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stealing, which a recent judicious law has rendered no longer a profitable business, more especially in country places As swine and rabbits are particularly offensive in churchyards, especially where the soil is sandy, the boundary fence should either be a low wall of 3 ft., surmounted by a holly or thorn hedge; or a wall of 6 or 7 feet in height, without any hedge. In the latter case, the inner face of the wall may be planted with common ivy. Where the churchyard is to be united with the adjoining lawn, garden, or pleasure-ground of the parsonage, the boundary fence on the side next the residence may be an open iron railing; and, where it is to be united with a pleasure-ground on a large scale, or a park, it may either be surrounded by an open iron railing, or by a deep and wide sunk fence. If a hedge is in any case determined on as the boundary to a churchyard, it ought to be kept much broader at bottom than at top, in order that it may grow quite thick and close there ; and the only plants fit for such a hedge are the common white thorn and the holly.
The Walks of a Churchyard are of two kinds : those for proceeding from the different gates in the boundary fence to the church doors, for persons going to, or returning from, the church; and those which make the circuit of the churchyard, for the more conveniently viewing the tombs and graves, and for conducting funerals. The walks proceeding from the entrance gates in the boundary fence to the church doors should be always in straight lines, and of a width proportionate to the size of the church and churchyard, but never narrower than 6 ft.; because this is the least width which will allow two persons abreast, carrying a coffin between them on handspokes, to pass solemnly along ; the width, indeed, should be greater rather than less, because nothing can be more indecorous than to see a funeral procession crowded and huddled together for want of room. In every case, we would, if possible, place the entrance gates so that the walk from them to the church, whether to its sides or its ends, might always meet the building at a right angle.
With respect to the walk round the churchyard, it should in every case, and whether the churchyard were smail or large, be at a distance of at least 10 ft. from the boundary wall, in order to leave a border sufficiently broad for a range of graves to be placed at right angles to the wall. This walk should be of the same breadth as the others; and, like them, in no case less than 6 ft. for the reasons already mentioned. In most churchyards this boundary walk, and the cross walks necessary as approaches to the church, will be sufficient ; but, where this is not the case, cross walks from the boundary walk to the terrace round the church may be added ; or a second surrounding walk may be formed, half-way between the terrace or walk round the church, and the circumferential walk.
The grassy Surface of a Churchyard, when it is newly laid out, should, of course, be even ; and the nearer it is to level, the more convenient will it be for all the purposes of interment. Whether even or uneven, it should always have a descent from the church, rather than towards it, for the sake of throw. ing off the surface water; and in strong clayey soils, in moist climates, provision ought to be made by surface gutters, even in the turf, for conveying the water to underground drains, or directly along the surface to the boundary of the churchyard.
Trees in Churchyards.—The number of trees which may be introduced into a churchyard depends on its situation and soil ; the great object, next of leaving abundance of room for the graves, being to preserve dryness, in order to permit the escape of the mephitic effluvia that may rise to the surface, which can only be effected by the admission of abundance of light and air. Where the soil is clayey, and the situation low, very few trees are admissible; and these few should be small fastigiate-growing kinds, that neither cover a large space with their branches, nor give too much shade when the sun shines. In an elevated open situation, where the soil is sandy or gravelly, the trees in a churchyard may be comparatively numerous ; because the shelter which they will afford in winter will produce warmth to persons crossing the churchyard to church ; and, from the airiness of the situation, and dryness of the soil, they will not produce damp when their leaves are on in summer, but will freely admit of evaporation from the surface.
Supposing a new churchyard to be planted, we should place the trees chiefly at regular distances, in rows parallel to the walks. There are very few churchyards that would bear more trees than a row on each side of the circumferential walk, and also on each side of the walks leading from the entrance gates to the church doors; while, in cases of limited extent, and a clayey soil, a row of trees, planted at regular distances along the boundary fence, will
, perhaps, be as many as can be introduced without producing damp; and, in others, a few trees along each side of the principal walk from the entrance gate of the churchyard to the church will, perhaps, be enough. It must not be forgotten, that the principal part of the area of a churchyard, in general, lies from east to west; and, consequently, that all trees planted in that direction will throw a shade upon the ground the greater part of every day that the sun shines, throughout the year. For this reason, where the soil is so damp, or the situation so confined, as to render it advisable to introduce but very few trees, these ought either to be in lines along such of the approaches to the church terrace as lie in the direction of north and south; or to be introduced as single trees, at the intersections of the cross walks with the boundary walk.
