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When we visited Mr. Rendle's nursery in September last (see our Vol. for 1842, p. 546.), we were shown one of these tanks, but Mr. Rendle not being at home, and besides being in a great hurry, and having before seen at Bristol tanks of water heated by steam, in order to produce bottom heat, Mr. Rendle's tank did not make that impression on us which might have been expected. Count Zubow's tank heated by steam, and also those in the Bris. tol Nursery, will be found figured and described in the Horticultural Society's Transactions, and in the earlier volumes of the Gardener's Magazine.
Remarks on the Management of Orchideous Plants, with a Catalogue of those in
the Collection of J. C. Lyons, alphabetically arranged, with their native Countries, and a short Account of the Mode of Cultivation adopted. 12mo, pp. 96. with several woodcuts. Ladiston, Ireland, 1843.
The author, in a printed circular which we received with his book, has directed our attention to what he calls “his Oniscamyntic (oniscus, the woodlouse, and amunā, to repel] Epiphyte Stand,” which, among other merits, has that of being easily formed by every gardener for himself.
“Procure from the potter a pan generally known as a feeder, with a raised centre and a hole in it, into which the forked branch of a tree is to be made fast. In the forked part, the plant is to be fastened with zinc or copper wire, and the roots covered with moss. The branches can be cut to any desired length, so as it does not overbalance the bottom. I have them from 12 in. to 36 in. long. The bottom of the feeder should be made thick and heavy, which will cause it to stand steady and firm. They may be made of different sizes, and the branches cut to different lengths. Should the plant increase in size and weight so as to become unsteady, a larger bottom can easily be substituted. I have several plants of Oncidium, Papilio, Stanhopea, Lä'lia, and Catasetum, &c., growing in the forked branches, which succeed remarkably well; the foliage of all the plants so grown is much more luxuriant, and of a darker and richer green than those grown in lumps of peat, and at this moment (November) the branch of the tree is covered with the roots firmly attached to it, having in many instances penetrated the bark. They were, until the idea of the stand in their present state occurred to me, fixed in common pots, made steady with yellow clay pressed hard; but those in the stands are much preferable, as they contain a quantity of water in the feeder, which prevents the attacks of insects, and also contributes to the moisture of the atmosphere by evaporation. I am strongly of opinion they will be found an excellent improvement on pots for almost every Epiphyte, and will not occupy more space; besides, they have the advantage of allowing smaller plants to be placed between them.
“I strongly recommend the feeding-pans to be procured-from Mr. John Thompson, Annfield Pottery, Glasgow, who executed my order with neatness and dispatch.”
The work contains various remarks on culture, extending to 32 pages, illustrated by woodcuts ; and the remaining 64 pages contain a monthly calendar. We were surprised to find, in p. 21., the author deriving the word Epiphyte from epi, upon, and fuo, to grow, instead of epi, upon, and phyton, a plani, as given in various botanical and gardening works. We have no doubt the work will be found exceedingly useful to the inexperienced in the culture of Orchidàceæ.
A Treatise on the Growth of the Peach upon the open Wall. By John Smith,
Author of “ Treatise on the Growth of Cucumbers and Melons." 12mo, pp. 112, and three plates. London and Ipswich, 1843.
This is a sensibly written treatise by a gardener of much experience, and it may be safely recommended to the younger brethren or the amateur. Zigzag or serpentine walls Mr. Smith decidedly disapproves of, having in his youth had experience of several hundred yards of them. Instead of their
affording a quiet shelter, and inducing a general warmth, they are calculated
Copious and frequent watering Mr. Smith considers essential to the growth and fruitfulness of the peach, and this, we believe, is also the opinion of Mr. Smith of Hopeton House Gardens. “ The very finest and best Grosse Mignonne peaches I ever saw were grown by my friend and neighbour, Mr. William M'Credie, some years since, in a garden at that time occupied by him ; and their superiority, it is certain, arose from the constancy of the supply of moisture, communicated by means of a considerable-sized stream of water, which ran immediately at, and in close contact with, the north side of the wall against which the tree was planted. Again, the Barrington peach, cultivated under circumstances differing from the above, by the water being at the back of the wall, and stagnant, foul, and rising considerably above the surface of the soil on the south side, but removed in the latter end of the season, has been known to succeed admirably.
“There is in the mind of many gardeners an idea that dry, very dry situations are most favourable to the growth of the peach, and especially that there they are not liable to the attack of mildew; this, however, is a mistake, for in such places, and without a good supply of water being afforded, this tree is as liable to infection from that disease as in any situation whatsoever ; and indeed I have witnessed its existence upon a lofty and dry situation to a most deplorable extent, even while under the care of gardeners of no mean talent. I have also known one who, differing from them on the cause of mildew, ventured to recommend copious watering as the principal means of removing the pest. This course they adopted, and the result has been most satisfactory. That the application of an abundance of water to cold soils, &c., or in seasons which are unusually dull and cool, would be proper, let not any one suppose, for this would indeed be the extreme of absurdity. There should, under every circumstance connected with human operations, be cherished in the mind of the operator a due regard to that equilibrium which is 80 essential to the well-being of all created things.” (p. 91–100.)
