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Kirby and Spence state that, when in flower, the footstalks of the blossom are occasionally eaten through by the Derméstes (Bytùrus) tomentòsus, which they once saw prove fatal to a whole crop. They also add,“ that bees frequently anticipate us, and, by sucking the fruit with their proboscises, spoil it for the table.” A more nauseous annoyance is, however, sometimes produced by some of the winged bugs (chiefly species of Cápsus), which protrude their rostrums into the fruit, leaving behind taste very much like the smell of the bed-bug.
The following are the systematic details of the species in question:Order, Coleoptera (or beetles).
h Section, Pentámera (with 5-jointed tarsi).
$ Family, Nitidulidæ. Genus, Bytùrus Latreille (Derméstes Fabr.) Species, Bytùrus tomentosus Fabr. Variety, Derméstes fumatus Fabr. Synonyme, Silpha testácea ? Linnæus.
Length, about one sixth of an inch; body oval, densely clothed with luteous, yellowish, brownish, or greyish pubescence; the forehead depressed
9 and punctured; the eyes large and Fig. 99. black; the thorax punctured, as well The larva magnified. 8. The cocoon of as the elytra ; the legs, antennæ, seen on the under side, magnífied. The and mouth pale buffish, or ochre- ral length), magnified. coloured; the body beneath dark brown, with the extremity lighter-coloured.
Hammersmith, Sept. 15. 1842.
The Raspberry Beetle.
Art. VI. Dinbur Castle, its Gardens, and its Gardeners. By PETER
(Continued from p. 110.) WHEN the night arrived on which Colin Forbes was to take his turn in imparting useful information to his comrades, he told them that what he intended to communicate might be thought by some to have little connexion with gardening, but he hoped, before he was done, he would be able to show that the subject was worthy of a gardener's consideration.
Hydrodynamics formed the science to which he intended to direct their attention for a short time; and he glanced in their order at the four principal parts into which it is divided, viz. Hydrostatics, which explain the laws of the equilibrium of such fluids as water; and Hydraulics, which explain the laws of their motion ; Aerostatics, which treat of the laws of the equilibrium of such fluids as air ; and Pneumatics, which treat of their motion. « Before I proceed any further,” said Colin, “ I will inform you of the circumstance which first turned my attention to the subject. In the first year of my apprenticeship, whilst we were enlarging the pleasure-ground, part of the opera
3d Ser. — 1843. VIII.
tions were extended into a field but poorly supplied with water. In the course of working we came upon a small spring, which the gardener thought would be of great benefit to the cattle if it were conveyed to a proper place for their use.
A gentleman happened to be present who held a situation under government, and whose business it was to superintend ground work. His opinion was that it would be useless to expend money upon the spring; because it appeared so weak, and the field so level
, that, when the water began to collect, its own weight would prevent the spring from running. The gardener, however, thought differently. He believed that, however weak the spring might be, it would rise to its level although it had a lake to oppose it ; and the spring, for any thing he knew, would balance an ocean; or else he had been wrongly instructed. The gentleman was not at all pleased at having his opinion controverted by one whom he considered his inferior; but both were willing that a temporary dam should be made in order to test their knowledge, and I watched the rising of the water from day to day until it ran over its appointed boundary. The gentleman obtained a lesson which he would perhaps remember all the days of his life, and the cattle obtained water, which was a great benefit both for them and their owner. Sometime after I fell in with part of Playfair's Outlines of Natural Philosophy, which gave me a little help on the subject. I also procured an odd number of Nicholson's Journal, containing an article entitled ' A Summary of the most useful Parts of Hydraulics, chiefly extracted and abridged from Eytelwein's Handbuch der Mechanik und der Hydraulik.' These short treatises gave me new views of common things.”