The kinds of trees to be planted in a churchyard form a subject of as great importance as their number ; because a single tree of some species will produce more bulk of head, and consequently more shelter, shade, and damp, than half a dozen trees of some other kinds. As a guide in the choice of the kinds of trees, it may be adopted as a principle, that none ought to be planted which will grow higher than the side walls of the church; because to conceal the church by its appendages or ornaments is inconsistent, not only with good taste, but with common sense. By good taste, in this instance, we inean allowing the church to have its proper expression, as the principal and most dignified object in the landscape. Thorns, hollies, maples, sycamores, yews, mountain ash, wild service, &c., are suitable trees for the churchyards of very small churches ; and the common maple, some species of oaks, such as the evergreen oak, the Italian oak, and some of the American oaks, with a host of other middle-sized trees, are suitable for the churchyards of churches of the ordinary size. There are very few country churches, indeed, which have even their towers or spires sufficiently high to admit of the stronger-growing elms or poplars being planted in their churchyards. The Oriental plane (not the Occidental) may be especially recommended, on account of the stone-like hue of its bark and foliage, its finely cut leaves, and agreeable shade, for churches of both the largest and the middle size. The purple beech would harmonise well in churchyards with the dark yew ; and the flowering ash is, also, a very suitable tree.
As all trees in churchyards must be liable to have their roots injured by the digging of graves, this is one grand argument for planting the trees alongside the walks ; because in that case there will be always one side of the tree the roots of which will remain untouched, viz, those which spread under the walk. For the same reason, trees with roots that spread near the surface, such as the pine and fir tribe, should seldom be made choice of. Were it not on this account, the cedar of Lebanon would be one of the most fitting of all trees for a churchyard, from the sombre hue of its foliage, and its grand and yet picturesque form ; from the horizontal lines of its spreading branches contrasting strongly with the perpendicular lines of a Gothic church; and, above all, from the associations connected with it, on account of its frequent mention in Holy Writ. For all these reasons, it were much to be wished that, in all new churchyards, two or three spots (each of about 30 ft. in diameter) were set apart, not to be broken up for interments, and each planted with a cedar of Lebanon. In many old churchyards in the country, a spot sufficiently large for at least one cedar might easily be spared ; and the clergyman or the churchwardens who should plant a cedar on such a spot, and
fence it sufficiently while young, would confer a grand and appropriate orna. ment on the church, and would deserve the gratitude of the parishioners.
No trees should be planted in a churchyard the natural habit of which is to grow near water, such as willows, alders, &c. ; because the expression conveyed by such trees, being that of a moist situation, is altogether unsuitable for a churchyard ; nevertheless, as the public in general do not participate in these associations, one of the most popular trees in churchyards every where is the weeping willow. On the whole, the cypress, the yew, the Irish yew, the red cedar, the Swedish and Irish junipers, the Juniperus recúrva, the Oriental arbor vitæ, the different species of thorns, the common Montpelier, mountain, and other maples, the wild service, the whitebeam tree and its hybrids, the holly, and a few others, are the most suitable low trees for churchyards; next, those which grow about the height of the Norway maple; and, lastly, those which rank in point of size with the Oriental plane.
The System of Interments in Churchyards is, in general, very imperfect ; and, indeed, in many cases no system whatever is adopted. The obvious principle is, to place the tombs near the eye, and consequently near the walks ; and to place the graves without gravestones in the interior of the compartments. For this reason, we would reserve a strip of ground, 10 or 12 feet in width, along both sides of the walks (which would include the whole of the space between the boundary walk and the boundary wall); these strips should be devoted exclusively to family burial-places, whether merely indicated by corner stones, or railed in, or containing gravestones or tombs. The whole of the compartments being thus bordered by strips for family burial-places or purchased graves, the interior of each compartment might either be laid out in strips parallel to the borders, with gravel walks between; or devoted to graves without marks, laid out in the manner of a garden, with regular alleys of turf between. The manner of arranging these graves, and all the regulations respecting them, should be much the same as those recommended for cemeteries, p. 158.
