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1. Bulbous Iris, 18 plants. Commelina tuberòsa, 27 plants. 2. Edging of Snowdrop, 30 patches. Standard Roses, 4 plants. German
Asters. 3. Edging of Snowdrop, 30 patches. Standard Roses, 4 plants. German
Asters. 4. Edging of Snowdrop, 30 patches. Mignonnette. Dahlias, 7 plants. 5. Edging of Snowdrop, 30 patches. Tulips, 200 roots. Scarlet Geraniums,
25 plants. 6. Edging of Yellow Crocus, 30 plants. Standard Roses, 4 plants. Chry
sèis cròcea. 7. Edging of Blue Hepatica, 14 plants. Carnations, 18 plants. 8. Edging of Heartsease, 26 plants. Dahlias, 7 plants. 9. Edging of Heartsease, 26 plants. Hyacinths Single, 200 roots. Shrubby
Calceolarias, 25 plants. 10. Edging of Purple Auricula, 30 plants. Standard Roses, 4 plants. Dwarf
Larkspur. 11. Edging of Purple Auricula, 30 plants. Double Anemones, 200 roots.
Nierembérgia linearis, 25 plants. 12. 20 select Herbaceous Plants in two rows, with a patch of Narcissus be
tween each plant, for an early bloom. 13. Narcissus between each plant, with patches of Fritillaria melèagris, &c. 14. Edging of Yellow Auricula, 30 plants. Standard Roses, 4 plants.
Schizanthus venustus. 15. Edging of Yellow Auricula, 30 plants. Ranunculus, 200 roots, Ana
gállis Monelli, 25 plants. 16. Edging of Red Hepatica, 14 plants. Picotees, 18 plants. 17. Edging of Heartsease, 26 plants. Dahlias, 7 plants 18. Edging of Heartsease, 26 plants. Jonquils, 200 roots. Lobèlia pro
pínqua, 25 plants. 19. Edging of Blue Crocus, 30 roots. Standard Roses, 4 plants. Callióp
sis bícolor. 20. Edging of Snowdrop, 30 roots. Standard Roses, 4 plants. German
Stocks. 21. Edging of Snowdrop, 30 roots. Double Tulips, 200 roots. Sálvia pà
tens, 25 plants. 22. Edging of Snowdrop, 30 roots. Mignonnette. Dahlias, 7 plants 23. Edging of Snowdrop, 30 roots. Bulbous Iris, 18 roots. Tigridia pa
vonia, 27 plants. 24. Edging of Snowdrop, 30 roots. Standard Roses, 4 plants. German
Stocks. 25. Edging of Striped Crocus, 30 roots. Standard Roses, 4 plants. French
Marigold. 26. Erythronium Dens cànis, 14 roots. Pinks, 30 plants. 27. Polyanthus, 26 plants. Dahlias, 7 plants. 28. Van Thol Tulips, 200 roots. Sálvia fulgens, 25 plants. 29. Hepatica, 30 plants. Standard Roses, 4 plants. "Godètia rubicunda. 30. Turban Ranunculus, 200 roots. Heliotropium peruviànum, 25 plants. 31. 20 select Herbaceous Plants, in two rows, with a patch of Martagon Lily
between each two Herbaceous Plants. 32. 20 select Herbaceous Plants in two rows, with patches of Gladiolus
communis, or any other hardy species. 33. Single Anemones, 200 roots. Nierembérgia lineáris, 30 plants. 34. Hepatica, 30 plants. Standard Roses, 4 plants. Brachýcome iberidi
folia. 35. Double Hyacinths, 200 roots. Petunia phænicea, 25 plants. 36. Double Primrose, 26 plants. Dahlias, 7 plants. 37. Scilla bifolia, 14 patches. Pinks, 30 plants. 38. Striped Crocus, 30 patches. Standard Roses, 4 plants. African Marigold.
a, Basin of Water, with an enriched sculptured vase in the centre, with jet
d'eau, or other contrivances that the proprietor may choose, according
to the head and supply of water that he has at command. b b, Figures, or Groups of Figures, emblematical of the beauties or riches
of the vegetable kingdom. c c, Vases, elevated on pedestals proportionate to the size of the vase,
filled with handsome specimens of plants in flower, to be changed
when required during summer. dd, Beds of choice varieties of Fuchsias, or of choice Pelargoniums.