Colin Forbes then began to explain to the other lads the equilibrium of fluids, and taking his spirit level showed Bauldy how to use it. He showed them that it is upon the tendency of all the particles of fluids to come to a level that the making of leveling instruments depends : and, if the person who opposed the collecting of the water had remembered that, if a communication by means of a tube or pipe, either straight or crooked, be made between the water in one vessel and that in another, the surface of both will be at the same level before the water is at rest, and if he had also remembered that the water in the spout of a teapot will balance all the water in the pot, he would never have acted as he did. If persons would accustom themselves a little more to observation and thinking, they would be less liable to fall into blunders. It is no uncommon thing for gardeners to superintend the formation of ponds and lakes in pleasure-grounds, and it is of great importance to know something about the nature and properties of the materials they have to deal with ; for accidental circumstances 'frequently cause much mischief, not easily repaired. He once knew a flower-garden nearly ruined by the breaking down of a small lake; gravel was washed upon the ground, and many of the shrubs removed by the force of the water. Whereas, if proper attention had been paid in the erection of the dam, the disaster would have been prevented. He then gave some illustrations of the pressure of Auids, and made them acquainted with the hydrostatic paradox. He laid down the rules for finding the pressure of water upon level and sloping surfaces, and for finding the centre of gravity, and the centre of pressure, as well as the specific gravity, of bodies in general; and demonstrated the principle on which the siphon works, and its application to horticultural purposes. He also noticed capillary attraction, and ex. plained to them how glass in garden erections is broken by means of it in winter, when broad overlapping is practised in glazing. He informed thern of some of the important offices that are supposed to be performed in nature by capillary attraction, such as the distribution of moisture in the soil, and the rise and circulation of sap in vegetables by means of their fine capillary tubes.
After having explained that part of the science which makes us acquainted with the proportion of the equilibrium and pressure of Auids, he next turned to Hydraulics, that division of “natural philosophy which treats of the motion of liquids, the laws by which they are regulated, and the effects which they produce.” He endeavoured to make them understand that important theorem, viz. “ The velocity with which a liquid issues from an infinitely small orifice in the bottom or side of a vessel that is kept full, is equal to that which a heavy body would acquire by falling from the level of the surface to the level of the orifice.” He next informed them of many things which they did not know respecting the motion of water in various channels, such as rivers, pipes, &c.; pointed out to them the wise provision of Providence in regulating the flow of water in rivers, and preventing it from bringing destruction on the earth; and, by means of the garden-syringe and garden-engine, explained the difference between the ordinary lift-pump and forcing-pump, and the principles on which they act.
It would occupy too much of the pages of this Magazine to state all the varied and interesting information that Colin Forbes imparted that night, in the bothy, to his attentive listeners. He tried to make his statements as plain as he could, illustrated his discourse with very simple apparatus. Some inay be deterred from the pursuit of science when they see or read about the splendid apparatus employed in the lecture rooms of wealthy institutions, but it will often be found that the same truths may be conveyed to the minds of a homely audience by means of simple things, easily got, and costing little.
