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ness of its spines, which we mention in order to recommend this tree for introduction among odd specimens on lawns, or in glades in drives or pleasure-grounds. Escallònia montevidensis, remarkably fine specimens ; Magnolia Thompsoniana conspicua and fuscáta, from 10 ft. to 15 ft. high ; Adenocarpus intermedius (Encyc. of Trees and Shrubs, p. 228. fig. 370.), 4 ft. high, a very beautiful free-flowering evergreen shrub from Portugal, flowering from April to November, and ripening seeds, deserving a place in every collection ; Cunninghàmia lanceolàta 10 ft. high ; Pinus austràlis, a fine specimen ; a great many camellias, some of which have attained a large size in the open ground; Musa Cavendishii, a collection of Orchídeæ, and many other hothouse plants ; florist's flowers, including two beds of named tulips, each conraining 93 rows; a hybrid Russian anemone, and innumerable other articles.

We were much struck with the vigour of the raspberry plants; and a Dutch variety was pointed out to us which produces a much larger fruit than any in common cultivation. We noticed some plantations of cabbages of different kinds, respecting which Mr. Sclater, jun., gave us the following information.

The Paington Cabbage is a very large and valuable kind, cabbaging very early, and frequently weighing from 20 lb. to 28 lb. The flavour is very sus perior, not having the least degree of coarseness, although it is so very large. In my opinion there is no other kind of cabbage to compare with it in that respect. " It should be grown in a very strong rich loam, the plants to be 3 ft. apart every way. I have frequently seen the cabbage in the market divided into halves and quarters for the convenience of purchasers.

The Cornish and Kentisbeare Cabbages are smaller and earlier than the Paington, but are most valuable kinds, being very early, and not requiring such a strong soil as the Paington : they may be grown much closer, say 2 ft. by 18 in. For the cottager, these kinds are more desirable than the Paington, as they do not require so much space, and produce excellent sprouts for many months after the first heads are cut. These are the principal kinds of cabbages grown in this county for garden purposes.

The Nonpareil and Early Hope are both very early cabbages, but small. They are of excellent flavour, can be planted very close, and are very suitable for small gardens.

The Vanack, Wellington, and Imperial are also very excellent and profitable kinds of cabbage, in consequence of their giving a second, and frequently even a third, crop of very good heads from the sides of the stem. There are many other kinds grown in this neighbourhood ; but I consider those named above are the very best.–J. S. S. Oct. 1812.”

DorseTSHIRE. Merriott Nurseries, near Crewkerne ; John Webber. - Cinerària Webberiana, Paxt. Mag. of Bot. for July, 1842. A beautiful hybrid. (See Gard. Mag. for 1842, p. 415.) Azalea indica Victòria, flowers of a light purple, and a profuse bloomer, with a weeping habit, the branches hanging down over the pot so as to cover it.

GLOUCESTERSHIRE. The Durdham Down Nursery, Bristol ; Garraway and Mayes.— We made a flying visit to this nursery on October 1. 1842, and were only able to devote an hour to what would have required a whole day. In the laying out of the nursery, no expense has been spared to combine ornament with utility; and every part is executed in the most substantial manner. The whole is judiciously thrown into compartments by main and secondary walks, and along the former are rows of specimen trees and shrubs, mostly named. There are hundreds of specimens that we should have taken notes of, if we had had time. The plant-houses are numerous, well constructed, and in good repair ; and the masses of rockwork and basins of water are, in regard to design and taste, of a very superior description.

Cirencester Nursery; W. Gregory. — An excellent whole sheet catalogue of this nursery has the plants arranged as forest trees, fruit trees, and ornamental trees and shrubs, which occupy the greater part of the catalogue, with notices of stove plants, Orchideæ, Cácti, greenhouse plants, herbaceous plants, and florist's flowers. To all the trees and shrubs the prices are affixed. We regret we have not yet been able to visit this very complete establishment.

HAMPSHIRE. Rogers’s Nursery, Southampton.The Darmast Oak (Quercus pedunculata var. Durmast), Mr. Rogers informs us, is readily distinguished by the male catkins being of a grey colour, while the trees having red or reddish catkins are not the durmast variety, but the species. The leaves are broader, more pointed, and less deeply sinuated than those of the species. The value of this variety of oak has been noticed in our preceding Volume, p. 656. In mixed plantations, Mr. Rogers recommends planting an oak in every fifth space, which gives an oak to every pole, or about 360 to an acre. If the soil and situation are adapted to the growth of oak, he plants no other kind of tree; finding, from experience, that the oaks shelter one another, and that the thinnings, on account of the value of the bark, and the solidity and durability of the oak poles, are far more profitable than the thinnings of any other kinds of trees that may have been planted as nurses. When he plants oaks alone, he puts in from 5000 to 7000 plants per acre. After the plants are thinned to the distance of a rod apart, or 360 per acre, they are allowed to remain until they become full-grown timber. We have lately introduced the durmast oak and the Pinus austriaca extensively in Suffolk.