An Arrangement of Plants for the Flower-Garden fig. 50., by which, when the
Beds are once stocked, they will require very little annual Preparation to keep up the Stock of Plants ; and which may be suitable for some Gardens where there is not the Convenience of much Glass, and where it is desirable that the Whole should be kept up at comparatively little annual Expense of Labour. By Mr. Pringle. 1. Erica herbàcea. Kalmia of species. 2. Snowdrops. Early flowering Annuals. Dahlias. 3. Snowdrops. Early flowering Annuals. Dahlias. 4. Narcissus. Fuchsias. 5. Eranthis hyemalis. Common China Roses, trained on a flat trellis. 6. Yellow Crocus. Delphinium of Species. 7. Gaultheria Shallon. Yellow Azaleas. 8. Fritillària. Fuchsias. 9. Grape Hyacinth. Noisette Roses, on a flat trellis. 10. Auriculas. Herbaceous Plants mixed. 11. Polyanthus. Provence Roses, Dwarf. 12. American Plants mixed. 13. American Plants mixed. 14. Auriculas. Herbaceous Plants mixed. 15. Prímula farinosa. Scotch Roses, Dwarf. 16. Gaultheria procumbens. Azaleas, Red. 17. Gentiana acaulis. Scarlet Geraniums. 18. Erythronium Dens càniş. Bourbon Roses, on a flat trellis. 19. Crocus, Blue. Potentillas of different species. 20. Snowdrop. Early Annuals. Dahlias. 21. Adònis vernàlis. Tea-scented Roses, on a flat trellis. 22. Orange Lily. Sálvia pàtens. 23. Andromedas of different species. 24. Snowdrops. Early Annuals. Dahlias. 25. Striped Crocus. Phlox of species. 26. Vacciniums of species. 27. Pulsatilla vérna. Petunias. 28. Scilla bifòlia. Hybrid China Roses, on a flat trellis. 29. Hepatica. Herbaceous Plants mixed. 30. Prímula cortusoides. Perpetual Roses, Dwarf. 31. Rhododendrons of different species. 32. Rhododendrons, Hybrids. 33. Alpine Auricula. Moss Roses. 34. Hepatica. Herbaceous Plants mixed. 35. Hyacinthus monstrosus., Macartney Roses, on a flat trellis. 36. Gladiolus. Fuchsias. 37. Vacciniums of different species. 38. Striped Crocus. Pentstemon of different species. a a, b b, c c, as in the preceding arrangement. d d, Rose Pillars; or Roses trained on an umbrella or other fancy trellis.
Remarks. By each of the above arrangements a good bloom may be obtained during the flowering season ; and out of the two a third might be arranged. Thus, by taking the beds, 2. 3. 6. 10. 14. 19. 20. 24. 25. 29. 34. and 38. of the first arrangement, and joining them to the second, the garden would then be a rosary; by which, with a proper selection of successional kinds, with the bulbs and other plants used as edging to the beds, a regular supply of flowers might be obtained.-J. P.
(To be continued.)
ART. IV. Notice of a heating Apparatus in the Gardens of His
Grace the Duke of Wellington at Strathfieldsaye. By John John
SON, Gardener there. THE apparatus (fig. 51.) consists of a stove (originally Dr. Arnott's) and two copper cylinders. The stove contains two copper boilers 1 ft. deep and 3 in. wide, which form the fire-box of the stove, out of which the boiling water flows by the top pipe into the cylinder, and returns by the lower pipe into the bottom of the boiler. The cylinders have each thirty tubes, 1 in. in diameter, extending through the whole length (amongst which the water flows), giving out an extent of heated surface Fig. 51. Heating Apparatus at Strathfieldsaye. equal to the outside of the cylinder, and through which the air circulates. The dimensions are, stove 1 ft. 6 in. square, and 3 ft. 9 in. in height, including the ornamental cap on the top, which is 4 in. deep; cylinders 1 ft. 6 in. in diameter, and the same height as the stove, including the caps.
It consumes exactly one bushel of coke per day, the half of which is supplied every morning and evening. The water is supplied by a covered valve near the top of the cylinder, as seen in the figure. There is a small pipe for evaporation at the back part of the cylinder. The ornamental caps are movable, and conceal the tubes of the cylinders and the feed-hole of the stove. The smoke escapes by a tube at the back of the stove, communicating with a flue built in the wall.
There are two of the above apparatuses in the conservatory at this place, which is 67 ft. long, 27 ft. wide, and 21 ft. high, and which for the last four years has been sufficiently heated to preserve the plants from injury from cold or damp.
Strath fieldsaye, Feb. 11. 1843.
ART. V. On making Garden Besoms. By A. F. Seeing nothing, in any of your numerous works on gardening and rural economy, on the manufacture of an article the most essential to, and most generally used in, every well-kept garden, I have taken some pains to point out to you, and, through your Magazine, to my friends in the wide field of gardening, the manly use of besoms, and a very superior mode of manufacturing them. It is nothing of my own, nor is it, perhaps, new to some of your readers ; but certainly it is not known or practised by one in a hundred that have the greatest occasion to do so.