It happened that Bauldy Black was cook in the bothy on the night on which Colin Forbes was to deliver his discourse. Bauldy was rather later than he should have been in preparing the supper, and, during the time he was cooking, Colin was arranging the few things he had collected in order to make his remarks better understood ; when it was agreed that he should proceed with his discourse while the supper was cooling. Finding that his remarks on Hydraulics had occupied more time than he intended, he determined on leaving the remainder for another occasion, to the great delight of Bauldy, who appeared very impatient to question him on some things. He told Colin very plainly that he “could na tak in some o' the things that he heard him say." Colin asked him to mention the things he had said which he did not believe, and he would try and help him to understand them better. “Weel,” said Bauldy, "didna ye say that a wee drap water in a dish could be made to balance as much as if the dish had been fu o' water? I canna believe that sic a thing can happen.”-“Well, Bauldy,” said Colin, “ would you like if I were to tell you that you were a poor hand at making porridge ?”-“
No, I wouldna like it, for I will tak in hand to mak parritch wi ony man in Scotland or his wife either; and nane o' yer gruel-like parritch would I mak, that might run a mile on a deal board and burn a body at the end o’t ; and I'll warrant ye'll get them to yer supper this night that the skin hasna cracked in the coolin, and ye may whommil them out on yer loof and nae scaith come o'er them.”—“Well that is just what I want,” said Colin ; "for you know that when they are well made, like most other substances, they contract in cooling, and a small space is left between the sides of the basin and its contents.” — “ That's a' true,” re. plied Bauldy:-—“Well, if you pour a small quantity of milk into that space you will find that it floats the porridge in the basin.”—“I hae done that mony a time,” said Bauldy; " but what does that signify ?” — " That small drop of milk will press as heavily as if the basin were full of milk, and you suspended the porridge so as to have no weight on the basin.”—“ Weel, weel, that will soon be tried,” said Bauldy. So away he went and got a clean piece of net, and, turning his porridge out of the basin, placed his supper in the net. According to Colin's direction he poured a few spoonfuls of milk into the basin, and placing it in one scale put weights in the opposite one. He then gently lowered the porridge in the net into the basin. The milk rose in it and brought down the opposite scale, so that it required more weight to balance it. When it was brought to balance, the height which the milk rose to in the basin was marked, and he was directed to take out the porridge, which he suspended in his hand, and let the basin remain in the scale. He was then told to pour milk into it until it would balance the weights in the other scale. He thought a small quantity would do it, and as he kept pouring he often looked at the other scale, but it showed no signs of rising until the milk in the basin was nearly as far up as the mark made when the first weighing was done ; and, when he saw that it required to rise to the mark before it came to the balance, his wonder was at its height, and he hoped that Colin would forgive him for doubting the truth of the statements he had made.
Walter Glenesk said that he had received much information from that part of the discourse whcih treated of the specific gravity of bodies ; for in some systematic arrangements of simple minerals it formed one of their essential characters: for instance, in combustible minerals the specific gravity seldom exceeds 2, water being equal to l; and in metallic minerals it is commonly above 5 and upwards; while in earthy minerals the specific gravity is generally less than 5. * And although I knew these things," said Walter, “ I was not aware that the specific gravity of bodies was so easily ascertained; nor did I know that a hydrostatic balance was so easily made."
“ I think you stated,” said Sandy Macalpine, “that the rise and circulation of the sap in vegetables are performed by means of their fine capillary tubes. I believe that vegetable physiologists differ in their opinions respecting the channel through which the sap flows; some saying that it is through the tubes of the woody fibre, others that it is by the intercellular passages, and the cause of the upward flow of sap in vegetables is to be found in evaporation and endosmose.” – “Endosmose! what in a' the warld is endosmose?” said Bauldy, “ that causes the sap to rise in vegetables.”—“ It is,” replied Sandy, “ the transmission of gaseous bodies, or vapours, or liquids, through membranes or porous substances, from without inwards. Many operations of nature which philosophers could not satisfactorily account for are explained by this law ; for instance, the mechanical mixture of the various gases of the atmosphere. The gases are of different densities, and yet they are said to be blended together in certain proportions without entering into chemical combination. It has been found that dense fluids will combine with those that are more thin ; and it is asserted that when evaporation takes place in the leaves of vegetables the fluids in the leaves become thick, and, the thick sap of the leaves combining with the thinner sap of the branches, circulation is set going. Well may we say, with the royal poet of Israel, the works of the Lord are great, sought out of all them that have pleasure therein ;' and those who delight in studying the works of an Infinite mind will find
• Wondrous truths, and manifold as wondrous.' And those who have dived into the secrets of nature, and studied hard in the boundless domain of creation, have still much to learn respecting the humble plant by the wayside, or the little-thought-of flower that blooms and dies upon the mouldering towers of our ancestors. Yet there are minds that can read lessons of instruction in 'flowers passing away;' and, while living in the fleeting sepulchre of this world, can enjoy much of its transient gleams of sunshine, and can also be partakers of that enduring felicity that is seated in Heaven."
West Plean, April 8. 1843.