"Were it needful still to enlarge upon the propriety of administering large quantities of water in a skilful manner, and on the beneficial effects thereof, the trees upon the walls of R. N. Shawe, Esq., of Kesgrave, between Ipswich and Woodbridge, under the management of my friend Garrod, gardener at that place, might be referred to as an undeniable proof ; for there the element exists in abundance, and runs in a large stream continuously just in front of, and at a few feet distance from, one of the principal south walls; the peach
and other fruit trees at the same time testifying that it does them no injury. The trees in this garden are generally fan-trained, and, though perhaps past their zenith, afford proof of no mean description in favour of that system.
“ In addition to the preceding remarks, I would say, let the operation be done judiciously; by which is meant : - First, with water which has been exposed to atmospheric influence for a considerable time, say not less than twenty. four hours. Secondly, when the leaves, &c., are to receive the benefit of this element, by its application from the garden engine, let it be water simply ; and by no means wash them with lime-water, for, if this be done, the probability is that an abundance will run down upon the bole of the tree, and the effect will be very injurious, though the cause of the mischief may not always be understood. I have known trees, the main stems of which have been bared of their bark on the part where the liquid ran down, from no other cause than this; but at the first I could not imagine from what source the evil had originated. Thirdly, in hot weather, let the operation be performed season. ably, that is, in the after part of the day, when the sun is declining from, and not when it is shining fully or powerfully upon, the wall. Fourthly, when the soil alone requires to be watered, let it be remembered that one good doing will be of more service than several make-believes. My own method is to prepare a trench at some distance from the bole of the tree, and, if the weather be hot, and the soil becoming dry, to pour the water in by wholesale, until the soil is completely saturated ; and, when the whole is passed away into the ground, the disturbed part is relevelled, and made to appear as if nothing of the sort had been done; thus the sun's influence upon the moistened ground is beneficial, whereas, were the surface exposed in a moist state, it would be injurious (by the cold that would be produced by the evaporation of the water). Such a watering as this, taking place shortly after the stoning is over, need not be repeated during the season ; but the surface of the border should be kept quite clean, and raked with a wooden rake at least twice every week, in order that the atmospheric and solar influence may be duly received, and thereby the perfect maturation of the fruit promoted." (p. 101–103.)
Mr. Smith protects the blossom buds in spring, and the article he prefers for that purpose is bunting. “During fine days it should be removed, and when the fear of frost is passed for the season, it must be taken away entirely." Syringing about sunrise after frosty nights he has also found an efficient substitute for coverings. An alarm bell, attached to ingenious and yet simple machinery, is described and figured, the object of which is to detect "fruitgatherers who have little regard to principle.”
The reader will see from these extracts that this is a valuable little manual of peach culture. Hortus Collinsonianus. An Account of the Plants cultivated by the late Peter
Collinson, Esq., F.R.S., arranged alphabetically according to their modern Names, from the Catalogue of his Garden and other Manuscripts. Not published. Swansea, 1843.
This is a catalogue with annotations, prepared from Mr. Collinson's copies of the sixth and eighth editions of Miller, and from other sources, which were in the late Mr. Lambert's library, and were purchased at its sale by L. W. Dillwyn, Esq., F.R.S., L.S., &c., of Skelly Hall, near Swansea. In printing it this botanist has rendered an acceptable service to his botanical friends, and through them, for the work is not sold, to the public. Under our article entitled Arboricultural Notices will be found some interesting extracts, which may be considered as supplementary to the historical part of our Arborelum Britannicum. In p. 59 and 60. there are some memoranda relating to the fruit and kitchen garden, which we shall have recourse to when we prepare a new edition of, or a supplement to, the Encyclopædia of Gardening. A Catalogue of Sicilian Plants ; with some Remarks on the Geography, Geolngy,
and Vegetation of Sicily. By John Hogg, Esq., M.A. 8vo, pp. 51. London, 1812. Extracted from the “ Mag. Nat. Hist.," and from the “ Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist.”
There are many plants enumerated in this catalogue that would form very desirable additions to the British garden. Among the trees and shrubs there are several, which, if they have been introduced, are now lost, or rare, and of these we shall give a list under our Arboricultural Notices. Thorburn's Catalogue of Kitchen-Garden, Herb, Flower, Tree, and Grass Seeds,
Bulbous Flower Roots, Greehouse Plants ; Gardening, Agricultural, and Botanical Books, Gardening Tools, 8c., for 1843. 12mo, pp. 68. New York. Parsons and Co.'s Catalogue of Fruit and Forest Trees, Ornamental Shrubs,
Plants, &c., for 1813. 8vo, pp. 40. New York. Rendle's Catalogue of choice Geraniums, Dahlias, Pansies, Fuchsias, Calceo.
larias, Greenhouse, Hothouse, and Herbaceous Plants, Camellias, &c., for 1843. 12mo, pp. 25. Plymouth. Each of these catalogues is a very copious list of the plants and seeds of
Timely Hints, addressed to the Landlords and Tenantry of England, Scotland,
and Ireland ; showing, in a few Words, the only obvious, easy, and certain Means by which they can severally continue to derive and pay fair Rents from the Soil, under the present certain, and prospective possible, Depreciation in Value of British rural productive Industry, &c. &c. By their “ Country Cousin.” Pamph. 8vo. pp. 46. London, 1843.
