« 上一頁繼續 »
of the London Cemetery Companies, or their stationers. [The essential forms, and the names of the stationers, have been given in p. 221, 222.]
Specification of Work to be done on the Ground, including the Formation of the
Roads, Walks, Drains, fc. Form the surrounding terrace and hedge banks, agreeably to sections Nos. 8, 9, 10, and 11., of the best of the surface soil in the interior of the enclosure; the slopes to be built with a grassy surface, which will be obtained from the inost grassy parts of the surface soil; and the whole to be rendered solid and compact, by ramming with cast-iron rammers as the soil is laid down. Form the walk on the surface agreeably to the sections.
Level and smooth the ground on each side of the terrace walk, in order to be sewn afterwards with grass seeds, with the exception of a space 2 ft. in width, on which the holly hedge is to be planted. Plant the hollies in April at 1 ft. apart, and mulch them with littery stable dung.
Form the hedge banks as shown in the section No. 11., the sides to be of grassy sods, and the whole firmly rammed; the upper surface being left quite level, smooth, and clear of grass and weeds, for the space of 2 ft. in width along the centre, on which is to be planted the holly hedge. Insert the plants at a foot apart, as above directed.
In depositing the soil both in the terrace banks and the hedge banks, the greatest care must be taken to place nothing but good soil under the line on which the holly hedges are to be planted, in order by that good soil to promote their growth as much as possible.
Surround the whole of the outer holly hedge with a park paling 6 ft. high. The terrace and banks being completed, level the whole of the interior surface, so as to have one general slope from the point a in section No 7. to the point p in plan No. 1., the fall being supposed to be about 2 ft., as shown in the section.
Form, at the same time, that part of the surface which is laid out in beds, as shown in plan No 1. (fig. 88. in p. 361.), raised in the middle, and sloping towards the sides, as shown in the enlarged section No. 8.
Form the carriage-road of broken stones below, and gravel above, raised 3 in. higher at the centre than at the sides, as shown in the section.
Form the borders to the main roads with a concealed brick edging next the walk, as shown in section at No. 8. b b (see figs. 56. and 57. in p. 217.), and place a mass of good soil where each tree is to be planted, raised in the centre I ft. above the general level, and forming a flattened cone 6 ft. in diameter. As temporary plants, and for immediate effect, introduce one spruce fir 6 or 8 feet high, if such plants can be got, between every two pines, and between every two Irish yews; the intention being that these spruce firs shall be removed as soon as the pines and yews attain the height of 6 ft.
Form the interior into beds 18 ft. wide, with a space 2 ft. wide, and 3 in. higher than the rest of the surface, along the centre of each bed; and form alleys between them 4 ft. in width, and a surrounding path 5 ft. wide, as shown in sections Nos. 8, 9, and 10.
Form the tile drains and the branch drains, as shown by the blue dotted lines in plan No. 1., and also in the sections Nos. 8. and 9., at cc.
Plant the pines, cedars, and yews, as shown in the plan No. 1., taking the greatest care to place nothing but good soil under and over the roots, and to unwind and stretch out the roots of all those that have grown in pots. Protect the cedars with circular constructions of wickerwork, and mulch the surface round all the trees, and along both sides of the hedge, with littery
Sow the whole of the surface shown green in the plan No. 1, with peren. nial rye-grass and white clover, at the rate of i bushel of rye-grass, and I lb. of white clover to the acre. 3d Ser. - 1843. VII.
Estimate of Expense.
£ s. d. 2400 cubic yards of Terrace-bank, at 6d.
60 00 300 cubic yards of Hedge-bank, at 6d.
7 10 0 480 lineal yards of Terrace-walk, 6 ft. wide, at ls.
24 0 0 1761 square yards of Road, at 6d.
44 0 6 1813 feet of Park Paling, at 2s.
- 181 60 16,300 square yards of Surface, to be levelled and formed into Beds and Borders, at 2d.
135 16 8 2900 feet of Tile-drain, at 6d. per foot, including sink-stones or gratings, where necessary
72 100 2120 Hollies, at 10s. per hundred
10 120 94 Pinus taúrica, in pots, at Is. each
4 14 0 20 Pinus austriaca, in pots, ls. each
100 14 Cedars of Lebanon, in pots, 2s. 6d. each
1 15 0 4. Deodar cedars, in pots, 5s, each
1 0 0 76 Irish yews, at ls, 6d. each
5 14 0 200 Spruce firs at 6d.
