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subject to heat, or to the pressure of highly elastic fluids, proved utterly useless. The various sorts of flange and thimble joints were found but little better. The cement joints of the butt, mitre, and T forins, now so commonly used by gas-fitters, are, under ordinary pressures, sound joints, and soon made ; but, like all joints depending for their tightness on cements, which must be applied in a hot state, they are unavoidably the cause of a good deal of trouble, and of some cost, when one pipe, or any number of pipes, of a series is required to be removed for repair or renewal, or for any purpose of temporary convenience. In the right and left hand screw joint, introduced by Mr. Perkins, mechanical pressure has been substituted with excellent effect for the ordinary cements ; but this, too, is liable to the objection that any pipe of a series thus jointed together cannot be removed or replaced without great dfficulty. Mr. Perkins endeavoured to obviate this objection by an improvement which he patented a year or two ago, though with but indifferent success. What was still left wanting, by all who had applied their ingenuity to the subject, was, a mode of connexion at once perfectly tight and easily dissolvable; a sort of joint which could with equal readiness be made and unmade, and in the unmaking thereof be attended with little trouble and no expense.
The improvements we speak of are variously modified as they relate to cast-iron pipes, wrought-iron pipes, and soft-metal pipes; but they have this general and remarkable characteristic, that every pipe carries, as it were, its own key, by which it can be made fast and unfast at pleasure; the key, too, so inseparable from the pipe that it can never be mislaid, and a key so simple withal that it requires only to be turned round. (Mech. Mag., Feb. 11. 1843.)
Art. II. Foreign Notices.
FRANCE. GRAFTING the Vine. — It is now becoming general, in this part of France, to graft the vine in the vineyards. I employ a man for this purpose, who last year grafted 4000 stocks. We have the best of grapes here, which in the ripening season are eaten by every body in immense quantities. I have been in the habit of forwarding contributions to periodical publications during the last fifty years ; and, so far back as the year 1790, was a constant writer in the Annals of Agriculture, and, even now that age has checked my activity, I employ some hours every day at my writing-table. I have a small but productive garden, in wbich I take my exercise and watch the cultivation of my vines and roses with great pleasure. Every returning spring seems to bring new pleasures, and I am especially delighted with the bulbous flowers, such as the scillas and the wild tulips, which, with many others cultivated in gardens in England, are indigenous in this neighbourhood.-E. W. Blois, March 12. 1843.
Camellias have been raised from seed in the open air in the Botanic Garden at Avranches by M. Bataille, the curator of that establishment. M. Bataille and his friends appear to think that, by being raised in the open air, and allowed to continue there without protection, the species will become acclimatised ; but, though the individual plants will doubtless prove bardier than if they had been brought up in a greenhouse, we doubt the possibility of increasing the hardiness of the species. (See Journal d'Avranches, May 12. 1843.)
ITALY. Monza, April 27. 1843. — I have delayed hitherto from sending you the remainder of my critiques on the different articles in your valuable periodical from sheer want of time. His Imperial Highness, my master, seeing that the stoves of these royal gardens were not capable of containing the number of exotic plants which he possessed, and that he could not gratify his ardent desire of enriching his collection with new species, ordered two others to be constructed, each of the length of 18:10 metres, breadth, 6.10 metres, and of the height of 6.65 metres. They are to be heated by Perkins's method. But I have been more particularly occupied in laying out a new botanic garden for perennial exotics only. I have distributed them as you have suggested in your Hortus Britannicus, in the Introduction to the Natural System. I divided accordingly the whole area into six compartinents, four of which I destined for Exogens, viz. three for the subdivision Dichlamýdeæ, which comprehends the Thalamiflòræ, Calyciflòræ, and Corollifòræ; the fourth for the subdivision Monochlamýdeæ ; the fifth was destined for the Endogens, and the last for the Acrogens. Then I subdivided these compartments into as many spots as there are orders or families which comprehend perennial exotic plants that live in the open air, so that the surface of this garden (unquestionably new for Italy, as all the botanic gardens which I have hitherto seen, and which I know, are geometrically laid out) has the appearance of a geographical map on which the empires, kingdoms, and principalities are laid down.
