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their being executed in that material. The coins are of hewn stone; the columns of stone hewn and rubbed; and the body of the walls of rubble, as indicated in fig. 86. The roof, in the Gothic designs, is steep, and will be covered by a peculiar description of ornamental flat tile, of which a figure
will be hereafter given. In the Italian design, the roof is flat, to admit of being covered with tiles, bedded either in Roman cement, or in the new çement of Mr. Austin; or covered with asphalte. The platform on which the building stands will be surrounded by a kerb-stone, and the interior laid with asphalte.]
Capacity of the Cemetery and the probable annual Expenses and Returns. – The number of spaces for graves in the double beds, each grave occupying a space of 8 ft. by 3 ft., exceeds 900 ; and the number of border graves exceeds 200. Under the surrounding terrace 200 more graves may be obtained, and from 800 to 1000 under the front reserved gardens, and the roads, walks, and paths; but, as it is not proposed to open the ground under the
terrace, or in the reserved gardens, till the beds and borders are nearly full, nor to bury in the paths and roads, till the cemetery is about to be closed as such for ever, we shall take the number of spaces for graves immediately available as 1200. In order that these may return a suitable interest for the money expended, it is evident that more than one interment must be made in each grave, whether the grave be a private or family grave, or a common grave. Every common grave we shall suppose to be 24 ft. deep, which will give four interments, allowing 6 ft of soil over each. The family graves may either be made in the free soil, or they may be brick graves or vaults, and they may be made of any depth the proprietors may choose,
The family graves made in the free soil we shall suppose to be of the same depth and capacity as the common graves; and the brick graves may either be of the same depth and capacity, or, by embedding the coffins in cement, or hermetically sealing each with a flag-stone, the capacity of each grave may be at least doubled.
Hence the 1200 graves may give at least 4800, or say 5000, interments ; but, as the space allowed for each grave along the borders is more than double that allowed in the interior beds, 1000 interments at least may be added. Whether or not 5000 or 6000 interments will afford a sufficient return for the capital expended, and the necessary annual expense, will depend on the sum charged for each interment, and the number of interments made
in a year.
Fig. 88. Isometrical Vivw of the Cambridge Cemetery
The Interest of the Money expended, allowing I per cent as a £ $. d. sinking fund to return the principal,
we shall estimate at 120 00 Salary of the Curator, and Annual Expenses chargeable to the Cemetery
180 0 0 Sum which the Cemetery ought to produce annually £300 0 0 In order to show how this sum may be produced, we shall suppose that there are 200 interments made in a year, and that the sum charged for a single interment in a common grave is 1l. 10s. which is only 5s. per interment more than is charged in the Tower Hamlets Cemetery, where from twelve to fifteen bodies are placed in one grave; and this will give the sum required.
Taking the number of interments which will be atforded by the 1200 available graves at 6000, that number, at the rate of 200 interments in a year, will be exhausted in thirty years. The remainder of the ground will afford at least an equal number of interments, wbich might extend the use of the cemetery to sixty years.
To supply 200 deaths per annum, reckoning the deaths at 2 per cent of the living, a population of 20,000 is required, or about four fifths of the entire population of Cambridge.
As therefore it would be unreasonable to suppose that so large a proportion of the people of Cambridge would bury in one cemetery, we are forced to the conclusion, either that the price for each interment must be increased, or that the shareholders must be content with less interest than 6 per cent. Suppose we make the calculation at 3 per cent, that will reduce the annual charges to 2401., which will require only 160 interments at 30s. or 120 at 40s.
Whatever sum is fixed on as the regular price of an interment in a common grave will give the amount of the fee-simple of that grave; and thus, according to the calculation which we have made of six interments to a grave, the price of a family grave ought to be at least 6l.; except in the borders, where, from being a place of distinction, it ought to be higher. This price is exclusive of every other expense, and also of a fee which will require to be paid every time an interment takes place.
