and, in the opinion of several clergymen with whom we are acquainted, this arrangement would be more suitable to the spirit of Christianity, according to which all are equal in the sight of God. It is worthy of remark, that in the Russian churches there are no benches or seats of any kind whatever, and nothing to prevent the meanest slave from standing by the side of the highest noble, or even of the emperor himself. The portion of the sittings marked o o, to the right and left of the pulpit, our architect considers should be free. The communion table is to be placed at p, the pulpit at q, and the reading-desk at

“ The vestry and singers' seats (8) should be divided from the body of the church by a pierced screen, finished upon the same level with the gallery fronts; and above this screen should be a niche and canopy to the pulpit, designed as much as possible to improve the sound.” (Ib., p. 571.) Whoever wishes to enter into farther detail on the subject of churches, and to see plans and elevations on a large scale of the one shown in fig. 106., may consult the Architectural Magazine, vol. ii. p. 393., vol. iv. p. 237. and p. 566., and vol. v. p. 223.

The Parsonage House and Grounds will, in general, be most conveniently situated adjoining the church and churchyard ; and the church will always form a most appropriate object in the principal view from the parsonage. The churchyard, also, may sometimes be seen as a part of the view; and at other times it may be so united with the grounds of the parsonage as almost to seem a continuation of them. In the greater number of situations, however, we believe the clergyman will prefer having his residence at a short distance from the churchyard; not only from the idea that there may be mephitic ex. halations from it (especially in churchyards where the graves are crowded pell-mell together, and opened without any regular system), but also because familiarity with the interments taking place in it may lessen the sentiment of solemnity excited by them in his children and domestics, and may obtrude that expression more powerfully than is desirable upon the minds of strangers who may be his guests. Another and a decisive reason why the church and churchyard should generally stand alone is, that the expression of solemnity is heightened by this circumstance. Solitariness is unquestionably a powerful ingredient in all feelings which are the opposite to those of gaiety; and, on this account, the church and churchyard should stand completely isolated, and, as we have said before, they should, if possible, be so elevated as to be seen from all the surrounding country. (See the subject of Parsonage Houses treated of in the Suburban Gardener, p. 607. to p.615.; in which the plan of Dunchurch Vicarage, laid out from our designs in 1837, is given as an example of the pleasure-grounds of a parsonage united with the scenery of an adjoining churchyard.)

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Art. V. Bicton Gardens, their Culture and Management, in a Series

of Letters to the Conductor. By James Barnes, Gardener to the Right Honourable Lady Rolle.


from p. 436.) LETTER XIX. Crane-necked Short-handled Hoes. I now give you an account of the different uses I make of my little crane-necked hoes. (fig. 108.)

Nos. i. and 2., A in fig. 109., I use $ for cutting and thinning out all kinds of vegetable

Fig. 108. Crane-necked Hoes. crops to their final distance, such as carrots, early turnips, parsneps, onions, lettuce, &c.; and for stirring the surface amongst any growing crops, where there is not room for a larger hoe.

Nos. 3. and 4., in fig. 109., are for the same purpose, the first time of thinning; and for hoeing such crops as do not require to be made 80 thin, as well as among all kinds of plants that prieked out, such as celery, cauliflowers, broccoli, cabbage, &c.

Nos. 5. and 6., in fig. 110., I use for all

Fig. 109. Elevations of Crane-necked Hoes. kinds of seed beds; for radishes, carrots, &c., in frames and pits; for small seedlings just pricked out in frames, pits, under hand-glasses, or in hooped beds; amongst peas in rows, when they first come up; or any other small crop where there is not room for wider hoes, and the surface requires breaking. I make it a rule never to have any hand-weeding done, except in the gravel walks ; as I am weil convinced there is much mischief done by incautious and thoughtless people weeding amongst crops.

Nos. 7. and 8., in fig. 110., I use for stirring the surface of potted plants, seed-pans, &c. No. 8., with a sort of pointed

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blade, I find very useful for moving the 9 % in
soil round the rims of the pots, to clear
out any obstruction that is likely to pre-s
vent a free diffusion of water.