(To be continued.)

Art. V. The Mode of planting early Potatoes in the Neighbourhood of Garstang, with a new Planting-Machine. By M. SAUL.

“ We live to improve, or we live in vain.” Having had several opportunities of seeing potatoes planted by this mode in the present year, and the crops produced appearing to be excellent, I am induced to describe the method to you, for, although not new here, it may be so to some of your readers. It is simply this.

The ground is first prepared in the following manner. A trench is made at the end of the bed about 6 in. deep, and the manure laid therein ; then another trench is made, and the earth laid upon the manure in the first to about the depth of 6 in. above the manure; then manure is laid in the second trench, and covered with earth in the same way as the first; and this is repeated till the whole bed is done.

The next thing is to plant the potatoes, which is done in the following manner. A line is drawn across the bed; the operator then takes the planter shown in fig. 2. It is about 2 ft. 6 in. long, with a handle on the top; the bottom end is rounded off; a bar goes through the upright about 6 in. from the bottom as a gauge for the depth it is to go into the earth, wbich is just far enough to reach the manure. One foot is placed upon the

Fig. 2. The


cross-bar, and presses the planter down into the earth till the cross-bar reaches the top of the bed; it is then withdrawn with the left hand and the potato dropped into the hole. This part of the process may be done by a boy, or an aged person, with ease and despatch. After the bed has been planted it is raked over, which draws the earth over the holes, and closes up the potatoes. When they have sprung up high enough for earthing-up they are hoed, which brings the manure between the rows close up to the plants. This manure is very beneficial by keeping the earth open; and, being washed in by the rain among the loose earth, is a great advantage for the potatoes setting and growing:

The following is the greatest produce we have on record from three roots of potatoes. The competition Lancashire, produced considerable interest at the Leyland (near Preston) Agricultural and Horticultural Association, which met Oct. 26. 1841. There were four competitors for the prizes. The first was obtained for a basket containing 674 lb. of potatoes from only three roots of Kemp's Seedling: they were grown by Mr. Rose, jun. The second prize was taken by Mr. J. Lovett, jun., Leyland; his three roots produced 66Ib. The third prize was given to Mr. J. Ashcroft, Leyland; his three roots produced 61 lb. The fourth was awarded to Mr. J. Leyland; his three roots produced 60 lb. This Kemp's Seedling is a

most excellent po-

and always
fetches a high price
in the market for its
quality; it is consi-
dered fit for suc-
ceeding the first ear-
ly potatoes.

I have enclosed
a sketch (fig. 3.)
of an improved po-
tato-planter. The
improvement is this.
It is made of tin.
On the top there is
a pan for holding
the potato
The part a first

the place Planting Machine.

Fig. 4. Saul's Potalo-Planting where the seeds are to go into; the machine is then raised by the bandle (6), and



Fig. 3. Saul's Potato.

Machine in use.

moved forward so that the tube (c) may come over the place made by a. The seed is then put into the tube at d, which conducts it to the place made for it by a. By this method there is no stooping, because the sets are in the top of the planter ready to be put into the conducting tube (c). You will see at once the object of my improvement; and you may say it is strange that this improvement should not have been made long ago. The part e is for the foot to press the planter into the earth, as before described.

Fig. 4. shows the planting-machine in use. Fort Green Cottage, Garstang, July, 1842.

[We expect to be able to give another article by Mr. Saul, on the culture of the potato, in our next Number.]


ART. I. General Notices.

DESTROYING Wasps.- This year I tried, and succeeded wonderfully, in destroying the queens. They are well known by every naturalist to be the only breeders. The method I adopted is the old simple one of hanging bottles partially filled with sweetened water against the walls, in the spring of the year, about the time when peaches, apricots, &c., are in bloom ; before food for those noxious insects becomes plentiful, and while they are glad to seek out any thing in the shape of sustenance. The water in the bottles, while fermenting, attracts them ; and, on their going in to drink, they are almost in every instance destroyed. By the above-mentioned means I killed between 200 and 300 queen wasps, thereby causing a great diminution in the number of nests this summer. While other people have had upwards of one hundred wasps' nests to destroy, I have not had more than a dozen, although situated in the midst of plantations where they might, almost undisturbed, increase to an alarming extent. — - John Armstrong. Belmont, near Durham.