5 0 0 Rye-grass and Clover seeds
2 0 0 Planting the hollies and the above trees with the greatest
possible care, including mulching with littery stable-
6 0 0 Allow for a temporary Gate to the entrance from the
New Huntingdon Road, for unforeseen expenses, and
37 1 10
£600 0 0
Should it be desired to reduce the above estimate, the means are as follows:
£ s. d. Omit altogether the gravel walk on the terrace, and let it be a
24 00 Form only one half of the surface into beds, leaving the other
half to be formed by the curator at convenience; deduct, say 60 00 Drain only one half instead of the whole ; deduct, say
50 0 0 Instead of pines, cedars, and yews, plant Scotch pines instead
of the Taurian pines, and spruce firs instead of the Irish yews, to be clipped into cones and pyramids, by which a saving will be made of
£146 0 0
Rules and Regulations for the Management of the Cemetery. - The general management being invested by the company in the directors, they have appointed a secretary and a curator, and the latter shall appoint graves-men and body-bearers.
Duty of the Secretary. - To keep the cemetery books, and communicate between the directors and the curator. To concoct with the directors a scale of prices for interments, as well as a set of rules and regulations, to be varied from time to time, as trial and convenience may justify.
Duties of the Curator. — To take his instructions from the secretary. To receive the burial fees, but no perquisites. To devote the whole of his time, or only a certain portion of it, to the cemetery, as may be agreed on; the re• mainder of the time, if any, to be employed in the plots of ground which he is supposed to rent from the company for a few years at first, &c., as before explained.
To superintend the opening of every grave, and take special care that no coffin is placed nearer the surface than 6 ft.; and that, when more than one coffin is placed in a grave which is filled in with earth, there shall be at least 6 ft. between the coffins, unless the two coffins are deposited at the same time, in which case the one may be placed on the other.
To take special care that a protecting stone [before described, p. 216.] be placed in every grave filled in with earth, that is to be reopened, at the proper distance (6 ft.) above the last-deposited coffin ; and to take care that, when a grave with a protecting stone is reopened, the protecting stone shall be taken out, and again replaced at the proper distance, or taken away altogether if the grave is to be finally closed.
To attend in like manner to the interments made by hermetically sealing up the separate coffins, whether by intervening flag-stones, or by embedding them in cement as before described.
To keep the whole of the grounds in the neatest possible manner; to watch the progress of the trees and hedge plants, and stake them when loosened by the wind, or water them when dry. To see that all the implements, planks, &c., are kept in order, and laid up in their proper places.
To pay the graves-men and body-bearers according to some scale, either of fees, or by the day, as may be arranged after ascertaining the rates of payment in the Cambridge churchyards.
[The remainder is omitted, as being either too local to be generally useful, or so general as to be included in Divisions II., III., and VII.]
(To be continued.)
Art. III. Bicton Gardens, their Culture and Management, in a Series
of Letters to the Conductor. By James Barnes, Gardener to the Right Honourable Lady Rolle.
(Continued from p. 306.)
Letter XV. The Rust in Grapes.
In the course of my practice I have seen grapes in different noblemen's and gentlemen's places much injured by what is termed the rust. I have heard various opinions given regarding the cause of this injurious pest, which I need not now enlarge on; but I will here briefly state a few facts amongst the many I have observed, which have caused or induced rust on grapes. I have been long fully persuaded, or rather convinced, that it is produced by the treatment they receive inside, and not in any way through the bottom or border. The season is now so far advanced that every one who has vines under glass has them progressing in some stage; and some of your numerous readers, perhaps, will be able to ascertain in this present season some one or other of the causes I have observed, and which I am about to mention. Prevention certainly is better than cure; and, as the causes which produce either disease or vermin are not natural, how often do we see the one brought on in attempting to destroy or expel the other! A nobleman's gardener some years ago called on me, and
в в 2
wondered how it was he never had seen red spiders or rust amongst the vines under my charge, as he was continually pestered with both. He then had three houses of grapes in different stages coming on, and the red spider was making sad ravages with the earliest house, which was at the time about stoning. The man asked me how he could expel the pest. I readily told him to dredge the flues cautiously with sulphur vivum ; for, without caution, the remedy would prove worse than the evil. The man used the sulphur on the flues when hot, and also steamed them when hot; the consequence was, his grapes that had previously been clear from rust were immediately affected with it.
Another gentleman's gardener, of the old school, had a fine large vinery, with the vines trained under the rafters in a complete bundle or faggot. His vines were constantly troubled with all the injurious diseases and vermin; and he attributed it to the bad bottom, which was every thing that a man could wish, lying high and dry, with a subsoil of open loose gravel and sand, to a great depth. That man always made it a rule to water the flues when warm, to keep the red spider down, as he said: which was not only the means of increasing the spider, but brought him the rust into the bargain : and, nổ doubt, he still continues the same unnatural treatment.
