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higher on one side than the thorn, is to protect it from the wind, and to give heat to the roots from the sun. When the thorns have got completely established, the other part of the bank, as shown by the dotted line d, is removed; e shows that there are posts fixed, to which rails are attached to protect the thorns from the cattle. On the other side of the fence they are protected by the water course; ff show the turf drains leading into the main water course. The Duke of Hamilton being very desirous of getting as much fencing as possible finished and planted every year, planting has been in consequence carried on into the month of May. Much doubt was entertained the first year, whether planting in May would succeed, as the thorns were come into full leaf; but that doubt has been fairly removed, as the thorns planted in May have answered quite as well as those planted in autumn, February, March, and April. — M. Saul. Garstang, March 11. 1843. (See F. Williamson in Gard. Chron., vol. i. p. 325.)
The Smoke given off from the Chimneys of manufacturing Establishments in the Neighbourhood of the Metropolis has become such a nuisance to the marketgardeners, that they have got up a petition on the subject. The prayer of the petition is, that parliament would pass some legislative enactment by which the nuisance may be abolished, convinced, as the petitioners are, that there are means in existence by which the smoke may be consumed or rendered innoxious, to the great saving of the manufacturer, the advantage of the cultivator, and the general salubrity of the metropolitan atmosphere.—Cond.
The Practical and Scientific Association for the Promotion of improved Street Paving. - The objects of this Association are : — To form a museum of all the improved systems for making carriage-ways; to collect and disseminate the most correct information respecting them; to invite the cooperation of men eminent for their practical and scientific experience on this subject; to adopt such measures as will insure justice and impartiality to inventors and patentees; to pursue such a course as will lead to the introduction of that pavement, which, for its general utility and economy, shall not fail to obtain the approbation of the public at large; and, finally, to assist the rate-payers, in any locality, in procuring the introduction of wood, or any better system of pavement, in conformity with the wishes of the majority of the residents. The office is at 20. Vere Street, Oxford Street; and the secretary is J. W. G. Gutch, Esq., author of the Literary and Scientific Register, reviewed p. 81.
The Association offers the benefit of organised over individual efforts. it proceeds upon the broad principles of public good, eschewing private interests on the one side, and acting independently of personal opposition on the other. Its province is emphatically to ascertain facts, and to demonstrate truths, not to offer an intemperate antagonism to allowed privileges, nor to stop short of its utmost ability to overcome factious opposition. Pursuing this course, the committee have to submit, That wood paving has so far advanced in practice as to make its general adoption in the leading thoroughfares of the metropolis a highly probable event. The committee found their opinion on the following grounds, viz. : Ist. The comparative quiet produced ; 2dly, Its greater cleanliness ; 3dly, Its greater durability; 4thly, Its greater facility of traction ; 5thly, Its economy in point of expense ; and, 6thly, Its greater advantages, in all respects, when compared with granite, paved, or Macadamised streets. But this is not all : the committee are in possession of the most satisfactory proofs, that, in situations where wood paving is adopted, business increases, and the value of house property is enhanced. J.W. G. G.
(We have elsewhere suggested that wood pavement is well adapted for the ground floors of schools and labourers' cottages ; and we understand that it is already being adopted even in the floors of kitchens of street houses.]
Tile Draining in Northamptonshire. — The ground can be opened to the depth of 18 in. for the reception of the tiles at 6d. per chain ; and the soles for the tiles, and the tiles, laid in for 3d. per chain. The cost of the tiles is 30s. per thousand, and of the soles 20s. per thousand; and three tiles and three soles are required for each yard, consequently 66 of each for a chain, at a cost of 5d. per yard in the one case, and 3 d. per yard in the other. Total expense of tile draining per chain in Northamptonshire, 21s. Moving soil in the same county costs, for a distance of two chains, 6d. per cubic yard, and the price of labour is 9s. a week. - J. M. Northamptonshire, Dec. 1842.
Leamington Spa, Warwickshire. — In the course of the last winter many trees have been planted along the principal roads, and in many of the open spaces belonging to the town, thus contributing materially to its ornament, and to the production of shade and shelter, and at the same time employing labourers who could not otherwise have got work. The expense was defrayed by subscription, and two of the most active gentlemen on this occasion were Mr. Hitchman and Mr. Cullis.