Clématis azùrca grandiflora must rank as the queen of hardy climbing plants. It is a rampant grower ; its hardiness is indisputable; its large starlike flowers are matchlessly showy, and so suitable is our climate to its growth, that this year my plant, which climbs an Irish yew, has produced perfect seed. Clématis Sieboldi is entitled to be the fairy queen of the same class of climbers, from its slender growth and delightfully beautiful flowers. Richard Tongue. Forton Cottage, near Lancaster, Oct. 2. 1812.

Art. II. Foreign Notices.

NORTH AMERICA. SHEPHERDIA argéntea Nutt. Some of our readers will recollect that this was recommended as a fruit tree by Mr. Russell in our Volume for 1831, p. 570. Desirous of knowing how far the tree was maintaining its reputation as a fruit tree, we wrote to Messrs. Winship, nurserymen at Brighton near Boston, U. S., who were said by Mr. Russell to be the only cultivators of the tree in 1831, and the following is an extract from their answer :

“We are glad you are about to notice a plant which has always been

held in the highest estimation by ourselves, as one of the most beautiful, ornamental, and useful fruit-bearing productions in nature. The Shepherdia argentea, or buffalo-berry tree, in our nursery, which was 14 ft. high in 1831, is now 20 ft. high, 29 in. girt at 2 ft. from the ground, and its branches cover a space 28 ft. in diameter ; that is, 14 ft. on each side of the main stock. It is a female plant, and requires the proximity of the male plant; but the distance is immaterial while the pollen can be communicated by the wind, or conveyed by a peculiar insect, in appearance like the common bee, but only about one quarter the size. It will not mature fruit without the male. The cultivation of it has been extensive. We have disposed of 20,000 plants, and as fast as the male and female characters of the plants could be ascertained by the blossom buds. The tree is propagated by layering or by seeds ; lately, altogether by seeds. We have recently sold them at 50 cents per plant, formerly much higher. We have not sent any to Europe, but should be disposed to sell a thousand, or thousands, to any person you might recommend, to sell upon equal shares, and receive our payment in nursery plants from England : that is, one half of the amount of sales to our credit, to meet our orders as for the amount above stated. Unfortunately we cannot send any fruit this season : we did not take our usual precaution of covering the tree with a net, and those little warblers and depredators, the birds, had taken all the fruit prior to our reception of your favour. Another year, if you desire it, we will send you specimen clusters of the fruit in any way you may prescribe.

“We enclose two sprigs of the Shephérdia, male and female: the large flowering buds are those of the male, the small ones of the female. The fruit is of the size of the red currant; a brighter red, richer, and more nutritious. It is a fine eating fruit after the frost has operated upon it. It is also a very superior fruit for jellies, jams, &c. Picture to your imagination a tree containing a mass of fruit, the little specimen twig enclosed producing a cluster of 1ļin. in diameter, close and compact, even to hardness ; fancy a large tree thus loaded, every branch and twig, with a bright and shining fruit, and you may form some idea of this unsurpassed and beautiful production from the American Rocky Mountains, discovered, as you must be aware, by that excellent man Nuttall, and named after his intimate friend Mr. Shepherd, formerly curator of the Liverpool Botanic Garden.

“We shall be much gratified to hear from you frequently, and by the Liverpool line of steamers for Boston, directed Messrs. J. and F. Winship, Brighton, Mass., U. S. A.” J. and F. Winship. Oct. 1. 1842.

[The specimens sent were of Elæágnus argentea Pursh, Arb. Brit. and Hort. Soc. Garden; and it would therefore appear that the Hippophae argentea is not a synonyme to Shepherdia argentea. Some plants of each sex of the Shepherdia have been ordered by Messrs. Whitley and Osborne of the Fulham Nursery.]

Art. III. Retrospective Criticism. TRANSPLANTING large Trees. (p. 387.)— I was much pleased with your opinion on transplanting large trees without any previous preparation of their roots, given in the August Nuniber of the Gardener's Magazine, p. 387., by thinning out their tops at the time of transplanting, which is perfectly correct, according to my practice. I have been obliged, upon the spur of the moment, and no doubt many other gardeners have been so obliged, to remove trees that had received no previous root-pruning preparation; and I have seldom failed, when a due proportion of the branches and young spray has been cut out at the time of transplanting. The general quantity removed has been one half or more of the head of the tree. This is done, not by cutting out large limbs and mutilating the tree, but by a careful and regular thinning of the whole

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