I have seen rust brought on grapes by allowing the house to continue shut too long without air in the morning, and then, suddenly opening it when the external air was cold and chilly; the sudden change produced rust on different parts where the current of cold air was strongest. I have seen the rust produced by syringing with cold water; likewise through unskilful handling in thinning out the bunches, more particularly when thinning has been done late in the morning, and the vapour has been allowed to rise on the fruit before the house has had air given to it. It is sudden checks that produce rust generally, such as we ought to guard against in houses, pits, &c., of all kinds and for all purposes. Out of doors we often see it produced after a sudden change from still, warm, growing weather to stormy, cold, and windy weather; not only on grapes, but on plums, apricots, pears, &c., more particularly when the fruit has been in a tender, thriving, growing state.
I have always noticed out of doors, after a storm with driving wind, if the sun break out suddenly on the tender fruit before it is dry or has had one night's repose, the rust is certain to make its appearance; therefore, I always make it a rule to guard against sudden changes with every thing under glass.
Some day soon I will write you a letter on the system I follow all through with grape-growing, if acceptable. (It will be particularly so.]
Bicton Gardens, April 29. 1843.
Art. IV. .
On protecting Fruit Trees against Walls. By N.M.T. During your journey through Scotland, as detailed in the Gardener's Magazine, I find a paragraph censuring the Scotch generally for not affording their fruit trees adequate protection while in bloom. I made a memorandum of the said paragraph at the time; and, after another year's experience, I would ask, Are you certain that protection, even the most popular sort of protection, confers the benefits imagined ? or, rather, is it not a positive injury ? These questions must appear very foolish to the mass of practitioners : a few years ago to me they would have appeared superlatively so; but my views are now changed, and it will not be a trifle that will restore the reputation of such protection to the place it held in my estimation. Some occurrences make a deeper impression than others of equal import, from the circumstances which attend them. This was particularly the case with regard to the experiments about to be detailed ; and if, by any possibility, I can avoid being too prolix, I will detail those circumstances, as the best means of rendering the care with which the experiments were performed apparent, which may, I hope, induce others to repeat them, as the subject is of much importance,
In 1839, the trees under my care being in a most exposed situation, and altogether unprotected, I prevailed upon my employer to allow me to procure enough of the most approved material to sufficiently protect the whole against the coming spring. Cow-hair netting was at the time being advertised, strongly (and I still think justly) recommended as possessing most of the qualities requisite for such a purpose. This sort was determined upon, and purchased accordingly. The material highly pleased me; and, not content with doing well (as I fancied) myself, I used my utmost endeavours to persuade others to do likewise, and in several cases succeeded.
But a near neighbour stoutly resisted all arguments that could be brought to bear on the subject: I might talk of the blighting influence of cutting winds and hoarfrosts until I was hoarse ; he remained obstinate, declaring that he had no doubt of his crops being as good as mine ; and, if they were not, he would not impute the blame to want of protection. Consequently I gave him up as impracticable, setting him down (as mankind generally do those opposed to them in matters of opinion) as steeped in the most pitiable ignorance; to remove which, I begged him to watch the progress, and mark the result, of the practice which I (following the best practical authorities, the fruitful source of so many errors) so strongly recommended; and concluded with a wish that the coming spring might be such as would, by its severity, test the merits of the appliance. In this I was amply accommodated; the spring was such that, in this quarter at least, it will be remembered by fruit-growers; and, during the continuance of the boisterous, chilling, east winds that then proved so destructive to the bloom, if I did not feel half-pleased (which I an afraid I did) to think that my friend's trees were exposed to its unmitigated severity, I was highly gratified to think inine were snug beneath their truly comfortable-looking covering. The walls here are supported by buttresses, projecting a foot beyond the wall at bottom, and tapering to nothing at top ; into these strong iron eyes are fixed, through which three strong wires were stretched at equal distances, to which the netting was securely fastened, fully extended, presenting a formidable array of bristles, yet withal obstructing so little light, from the material itself being half-transparent, that we deemed their removal at any time unnecessary.
For a long time all seemed to do well; the bloom was splendid ; certainly finer than that uuprotected; but, when the fruit ought to have swelled off, all dropped, and the failure was complete. That what is meant by complete failure may be properly understood, I may state that there were not three dozen fruit upon 500 square yards of wall. A most striking proof of the injury done by covering so applied was accidentally furnished upon a wall against