Gigantic Raspberries. When I altered Walton Hall, I destroyed the finest garden, for its size, in Yorkshire. But there was no help for it. I was absolutely forced to turn Vandal, and blot it out from the face of the earth. The raspberries in it always grew to the height of 14 ft. Situation caused this growth. I once, in my rambles in Lancashire, fell in with a like situation, and there I found wild raspberries growing fully as high. To obtain this lusuriant growth, the situation must be low and rich ; and the raspberry plants must be shielded from the noonday sun by trees, or a high wall. Trees, I should say, would be better. We had always wooden steps on purpose to reach the fruit. My father sent plants of these raspberries to his friends in Yorkshire, and in the county of Nottingham, but they answered not the expectations which had been formed of them. When I destroyed the garden, I saved a sufficient quantity of plants to be cultivated elsewhere. They are still in existence, and their puny growth informs me that I must never more expect to see them in their former luxuriance. When I removed the soil on which they had flourished so surprisingly, I found stony fragments at the bottom, through which there ran a stream of water which got vent from the mouth of a drain at the opposite side of the garden. — Charles Waterton. Walton May 19. 1843.
Victoria Rhubarb produces by far the largest stalks of any of the new varieties, and it is scarcely too much to say that it is equally superior in flavour and suitableness for culinary purposes. In this respect it may be compared to some of the largest Lancashire gooseberries, the flavour of which is not always deteriorated by size. — Cond.
SCOTLAND. The Kirkintilloch and Campsie Horticultural Society has been instituted chiefly for the encouragement of horticulture among cottagers. Prizes are given for the best kept cottage garden in a particular parish or district. The intending competitors give in their names at the beginning of the season, and their gardens are visited, from time to time, by the officers of the Society. Miss Horrocks, a very young lady, who is an enthusiastic member of this Society, has offered a prize for the best essay on the culture of any flower, by amateur cultivators and cottagers ; and also for the best canary-bird, goldfinch, and the
best three singing birds.
Pine Cones a valuable Fuel. — Dr. Howison, lecturer on botany in Edinburgh, met with the following occurrence in Fifeshire, during one of his botanical excursions. Calling at the cottage of a medical practitioner, a former pupil of his, he found the Esculapius going to mount his pony to visit his patients. Upon the two friends meeting, the practitioner remarked, “ Doctor, it is not every day I see you, we must go in and have a haver." Upon entering the parlour there was no fire. He rung the bell ; his housekeeper came in carrying in her white apron a quantity of dried pine cones and a lighted candle in her hand. She threw the cones into the polished grate, broke a coal into pieces, and laid them over them. She then applied the candle, when almost instantaneously they broke into a beautiful strong flame,
from the great quantity of turpentine they contained. They soon set fire to the coals, and in a few minutes a delightful warm fire was the result. A few blasts of the bellows might be an improvement. Next followed the decanters and glasses; and, it may perhaps be unnecessary to add, the two doctors made themselves comfortable in front of the cone fire. The practitioner obtained this knowledge in the following manner. He was attending a poor woman residing close to the forest. She could not pay him. With the gratitude of the rural population, next morning her two daughters came to his house, each carrying a sack filled with dried pine cones collected in the wood. They told him they were for kindling a fire, and if he had no coals they would make an excellent durable fire of themselves. The cones of the Pinus silvéstris, or Scotch fir, contain a great quantity of solid woody matter in addition to the resinous, and are excellently adapted for fuel. They are used over Italy, Switzerland, &c. This circumstance is little known; and the intention of these remarks is to recommend their use to the poor population of Scotland. -H. Edinburgh. Dec. 1842.
Remarkable Mountain Ash. — There was cut last week on the estate of Ochtertyre, belonging to Sir William Keith Murray, a mountain ash, or rowan tree, which measured 96 in. in circumference about 7 ft. from the ground, the branches covering an area the diameter of which was upwards of 46 ft. This remarkable tree was upwards of eighty years old; but the wasting hand of time having at last seized upon its aged trunk, the forester was under the painful necessity of cutting it down. (Čaledonian Mercury, Nov. 26. 1842.)