The price to be charged for a single interment in a common grave should be fixed on partly from the market price for such interments in the best part of the churchyards of Cambridge, but chiefly from the great superiority of the principle on which the cemetery is founded, viz. that no coffin, nor any part of its contents, when once interred, can ever by any possibility, humanly speaking, be again exposed to view.
If, on calculating on the capacity of this cemetery, we were to proceed on the supposition that the common graves might be opened for reinterments at the end of fourteen years, the result would be very different. But on opening at the end of fourteen years, or at any period whatever, it would be impossible to avoid exposing an immense number of human bones, which constitute one of the great nuisances in our present crowded churchyards.
The Mode of conducting the Cemetery is supposed to be as follows.
The choice of a situation for a grave may be made in any part of the beds in the interior, or of the borders along the main walks; but, fill the cemetery is nearly full, it is not desirable that graves or vaults should be made under the surrounding terrace walk. When they are made there, the 5-feet grass path which separates the terrace from the beds may have one foot in width added to it from the terrace, and may be laid with gravel from the terrace walk, which may be covered with grass taken from the 5-feet walk referred to. The use of the terrace being thus changed from a walk to a platform for graves, it will of course no longer be walked upon.
As none of the coffins will ever be disturbed by the reopening of the graves, as in common burying-grounds, there is no objection to the use of leaden, zinc, or iron coffins.
The interments may be classed as those made in common or public earth graves, in private earth graves, in brick graves, in vaults having catacombs, and in border graves.
Every grave in the cemetery is supposed to be numbered, and this may be effected in the following manner,
1. The Borders may be considered as divided into spaces by the trees, and these spaces may be numbered in regular series, beginning with the right-hand border on entering the cemetery from the main lodge, and terminating with the last space on the left-hand border. A number-stone may be put in in every tenth or twentieth bed or space.
2. The Beds in the Interior. Beginning at one end (say with the first bed on the right hand on entering by the principal lodge), a stone with a smooth end, 6 or 8 inches by 2 ft., and at least 2 ft. in depth, is to be inserted in the ground at each end of the middle space of the beds, as at a and 6 in the plan No. 13. (fig. 35. in p. 158.). On the stone a is to be cut the first number of the bed, 1. ; and the last number, viz. L.: and on the stone b the last number of the one side, xxv., or one half of the graves in the bed ; and the commencing number of the second side, xxvi. Thus, in every double bed throughout the cemetery, the stone at the north end will exhibit the number of the first and the last grave on that bed, and the stone at the opposite end the number of the last grave on one side, and of the first grave on the other. Should any two adjoining spaces adapted for earth graves be occupied as a brick grave, or any four spaces be required as a vault, in these cases the brick grave would be entered in the cemetery books under the head of two numbers, and the vault under the head of four numbers.
It is not necessary to begin by putting number-stones to all the beds ; but when choice is made of a bed at a distance from one that has already been numbered, a calculation must be made of the numbers that would occupy the intervening beds, and the two number-stones placed accordingly at the ends of the bed in which the interment is to be made.
Every brick grave or vault must, therefore, necessarily be a multiple of a cominon grave, otherwise the numeration will be deranged.
When a bed is to be spoken of as a whole, it can be designated by the first or lowest number in the bed. Thus, supposing the beds to contain fifty graves each, we should have beds No. 1, 51, 101, 151, 201, and so on : or, in addition to the numbers, a letter may be placed on each stone, and we should, therefore, have beds A, B, C, &c.; and, after a single alphabet was exhausted, AA, BB, &c.
3. The Graves or Vaults under the Terrace will require to be similarly recorded to the border graves, a number being allowed for every space between the treas; or two numbers, if that should be thought necessary.
4. When the Reserve Spaces, G G (in fig. 81.), are added to the cemetery, the separation hedge will be removed ; and the border, terrace, and beds extended;
and, hence, the graves there will be recorded according to the modes already mentioned.