During the last year the collection of these royal gardens has been much enriched. I shall here transcribe, to avoid prolixity, only those trees and shrubs which stand the open air. Acer campestre lævigàtum A. Brit., A. c. heterocarpum Booth, A. c. taúricum Booth, A. lobàtum Bosc, A. colchicum Hort., A. col. rùbrum Booth, A. taúricum Booth ; A'lnus autumnàlis Lodd., A. denticulàta C. A. Meyer, A. subcordàta C. A. Meyer, A. barbàta C. A. Meyer, A. oblongata W.; Berberis heterophýlla Juss., B. sanguinolenta Schr., B. buxifòlia Lam., B. hýbrida Booth, B. mitis Schr.; Bétula grándis Schr., B. álba póntica Hort., B. a. urticæfòlia Hort., B. glandulosa Lodd., B. Thouínii Lodd.; Búxus sempervirens caucásica Booth ; Calophaca wolgàrica Fisch. ; Caprifolium prolíferum Booth ; Carpinus Carpinizza Hort.; Castànea vesca asplenifolia Hort., C. v. downtoniàna Booth ; Céltis occidentalis scabriúscula W.; Cérasus Pseŭdo-Cérasus Lindl., C. hyemalis Mx.; Clematis nepalensis Dec., C. sibírica Mill., C. smilacifolia Wall., C. sp. of North India ; Cratæ'gus Oxyac. reginæ Hort., C. 0. punicea A. Brit., C. apiifòlia mìnor A. Brit., C. Douglàsü Lindl., C. macracantha Lodd., C. purpurea Bosc, C. altàica d. Brit. ; Cytisus triflòrus Hort., C. purp. atropurpureus Hort., C. p. incarnatus màjor Hort., C.p. incarnatus minor Hort., C. p.ròseus Hort. ; Deùtzia canescens Sieb., D. undulàta Booth ; Elæágnus hortensis eryvanénsis H. Vind., E. h. soongárica H. Vind., E. salicifolia Encyc. of Trees and Shrubs : Fráxinus oxyphylla taúrica Booth ; Genísta thyrsiflòra Booth; Hédera Hèlix chrysocárpa A. Brit. ; Hippóphaë salicifolia D. Don; Juniperus flaccida Schlcht., J. nepalénsis Hort., J. communis oblonga A. Brit., J. c. Smíthü A. Brit., J. c. canadensis Encyc. of Trees and Shrubs, J. c. nàna W., J. c. oblonga péndula E. of Tr. and Sh., J. lýcia L., J. recurva Ham., J. Sabina variegàta Hort., J. Sabina prostràta A. Brit., J. Bedfordiàna Hort., J. squamata Don, J. thurifera L.; Ligústrum vulg. angustifolium A. Brit., L. v. A. (not fr.] luteo Booth ; Mahònia Roýlei Booth, M. sp. of North India; Mertensia lavigàta H. B. & K.; Menispermum dahùricum Dec.; Philadelphus coronàrius fl. pl., P. mexicànus Schlcht., P. tomentosus Wall., P. Gordoniànus Lindl. ; Pópulus balsamífera macrophylla Booth, P.balsamífera suaveolens A. Brit., P. b. salicifolia A. Brit., P. candicans bélgica H. Vind., P. trémula péndula A. Brit., P. trépida W. , P. trépida ; Pinus Coúlteri Doug., P. Teocote Schlcht., P. pátula Schlcht., P. excelsa Wall., P. Pseudo-Stròbus Lindl., P. Hartwegü Lindl., P. oöcárpa Schiede, P. oocarpoides Benth., P. Russelliana Lindl., P. apulcénsis Lindl., P. macrophylla Lindl., P. filifolia Lindl., P. californiana Lois., P. occidentalis Swz., P. Montezuma Lamb., P.leiophylla Chamisso, P. pérsica Hort. ; Abies Smithiana Lindl.; Picea religiosa A. Brit.; Araucària imbricàta Pav., A. Cunninghàmia Ait., Paulownia imperiàlis Sieb. ; Prùnus spinosa dúlcis Booth; Pýrus pubens Lindl., P. latifòlia glabràta Booth ; P. heterophylla Steud.; Potentilla glabra Booth; Rhamnus Pallàsü f. et m. Hort. Brit., R. spatulæfòlia f. et m., R. dahurica Pall. ; Quércus castaneifòlia C. A. Meyer, Q. castaneifòlia caucásica Booth, Q. mongólica Fisch., Q. pannónica Booth, Q. rùbra taraxacifolia Booth, Q. rubra undulata Booth, Q. xalapensis H. B., Q. sp. cochleàta Booth ; Ribes resinòsum Ph., R. Menzièsü Ph., R. nigrum fruct. máximo, R. rìgens Mx.; Rubus nutkànus Mocin., R. hírtus W. K.; Rhús copállina leucántha Jacq.; Spártium scopàrium f. plèno; Spiræ'a alpina Pall., s. lanceolata Poir. ; Táxus Harringtònia Knight, T. baccàta fastigiata A. Brit.; Thùja nepalensis Lodd., T. orientalis strícta Hort. ; Tetranthèra geniculata Nees, T'ília europæ'a Hort. (not L.), T.e. grandifolia corylifolia H. Vind., T.e. begoniæfolia Booth, T. e. dasýstyla Booth, T. americàna heterophylla A. Brit., T. a. macrophylla H. Vind.; Vaccinium salícinum Chamisso, V. sibiricum Hort., V. uliginosum L. V. elevátum Banks, V. corymbosum L., V. halleriæfolium Lodd., V. colchicum Booth ; U'Imus montàna Heyneàna H. Vind. ; Viburnum daùricum Pall.