I need not tell you, or any other gentleman or gardener at all acquainted with rural affairs in this country, that besoms are made of birch, heather, or any other tough spray that can be most readily come at; but I must tell you that, when the birch is got in lengths of 3 ft. from the top, it is to be singled by tearing the strong forked branches asunder with the hands without any tool, and when this is done the besom-builders begin, two to form the faggot, and one to bind; and, by the following contrivance, six score may be bound in an hour by one man.
A rope, of the strength and suppleness of window sash-cord, is to be attached to a beam in the roof of a shed, as in fig. 52., and it must be long enough to let one end reach the floor; this end is to be in a double of the cord for a man to put his foot into, like a stirrup. The faggot of birch, straight and the right size for the besom, is handed to this man, who puts his cord once round the birch, and, setting his foot in the stirrup, tightens the faggot in the place where the first tie from the tip is to be, and keeps it tight till he puts a tarred string twice round and ties it ; then, shifting his cord to the place where the other tie is wanted, tightens and ties that in like manner ; with such a thorough command of, and such an ability easily to compress, these otherwise unyielding materials, as cannot fail to please the workmen and profit the employer, who thus gets a day's tying done in an hour; and, instead of making this trade an excuse for idling away wet days, the gardener
Fig.152. Contrivance for may get a waggon-load of birch worked into besoms in
binding Birch Besoms. the course of a day, by half a dozen handy labourers.
Now for the wielding of the instrument after it is made; and we shall take, as an example, the cleaning of a lawn after a morning's mowing. Every alternate swarth is to be raked with a common hay-rake, or other blunttoothed rake, in such a way as to leave a breadth of two swarths for the long-handled besom. Along the centre of this cleared space, a man starts with a flattened besom on the end of a nine-foot handle, and sends all the grass that he meets with right and left, leaving these two swarths cleanly swept. A boy or a woman, with a short-handled besom, follows after, and sweeps ten yards of this ridge upward, and ten yards downward, thus leaving the lawn studded with heaps of grass 60 ft. apart one way, and 15 or 18 feet apart the other way. This is again basketed into the grass-cart by a man and a boy with a couple of boards and a besom. When this plan is followed all is regularity; the long-handled besom, doing the bulk of the brushing without ever having to touch a blade of grass twice over, is a manly straight-forward sweeper; for the person stands upright as a dart, and moves forward in a line, swinging his arms on even balance, furrowing the greensward, whilst the women and boys with their four-foot besoms lay it in heaps.
The handles of the besoms should be shod with iron in the form of an arrow head, and have a ferrule on the other end, to prevent the wood from giving way in the act of putting the heads of birch on the besom's tail ; and, when done in this manner, the same handle will last a life-time, and be softer and smoother for the hand than the rustic cudgels that besom-makers tail their faggots with, and sell to cockneys for garden brooms. Staffordshire, March, 1843.
ART. VI. The Squirrel. By CHARLES WATERTON, Esq. HORTICULTURE and zoology are contiguous provinces. Surely, then, no one in these days of liberality can find fault with Mr. Wighton for straying a little out of bounds. Let him not fear the apparition of a birch rod.
If squirrels injure the shoots of my spruce firs, which they are known to frequent, trivial indeed must be the damage, and quick the reparation by old Dame Nature, for the trees bear no marks of aggression.
Had squirrel been wild, in the wild woods, at the time that Mr. Wighton saw it eat the birds, I should not hesitate to pronounce that individual squirrel to be carnivorous, because I believe that Mr. Wighton would only state what he conceived to be “correct.” Still, we must allow that there are exceptions to all rules. Don Quixote put Sancho Panza in mind that summer did not always set in with the appearance of the first swallow. Sir William Jardine shot a barn owl in the very act of hooting. Probably, neither the baronet, nor any body else, will ever perform a similar feat, for barn owls do not hoot.
I gather from Mr. Wighton's communication of January 3. [p. 117.], that his squirrel was in captivity when it partook of a carnal repast. This single fact at once precludes the possibility of the squirrel family being raised to the rank of carnivorous animals. The incarceration only of “a few days” might have injured the prisoner seriously, either in his nervous system, or in his gastric powers, or in his olfactory sensibilities. Now, a sudden derangement in all, or even in any one, of these component parts of a squirrel's frame, might have affected his health sufficiently to have induced him to try a change of larder; and, should this have been the case, I don't know a nicer morsel for the alterative system than a tender and a well-fed swallow. Under existing circumstances (loss of liberty, to wit), I am not at all astonished that Mr. Wighton's squirrel should dine on bird, raw or roasted we are not informed; even though the said squirrel were well supplied, on the same table, “ with his favourite kind of food.”
I wish we knew more than we do of the carnivorous propensities, or the want of them, in certain animals. We might then be able to account tolerably well for many strange occurrences, which every now and then puzzle us so much, in the workings of zoo