In Germany, it is customary, in some churchyards, to bury all the children under a certain age, who are not to have grave-marks, in a compartment by themselves ; not only because the waste of ground occasioned by placing large and small graves together is thus avoided, but because it is found that, in the case of children, the ground may be used again much sooner than the ground in which adults have been buried. But we do not think it necessary to recommend such a practice for Britain, where churchyards are, or may be, increased in size with the increase of population; and where it is desirable that no grave should be opened after it has once been filled.
On the Continent, as well as in many parts of Britain, the extent of the churchyard in country parishes remains the same as it was several centuries ago; the consequence of which is, that, in districts where the population has increased, the graves are crowded together so as to obliterate one another, and the ground raised considerably above the surrounding surface, as well as above the floor of the church. Every time a grave is dug in such churchyards a great number of bones are thrown up; which are deposited in the first instance in the charnel-house, and, in many cases at least, sold afterwards to bone collectors, who ship them to Britain, along with the bones of quadru. peds, to be crushed for manure. (See Gard. Mag. for 1842, p. 546.)
Fig. 107. is the ground plan of a churchyard laid out agreeably to the foregoing principles; and fig. 106. is an isometrical view, supposing the trees to have been ten or twelve years planted, and some of the gravestones and tombs to have been erected. The churchyard is of small size, and is adapted for an agricultural parish, where the majority of the inhabitants are in moderately good circumstances, and whence it is supposed the superfluous population will migrate to the towns, and leave the number of permanent inhabitants comparatively stationary. There is only one entrance to the churchyard (at a fig. 107.), over which there is an archway for the protection of persons waiting during rain or snow. The walk is 8 ft. broad, and proceeds direct to the steps
(6) which ascend to the platform on which the church stands. The circum-
C. Oxyacantha rosea.
C. 0. múltiplex (fòre pleno).
C. 0. melanocárpa.
C. 0. præ'cox.
C. flava. Half the yews may be of the upright Irish variety; but the cypresses should be all of the common upright-growing kind. In many parts of England, and generally in Scotland, the climate is too severe for the cypress ; but in all such places the Irish yew, Irish juniper, Swedish juniper, weeping Nepal juniper (Juniperus recúrva), the upright-growing variety of the Oriental arbor vitæ, or the Pinus Cembra, may be substituted. The common holly is also not a bad substitute; and, if deciduous cypress-like trees were required, we know of none more suitable than the Quércus pedunculàta fastigiata and the Cratæ'gus Oxyacantha stricta.
The parties wishing to bury in the borders are not to be considered as obliged to erect tombs of any sort, or even to enclose the spot which they have purchased with an iron railing ; all that they will be held under obligation to do will be, to confine their operations within the limits of the parallelogram which they may purchase (and which may be either single, as shown in the plan at t, or double, as at u), and the four corners of which will be indicated by four stones let into the soil at the expense of the parish. The party purchasing the ground may erect any description of gravestone, tomb, statue, or monument, he chooses within it; or he may leave it in naked turf
, which will be mown or clipped at the expense of the parish ; or he may plant it with shrubs and flowers, in which case he must keep it in repair himself. We have suggested the idea of not rendering it compulsory to erect tombs or iron railings, in order that we may not seem to exclude those who cannot afford the expense of such memorials, from purchasing a grave to hold in perpetuity. A poor man may be willing to afford the price of a grave, in order to preserve the remains of his family from being disturbed; though he might not be able to afford the farther expense of decorating it, by setting up a gravestone or erecting a tomb.
The Church shown in the figures is on what is supposed to be an improved design, suggested by an architect in the Architectural Magazine ; and it differs from the ordinary plan of churches in the manner of the entrances, and also in the general form being nearer that of a square than is usual. The author of this plan adopts it as a principle, “ that the point in the outer walls from which each pew, and each class of pews, can be gained by the shortest pos