Art. IV. Retrospective Criticism. IMPROVING Churchyards. - I read your articles in the Gardener's Magazine (p. 93. 141. and 215.) with great interest. We may be pretty sure that a disposition to rescue churchyards from their now generally ruinous and disgraceful condition will become more and more prevalent. The self-evident improvement in every way, the force of example, and the progress of taste, in accordance with the attention bestowed on church buildings, will induce people to put these depositories of our forefathers into a more decorous condition. We ought to get rid of the nuisances of cattle in churchyards. Sheep are the only animals permitted by law ; but I have seen the law evaded, and cows and horses turned in. Our grasping churchmen will give up nothing, if they can avoid it; and, I dare say, would make a strong fight to retain their right of turning sheep into their freehold. However, I am one of those who look upon their property as national property placed in trust; and very bad trustees they make : so that I hope to live to see the nation resume possession of it all ; investigate it rigidly, reform the disposal of it, and place it altogether on a different footing. —H. A. M. May 3. 1843.
The Volume on Cemeteries. (p. 314.)- I have now read your volume on cemeteries and churchyards, and I sincerely hope you have made a great step towards rescuing us from a barbarism which does not exist among Turks and Chinese, of leaving the depositories of our dead in at once a disgraceful and pestiferous condition. I dare not venture to offer any ideas upon a subject which you have so well considered and explained. It will certainly take hold of the public mind eventually. There is, however, a fashion in these matters, as in most others. No doubt, the Duke of Sussex's interment will give an impetus to the fashion of cemeteries; and I hope ornamental churchyards will follow. There is a difficulty in the latter case. At whose expense can the improvement be effected ? Not one out of twenty of our parsons will stir and, to effect your proposal contained in the note to p. 80. at the end of the volume, we should have to apply a very considerable lever to bishops and archdeacons. The church wardens, who misspend a good deal of money, and
do a variety of jobs in bell-ropes and things of that kind, would run very rusty were any plan of laying out a sixpence upon the churchyard proposed. I am a church warden, and, after doing all I can for the decent support and maintenance of the fabric of the church, fight desperate battles with the churchmen in resisting their unwarrantable claims to fees at visitations. I believe these fees are illegal, and cannot be enforced; but I am threatened with all sorts of spiritual punishments, excommunication, and what not, to all of which I am perfectly indifferent. But were the moneys now demanded as visitation fees laid out in improving churchyards, there would be sufficient to keep them in very high order. We want a reform in these matters more than in any other. There are popular prejudices with regard to interments which have to be overcome, and which are generally more durable than any other impressions, as they are founded on religious superstition; just as Sir G. Wilkinson tells us that the incision in mummies was always performed with a flint, long after the introduction of iron as an instrument, because the system originated before the use of metals. The Cornelian family at Rome kept up the custom of interring the dead entire, long after the practice of cremation. Sylla was the first of his race who ordered his body to be burned. In the same way our peasants, although immensely attached to their churchyards, are averse to alterations, such as planting trees. We had some limes planted in our churchyard many years ago, which, for a time, gave great offence. The grand assemblage of trees in a necropolis of the extent you contemplate would produce a noble effect. Allan Cunningham wished, naturally enough, to repose where daisies grew ; and another poet (Moore) describes the wish of the friends of the departed, to
“ make her a grave where the sunbeams rest,
When they promise a glorious morrow.” To a lover of the vegetable world, a desire to repose amid a forest of various trees is the most consonant to his pursuits and feelings. Hitherto we have been contented in England with the yew, as the southern nations were with the cypress, which alone Horace permits to follow us to the grave:
-“ Neque harum, quas colis, arborum
Úlla brevem dominum sequetur.”
Francis's trans. But enough for the present. - H. A. M. May 3. 1843.