The Earth Graves, or graves of the simplest kind, are to be made within a space 8 ft. by 3 ft. ; which, allowing a margin of 3 in. at the sides, and 1 ft. at the end next the 4-feet path, will give 7 ft. by 2 ft. 6 in., which is 6 in. longer than is allowed in ihe Kensal Green Cemetery, besides allowing a space of 1 ft. by 3 ft. for a foot-stone or number, if the purchaser of the grave should think either of these necessary. For a single interment it must be dug at least 6 ft. in depth ; but, if it is intended to make two or more interments in it, it must be dug 6 ft. deeper for each additional interment; and, as the limit to depth need not be settled, any number of interments may be made in a common grave that the proprietors of the cemetery may fix on, or in a family grave that its owner may determine.
In order that the sides of the earth graves may remain firm, and not be pressed in by the loose earth of an adjoining grave, they should chiefly be formed alternately with firm ground which has not been buried in, or moved within six or seven years, or next to brick graves or vaults ; but, should it become necessary to open one grave adjoining another which has been recently made or opened, recourse can always be had to planks or graveboards (figs. 37, and 38.] ; which, indeed, may be considered absolutely necessary as safeguards in the case of all graves dug above 6 ft. deep adjoining ground which has been moved.
Every reopening of a family grave for another internent should be charged according to the depth when it is an earth grave ; say for a depth of 6 ft. 38., 12 ft. 6s., and so on ; and, when it is a brick grave or vault, according to the expense of removing the ledger or covering stone, &c.
To insure the keeping of gravestones, monuments, and flowers planted over graves in order, the fee-simple of the estimated annual expense of doing so should be paid down by the proprietor of the grave, at the time of putting up the monument, or putting in the plants (on the principle laid down in p. 218.)
. Brick Graves. These require to have side walls of from 9 in. to 18 in. in width, according to their depth; and these walls should be curved, so as to resist the lateral pressure of the soil, as shown in plan No. 11. (fig. 35. in p. 158.]. Brick graves, when of great depth, require to occupy the space of two earth graves, and hence the charges for them ought to be double that for earth graves, exclusive of the expense of building; but when two brick graves are built close together, each need not occupy more than an earth grave, because the party wall will save 14 in. in width, thus :
Width of space allowed for two graves
ft. in. 8 0
Leaving a clear space of 2 ft. 3 in. in width for each grave Length of the ground, including half the width of the space on which
the gravestones are to be placed Deduct two 14-inch walls
Leaving the clear length of the grave
6 8 The ordinary dimensions of the coffins which are always kept ready made by undertakers are 6 ft. long by 20 in. wide, and 16 in. deep ; the largest size is 7 ft. by 2 ft. 4 in., but coffins of this size are very seldom required.
If the walls were built in cement, then 9 in. in thickness would in many cases be sufficient; and this would add 10 in, to the length and 10 in. to the width of the clear space, leaving it 7 ft. 6 in. by 3 ft. 1 in.; which would afford ample room for any coffin whatever.
The ordinary mode of burying in brick graves is to let down the coffins one over another, without covering them with earth, but merely laying a fiat stone or ledger over the mouth of the grave a few inches above the level of the ground's surface. In some cases a flag-stone, resting on ledges projecting from the side walls of the grave, is placed over each coffin as it is deposited; and when each fag-stone is securely cemented, so as effectually to prevent the escape of gas (see p. 216.), a greater number of interments may be made in one grave by this mode than by any other, and at the same time with perfect safety to the living.
The Vaults may be constructed in the usual manner, as shown in the general plan, No. 1. (fig. 81. in p. 357.] at Q q, and in the enlarged plan No. 12. (fig. 35. in p. 158.), and section No. 13. (fig. 30. in p. 154.). A vault of 12 st. in depth, and 2 coffins in width, will contain 12 coffins.
The Books required for conducting this Cemetery are chiefly: 1. An order book; 2. A register or record of interments; and 3. A ledger of graves, an account being opened for each grave, as in the Kensal Green Cemetery. The other books required do not differ from those in cominon use.
Forms of the order-book, register, and ledger will readily be obtained by applying to any