By this you will see the love our excellent viceroy has for plants, and for the advancement of his favourite science in the kingdom committed to his care. The catalogue of the plants in these royal gardens is now being printed; as soon as it is finished I will send you a copy that you may have some idea of what we possess.
The Bokhara clover has germinated; when it is tolerably grown, it will be transplanted as your correspondent Taylor did, who was very successful with it. We shall see if it succeeds equally well here, and what comparison it bears with the common clover and with the lucern, with respect to the quantity and quality of the forage.
The cultivation of heart's eases, called Pensées Anglaises, because the finest came from your happy country, where horticulture is carried to the highest pitch, is all the fashion here. Although I am not a fashionable man, yet even I am enchanted with so lovely a flower, of which there are some very fine ones. - Giuseppe Manetti.
NORTH AMERICA. Indigenous Trees of North America not yet introduced. — It is very true, as you observe, that in Torrey and Gray's Flora a great many trees and shrubs, as well as herbaceous plants, are described, which are not yet introduced into England ; and I have sometimes thought of collecting them, and cultivating them for sale. To do this profitably, however, I would require to give it personal attention, which at present I cannot do, having a very extensive business already on hand ; and good practical labour cannot be permanently secured here unless at a very extravagant rate. As soon as young men are two or three years in my employ, and save a few hundred dollars, they at once begin in some part of the States on their own account. If they have proved faithful to me, I give them a quantity of stuff, at little or no charge, to begin upon. My nursery foreman and house propagator have each forty dollars a month.-U. Philadelphia, Feb. 14. 1843.
State of the Country. - This country is at present under a cloud of disgraceful distress. Bankruptcy, a few years ago, was considered a branded shame upon the individual or corporation ; but now honour has gone to the winds, and its place is occupied with roguery and breaches of trust. There have been 1500 failures in this city and county during the past fifteen months; and hundreds of individuals who lived in comparative wealth, whose all was invested in stocks, are now in actual want of food and raiment. The widow and daughters who lived in style are now in a room or garret, sewing for their daily bread. Men who had retired from business with honour, and whose heads were silvered with age, have again begun the world of trade without a penny. Consequently, in all this wreck our business has suffered severely ; our losses have been great indeed. In this city there were, in 1842, seven stores, or shops, the occupiers of which lived by selling seeds and
plants, five of which have failed. The last bankrupt notice I had was a few days ago, from the old, and considered wealthy, house of M‘Mahon and Co. ; an event which has been daily expected since last September. I think we have now touched the bottom, and that our star is again on the ascendant. We anticipate, therefore, the dawning of brighter days. I cannot close this without calling your attention to the tact and talent of the gardeners that are required for this world of labour. It grieves me to see many of our profession arrive without a solitary reference as to their abilities and character, which should be from men of public standing in England to some nurseryman of the United States, who then can with confidence recommend such to situations ; which, by the by, are “ few and far between,” but yet, when obtained, are generally worth keeping. It is working, reading, thinking, temperate men we want; and, as we go on the locomotive principle, they must move actively ; and independently of these qualities, if they have not a knowledge of trees and plants, they had better not cross the Atlantic. The period of arrival should be in March and April : at any other time it will be difficult for strangers to find employment. It is a fact, that many come as ignorant of the present advanced state of horticulture, as if they had just emanated from the middle of the sixteenth century in a confused dream of the science of British gardening in the present day. – U. Philadelphia, Feb. 14. 1843.
The Culture of American Vines in Germany. - You will perhaps be surprised when we tell you that, of the American species and varieties of grape vine, there are not less than 200 sorts deserving cultivation for the table or the wine-press, and that we have this month executed an order for 120 plants, of thirty varieties, for the Margrave of Baden.-W. R. Prince and Co. Flushing, near New York, Jan. 30. 1843.