According to this author the present backward state of agriculture is mainly owing to the well-known incapacity of lawyers as managers of landed property; and his remedy consequently is, the employment of resident stewards or agents, who have received a competent, general, and professional education. The pamphlet contains a great variety of quotations, authorities, and opinions, all bearing on the subject of the title, and tending to show that all the present difficulties of landlords and tenants are to be overcome by superior cultivation. Letters to the Farmers of Suffolk. By the Rev. J. S. Henslow, M.A., Rector
of Hitcham, and Professor of Botany in the University of Cambridge. London and Hadleigh, 1843.
We take much blame to ourselves for not having before noticed the extraordinary exertions which Professor Henslow is making in Suffolk for the advancement of agriculture. These exertions commenced with some lectures on the nature of plants and soils and manures, delivered at different times in the course of the last two years to the farmers, his parishioners, and they have led ultimately to the publication of the pamphlet before us, the history of which is thus given.
“ These letters were published in three of the county papers. Their object was to direct the attention of the farmers of Suffolk to the great importance of conducting their experiments in such a manner as might render any results obtained by them available to the progress of science, and consequently to the more rapid improvement of agriculture. With this view, an extensive systematic cooperation has been strongly insisted on; and the success which has attended one appeal for the trial of a particular experiment, to be undertaken by not less than fifty experimenters, has led to a persuasion that it would be very easy to organise a system of experimental cooperation among a very large body of the farmers of all England. I have, therefore, determined on republishing these letters, with the addition of a few notes, and a glossary of ierms, in hope they may be serviceable in persuading others to imitate the example of my own neighbours. As I am not to be personally benefited by the sale of this publication, though I bear the expense of it, I have no scruple in requesting my personal friends, acquaintances, and correspondents, to assist me in promoting its circulation as widely as possible. They will find a confident hope expressed in it that some scheme will shortly be organised for securing the object which is there suggested, and which has received the approbation of persons well competent to judge of its importance and practicability. The pamphlet includes also an address delivered last December to the Hadleigh Farmers' Club, on the theory of manuring; and the letters discuss, in a popular manner, the functions of the leaf, and a few other topics which may be considered of general interest to practical agriculturists.-J. S. Henslow. April 27. 1843.”
We most strongly recommend this pamphlet, not only to every one interested in agriculture, but to the gardener and the scientific amateur. On the Laying out, Planting, and Managing of Cemeteries ; and on the In
provement of Churchyards. With 60 Engravings. By J. C. Loudon, F.L.S., &c. 8vo, pp. 120. London, 1843.
The whole of what is contained in this volume, with the exception of three lithographic plates, will be given in the Gardener's Magazine. Four articles have been published, and there remain five to be given, so that the last will be in the November Number. A History and Directory of the Borough of Derby, intended as a Guide to
Strangers visiting the Town. By Stephen Glover. 8vo, pp. 256, numerous woodcuts. Derby, 1843.
This work is judiciously drawn up, and it is illustrated by numerous woodcuts, exhibiting views of the churches, and all the more remarkable buildings, of tombs, antiquities, and of the buildings erected in the Derby Arboretum. It also contains plans and sections of the Arboretum, a description of it, and an account of the gallery of paintings, sculpture, &c., in the residence of Joseph Strutt, Esq., the benevolent founder. Restoration of the Church of St. Mary, Redcliffe, Bristol : An Appeal by the
Vicar, Churchwardens, and Vestry; with an Abstract of Reports by Messrs. Britton and Hosking; and an engraved Plan and Views of the Church. 4to, pp. 28. Bristol, 1842.
The engraving of the restored church is very handsome, both in regard to design and execution, and we trust funds sufficient will be raised for carrying the improved building into effect. The Latin Governess, a Manual of Instruction in the Elements of Latin, for the
Use of Teachers of Latin generally, but more especially of Mothers and Governesses. By John W. Freese, B.A. 12mo, pp. 163. London and Westerham, 1843.
This work is quite original in its plan, and, though intended chiefly for governesses, yet we think it also well adapted for the self-instruction of young gardeners. It is much to be desired that some amateur botanist and gardener, who is a classical scholar, would write a Latin grammar expressly for practical gardeners ; illustrating it as far as possible by passages taken from the specific characters and descriptions of plants, with just enough of syntax to enable the student to read botanical works, which are frequently written in Latin. Such a grammar, and a short selection from these works, embracing all the difficulties likely to occur, would form a complete course for the practical gardener.
ART. I. General Notices. Juckes's Smoke-consuming Furnace, which may be seen in action at the Manufactory, “the Grove," Great Guilford Street, Southwark, consists of a series of bars attached together so as to form an endless chain, which tra