Preservation of Fruits. After what I sent you in my last letter (see p. 186.), I know not what there is of novelty in the method of preserving fruits by M. Loiseleur Deslongchamps so much lauded in the French journals, and announced in the Mémorial Encyclopédique for 1838, p. 420., in these terms:“ The Royal Society of Horticulture formerly proposed a prize for the preserration of fruits ; the question has been completely resolved by M. Loiseleur Deslongchamps, who has decided that it is necessary to have recourse to artificial cold to retard the maturation of fruits and to render it stationary, and to whom a gold medal has been awarded in consequence at the general meeting of the 3d of June, 1838. His simple and inexpensive method, which consists in keeping the fruit well enclosed and protected from moisture, and at an equal temperature a little above that of melting ice, might have been made a very advantageous speculation for the inventor; but this learned agriculturist preferred giving gratuitously to the public a process which will no doubt become the basis of a new species of industry. * M. Loiseleur Deslongchamps had boxes made of zinc 1 ft. high and 6 in. broad, with a detached lid of the same metal with a projecting rim. He wrapped each of his pears in a piece of thin (?) paper (papier Joseph), and over that another cover of common brown paper ; the pears being thus enveloped, he placed them in layers in his boxes till they were full. Each box contained, in general, from eighteen to twenty pears, disposed in four or five layers, one above another, and the pears only separated from each other by the thickness of the sheet of paper. The boxes being filled, M. Loiseleur Deslongchamps replaced the lid, sealed it hermetically by pasting thick paper on the rim, placed several of these little zinc boxes in a wooden case, and deposited the whole in an ice-house immediately on the ice.”
The wells and cisterns of Marcus Columella have the same effect as the icehouse of M. Loiseleur Deslongchamps; and the closing hermetically, and the impermeability to moisture, are found as well in the vases of Columella as in the zinc boxes of M. Loiseleur : it only remains to be seen if the fruit preserved according to the process of Loiseleur turns speedily sour, like the grapes preserved according to the method of Columella.
All this, and many other things which for brevity's sake I omit, might be communicated to M. W. C. Bosse, who announces : “ I intend to make more experiments on preserving plums, particularly by putting them in closely stopped bottles, and immersing them in water. There is no doubt but this attempt will be successful, because an equal temperature and exclusion of air seem to be the principal agents in preserving fruit, and where can both be obtained with greater certainty than in water ? (See Gardener's Magazine, for 1839, p. 604.) - Giuseppe Manetti. Monza, April 27. 1843.
Cato's Method of preserving Grapes.-" The ancients for the most part preserved in vases the sircitulan, venuculan, larger aminian, and Gallic grapes, and those which had the largest berries, hard and loose. Now, in general, the grapes of Numidia are more especially preserved for this use. They are gathered when they are tolerably ripe, in a calm sky, when the sun has dispelled the dew, at the fourth or third hour, in the wane of the moon and after it has set. The stalks are immediately sealed, and they are then put upon a lattice in such a way that one bunch does not touch or rub against another. Having done this, they are brought in doors and the decayed berries are cut off with the scissors ; and being somewhat refreshed in the shade, three or four bunches are put in an earthen vessel, and, the lid being put on, they are thoroughly sealed down, so that no moisture may penetrate. After this a mass of grape dregs which have been well pressed are thrown on the top of them, and after having scattered about the stalks a little, and separated the husks, you form a bed of them in the cask, in which these vases are to be distributed with the mouth downwards, and so much space left between them as that the dregs may be heaped up and trodden in. This first bed being made with the dregs well trodden in, in the same manner another is formed with the vases. Afterwards, other strata are formed with the vases in a similar manner in the casks, and in the intervals the dregs are well pressed in. After which the dregs are heaped up to the brim of the cask, which is immediately covered, and the lid fastened down with ashes prepared like cement. We must warn those who buy the vases not to purchase those that are porous or ill burnt, because, in either case, they would admit the damp, which would spoil the grapes. It is also necessary in taking out the vases to remove an entire layer of them, for, when the accumulated husks are once moved, the grapes soon become sour and spoil.” — Idem.
Garden Walks.— In order that garden walks should not be dusty or muddy, and be easier to free from grass, or rather produce as little as possible of it, it was proposed in your Magazine to use asphalt, a sort of gum (catrame), and pyroligneous acid. (See Vol. for 1839, p. 188, 189. 618. and 619.) Let us see if there is not something analogous in Marcus Porcius Cato. In chap. 92. and 130., we read : “In making a walk, let the earth be finely dug and well saturated with lees of oil, then pulverise it, and level with a roller or mallet. Sprinkle a second time with lees, and leave it to dry. Such a walk will suffer no injury from ants, grass will not grow on it, nor will it be sloppy after showers." Now, what great difference is there, either in the chemical composition or in the effect, between the dregs (morchia) of the ancient Sabine, and the gum (catrame) and asphalt of the moderns ? – Idem.