NEW ZEALAND. The New Zealand Horticultural Society. — I have the pleasure to inform you that the Jardin des Plantes of Paris has last autumn made a large collection of seeds, and sent them to Mr. Ward, New Zealand House, London, to be forwarded to the Horticultural Society at Wellington, New Zealand. I expect that by this time the word Zoological is added to the term Horticultural, and that the Society will print their Transactions quarterly, and forward them to England. I have no doubt that the settlements which have been made in this island will, in a few years, be among the most important of English colonies. Nelson appears to be backed by an almost boundless extent of country, admirably adapted for English agriculture and gardening, with a superior climate, and land of inexhaustible fertility. The river Nelson flows through a valley of 10,000 acres of rich alluvial soil. – E. W. Blois, March 12. 1843.
The Wellington Horticultural and Botanical Society was formed at Port Nicholson before that settlement was two years old. It is prosperous, and has already been extremely useful. The secretary of the Society, Dr. Featherstone, is in correspondence with Mr. Robertson, the superintendant of the Botanical Gardens, Sydney, who has already contributed a number of plants and cuttings; and with Messrs. Loddiges, who, in a letter to R. Stokes, Esq., treasurer to the Society, published in the New Zealand Colonist of Sept. 9. 1842, offer to send out boxes of whatever may be required from England, in exchange for the same boxes returned full of native plants, more especially Coníferæ, Orchideæ, and Ferns. Of all the countries that we have ever heard of, New Zealand is the one that a person whose delight is in plants should prefer to emigrate to; because, though its native flora is one of the most limited found in territories of equal extent, yet such is the mildness of the climate, that plants from a greater number of different regions may be grown in it, than can be grown, as far as we know, in any other part of the world. Under the protection of glass, with scarcely any artificial heat, we believe the pineapple, and every other sub-tropical and tropical plant, may be cultivated ;
and the mosses of Sweden and Norway may be grown on the mountains. Young gardeners and farmers who can command 1001. or 2001. cannot, all circumstances considered, emigrate to a better country. There may be better bargains got in Canada, and more money to be made there, but the severe winters are great drawbacks to rural occupation and enjoyment. We are happy to think that one very excellent gardener, Mr. Trotter, late gardener to J. T. Brook, Esq., of Flitwick, Mrs. Trotter, and their two ons and two daughters, sailed for New Zealand on the 15th of the present month, May, 1843. — Cond.
Art. III. Domestic Notices.
ENGLAND. The Botanical Section of the Tower Street Mutual Instruction Society hold their meetings one evening weekly, at a quarter past 8 o'clock. The prospectus is before us of twenty-four Lectures on Botany, the subscription for the whole of which is only one shilling. The lecture room is in No. 16. Great Tower Street, and there are several gardeners who attend, though nothing like so many as would do so were they aware of the very moderate charges. Meetings for discussion are held on the evenings of every Monday and Wednesday. The lecturer on Botany is Mr. Robinson, and there are above twelve other gentlemen who lecture on Chemistry, Entomology, Geometry, Drawing, Agriculture, Domestic Economy, and a great variety of other subjects. This Institution was commenced in January 1836, and only requires to be known to obtain the support of the neighbourhood. - Cond.
Warping Lands on the Thames. — Some months ago, one of the banks which protect Crayford Level, near Dartford, from the overflowing of high tides gave way, and the river flowed over several acres during sixteen tides, leaving a deposit of nearly an eighth of an inch in thickness of rich sediment every tide." Those lands are now let at a rental of from 20s. to 30s. per acre per annum, and I have no hesitation in saying that I would engage to make thein worth three times that rental within eight or ten years, at a trifling expense. I know lands on the banks of the river Parrott, in Somersetshire, let at four guineas per acre, but the sediment floating up and down that river is not to be compared to the rich manure of the Thames, which takes the wash of London. - James Easton. 80. Blackfriars Road, May 10. 1843.
Draining.–The Duke of Hamilton has been making considerable improvements in the neighbourhood of Garstang for some years past, not only in draining but in the fences and water courses. All the unsightly fences and water courses have been removed, and new ones made. Some may be seen, I suppose, half a mile long, and the fields made about 17 rods wide, parallel to each other, which gives them a very striking effect when viewed from a distance. Cross fences are also made at proper distances with great judgement, and there is no doubt that a great quantity of land will be brought into cultivation by these improvements which has lain uncultivated for ages. The following is the plan of the fences
6 and water courses. Fig. 80. a is the water course into which the turf drains run ; b, the thorns or hedge ; the bank is raised a very little above the field when the thorns are planted, as shown in the figure. When the thorns have stood
$ about a year, the angle c is sloped down to the thorn, as Fig. 80. Section of the Hedge and Ditch Fences at Garslang. shown by the dotted line. The reason of the bank being raised at the first