I well know it is an idea many people
have, that it is loss of time to hoe o
before they have a crop of weeds; and
they have encouraged their growth for
a considerable time, as if they were in

1 some fear of losing the stock of them. In good cultivation a weed ought never to be seen. I do not agree with those that tell us one good weeding is worth two hoeings: I say, never weed any crop Fig. 110. Crane-necked Hoes of the in which a hoe can be got between the plants; not so much for the sake of destroying weeds and vermin, which must necessarily be the case, if hoeing is well done, as for increasing the porosity of the soil, to allow the water and air to penetrate freely through it. I am well convinced, by long and close practice, that oftentimes there is more benefit derived by crops from keeping them well hoed, than there is from the manure applied. By keeping the surface of the earth clean, open, and healthy, nature supplies herself: it is not only the means of eradicating weeds and vermin, but through it (stirring the soil) vegetables profit in every way; they are clean, healthy, and of a finer flavour. Had not our country produced weeds, I am apt to think, we should never have thought of using the hoe, or any other fertilising tool. My rule is to hoe, fork, and stir the surface, at every opportunity, when it is in a proper state for performing these operations. Weeds or no weeds, still I keep stirring the soil; well knowing, from practice, the very beneficial effect which it has. It is attended with little trouble, and only requires to be adopted as a system. Raking the surface fine I have almost wholly dispensed with, in every department, as I have plainly seen the ill effects of it many times; and this is a season it must be much felt, particularly on all kinds of heavy soils : the heavy rains will run the surface together, and bind it so as to become caked, “livery,” and “steely.” [See p. 429.] By hoeing with judgement and foresight, the surface can be left even, wholesome, and porous ; and three hoeings can be accomplished to one hoeing and raking. Much injury is done by raking the surface so very much, in more ways than one. It is not only the means of binding and caking the surface, but it clears the stones off as well. The earth in its natural state has stones, decayed roots, and vegetation, to keep it open and porous, and, by their decomposition, gradually to add to the earths of the soil. It also contains naturally numerous insects, worms, and moles. If the earth is sufficiently drained, either naturally or otherwise, and the surface kept open, there is no fear of suffering either from drought or moisture; and it is healthy for the animal as well as the vegetable kingdom.

Bicton Gardens, June 6. 1843.

ART. VI. On Laying out and Planting the Lawn, Shrubbery, and

Flower-Garden. By the ConducTOR.

(Continued from p. 445.) The design, fig. 111., is for the distribution of a collection of herbaceous plants according to the natural system. It has been carried into execution in the Vice-Regal Gardens at Monza, near Milan, by Signor Giuseppe Manetti, the director of these gardens. To this distinguished honour M. Manetti, who has been our correspondent for many years, has been recently elevated; and the appointment appears to us to do equal honour to him and to his royal master.

The ground possesses no advantages in point of form or surface, and is rather limited. If the area had been of greater extent, M. Manetti observes, the genera would have been separated from each other by a line of differentcoloured plants, such as Armèria vulgàris ; but there was no room for any thing of this kind. The plants included in this collection are chiefly such as are not common in Italy. The arrangement is as follows; the spaces between the beds being turf, and the main walks gravel ; the whole surrounded by a wall, except at the west end.

9. Umbelliferæ.
10. Araliàceæ.
11. Rubiaceæ.
12. Valeriàncæ.
13. Dipsàceæ.
14. Compositæ.
15. Lobeliacee.
16. Campanulàceæ.


A. THALAMIFLO'RÆ. 1. Ranunculàceæ. 2. Berberidee. 3. Podophyllàceæ. 4. Papaveraceæ. 5. Fumariàceæ. 6. Crucíferæ. 7. Cistineæ. 8. Violarièæ. 9. Caryophylleæ. 10. Lineæ. ll. Malvaceæ. 12. Hypericíneæ. 13. Geraniàceæ. 14. Zygophylleæ. 15. Rutaceæ.

1. Leguminòsæ.
2. Rosàceæ.
3. Onagràriæ.
4. Lythrariàceæ.
5. Melastomàceæ.
6. Passiflòreæ.
7. Crassulaceæ.
8. Saxifràgeæ.

1. Apocyneæ.
2. Asclepiadeæ.
3. Gentiàncæ.
4. Bignoniacea.
5. Convolvulàceæ.
6. Polemoniàceæ.
7. Boragineæ.
8. Solàneæ.
9. Scrophulariaceæ.
10. Labiatæ.
11. Verbenaceæ.
12. Acanthàceæ.
13. Primulàceæ.
14. Globulàriæ.
15. Plumbagineæ.

1. Plantagineæ.
2. Nyctagineæ.
3. Polygoneæ.
4. Euphorbiacea.
5. Urticeæ.
6. Resedàceæ.
7. Piperaceæ.

I. Orchideæ,
2. Irideæ.
3. Amaryllideæ.
4. Hemerocallideæ.
5. Smilàceæ.
6. Asphodèleæ.
7. Tulipàcee.
8. Melanthàceæ.
9. Aröideæ.
10. Júnceæ.
11. Cyperacea.
12. Gramíneæ.

F. ACRO'GENÆ. 1. Filices. 2. Equisetaceæ.

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