Art. VII. Notice of Dalvey, the Seat of Norman MacLeod, Esq.
By A. Branden, Gardener there. AGREEABLY to your request, I send you some account of these gardens, and of the state of gardening, and of other gardens of note, in this quarter.
The State of Gardening in this Quarter. - Gardening here is in a more forward state than you Southerns might imagine, taking into account this our northern locality and distance from the metropolis, the grand centre from which most new and good things in the floral way emanate.
The gardeners here (as in most other places where I have been) I consiler, as a body, to be a most industrious, intelligent, and persevering set of men ; many of them reading one or two of the gardening periodicals, several of which, through the kindness of my employer, I am enabled to peruse; and a number of them are either natives of, or have visited, the southern parts of this, or been in the sister isle, where gardening is carried on more extensively than it is here. These few general remarks I have thrown out in the mean time, leaving particulars to a future opportunity, or a more able pen.
Dalvey Gardens. — First let me refer you back to your Volume for 1838, p. 462, where you will find a general notice of these grounds by my predecessor, the then gardener. My task is by that notice lessened to adding a few particulars to the account there given. The houses which were then three are now five ; the fourth one being a span-roofed stove, divided by a partition in the middle, one end for the culture of orchidaceous plants, and the other a general stove. The fifth is a pit for heaths, with ventilators in the walls for the admission of air when the weather will not admit of the lights being drawn down. The side walls are of stone, with a temporary erection of boards along the sides (with the ventilating tubes through) for the purpose of holding dry leaves, which effectually protects the walls from frost, the roof being protected with hurdles thatched with bent (coarse grass or rushes). The sides of the hurdles are 3 in, deep, made of boards 1 in, thick, fitting on the roof like common lights on rafters. In this pit, both last season and this, we have kept pelargoniums, calceolarias, heaths, &c., all of which, at present, look healthy and well. The pathway goes along the back, with a door at each end, by which means the plants can be examined be the weather what it may, which is a decided advantage over the ordinary sort of pits, where the lights have to be removed for that purpose; also the ventilators in the walls preclude the possibility of damp lodging beneath. The plants stand on a platform of rough boards near the glass, and are plunged to the rims of the pots in river sand, This is the best material to plunge pots in I have yet tried, being moist, cool, and clean, and worms cannot run into it. This practice saves frequent watering, which is a great advantage in a pit of this sort, as the less water used the less chance there is of damp accumulating ; for when damp is once generated it is not so easily dried up again in moist or cloudy weather. Under the platform are stowed away pentstemons, salvias, fuchsias, and such like things, for bedding out in summer.
The general stock of plants mentioned in the former communication is still extending. There is also here a quantity of the Himalaya pines.
The garden (independently of the kitchen ground) is about five acres in extent, and has originally been laid out, in the Dutch style, as a kitchen-garden, with broad main walks, which are still retained, and taken advantage of for effect, as will be seen below. The kitchen crops have been removed, bit by bit, to give place to flower borders, turf glades, and other ornaments, and a more subordinate place assigned to this department, along with the framingground, hardy pits, &c., behind the walls at the north and east sides, which is well
protected from northerly gales by a rising ground covered with forest trees.
Taking the above as a preamble, we will now enter the garden gate. On the left is a border facing the south, with a wall behind, which last season was planted with three rows of dahlias, according to their heights. This border; when the plants were in bloom, had a most dazzling effect. It is now planted with rose stocks, to be worked in summer with choice kinds ; and pillar or climbing roses are planted against the wall. On the right is the Dropmore flower-garden, spoken of in the former communication ; at the end of the border is the stove ; further on is the camell puse, occupied chiefly with camellias
, a few tall New Holland plants behind, and azaleas and heaths in front. Before this house is a grass glade ; on a circle in the centre stands a large horsechestnut, which affords an agreeable shade for a seat in summer. Interspersed through the glade are several circles of rhododendrons (the circle is a favourite figure here), rustic vases, and single plants of juniper, forming a