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secondly, he is frightened at the thoughts of the hard laborious work he will have. It is of no use for any man to think of going to work in a market-garden, that has not made up his mind to persevere and be industrious, and to make himself generally useful; no skulking about is ever suffered there. I used to find it a difficult matter to procure a good lodging; I have paid more than one fourth of my weekly earnings for one, and then had my cupboard sadly pillaged and robbed.
The next subject I shall address you upon will be my method of growing and forcing mushrooms; they spring out of the earth so quickly, and they are a very useful vegetable indeed.
Bicton Gardens, Oct. 31. 1842.
Art. III. On Laying out and Planting the Lawn, Shrubbery, and
Flower-Garden. By the ConducTOR. The principles which serve to guide us in laying out the details of a place are derived from its natural and artificial character, and the wants and wishes of the proprietor. By natural character is to be understood the condition of the situation in respect to climate, the kind of surface, the nature of the soil, subsoil, rock, and springs, ponds, rills, or other forms of water, or the
By artificial character we mean the style of the architecture of the house, the present state of the ground as far as art is concerned, and the various topographical circumstances ; such as roads, trees, neighbouring houses, cottages, villages, manufactories, &c. The wants and wishes of the proprietor require to be attended to no less than the character of the ground and the locality. An important object, in the first place, is to ascertain the extent to which he will go in regard to expense. Next his peculiar taste and that of his family are to be studied, and, as far as practicable, accommodated ; except in the case of what the artist considers bad taste. In this case he must respectfully submit his reasons for what he proposes, and endeavour to argue the matter with his employer. Should he fail in producing the conviction desired, it will be a question for him to resolve how far he can, consistently with his own reputation, sanction the production of what he considers in bad taste; at the same time carefully distinguishing between taste which is inherently bad, and taste which is merely peculiar. For example, suppose an employer wished to terminate a vista with a landscape painted on canvass ; or to introduce, in a verdant scene, a flat surface of boards painted so as to resemble a rock or a cottage?. This taste, except in the garden of a guinguette, we should consider as radically bad; and should respectfully protest against it in the pleasure-grounds of a private gentleman.
Bearing these data in view, there are three styles or systems of art, according to which lawns and shrubberies may be laid out. The first of these is the geometric style, characterised by lines which require to be drawn geometrically; that is, on paper by the aid of a rule or a pair of compasses, and on ground by similar means ; the second is the picturesque style, characterised by that irregularity in forms, lines, and general composition, which we see in natural landscape ; and the third is the gardenesque style, characterised by distinctness in the separate parts when closely examined, but, when viewed as a whole, governed by the same general principles of composition as the picturesque style, the parts, though not blended, being yet connected.
The geometric style admits of several varieties, according to the prevailing features. In one case architectural objects, such as stone terraces, steps, parapets, stone edgings to beds, stone margins to basins, may be prevalent;
and this will constitute the architectural style. In another, statues, vases, and other sculptural objects, may be frequent in a geometric garden, and constitute, of course, the sculpturesque style. Where the trees and shrubs are for the most part cut into artificial shapes, whether architectural, such as walls (hedges), arcades, pyramids, &c., or sculptural, such as statues, vases, and other tonsile works, the result is the tonsile style, or verdant sculpturesque. Where stone terraces, terrace gardens, and sculpture are combined, the result is the Italian style; and grass terraces, turf mounts, and straight canals constitute the Dutch style.
The picturesque style varies according to the natural character of the surface, and the kind of art employed. It may be the hilly, the rocky, the aquatic, the trivial or common, or the elegant or refined, picturesque. The trivial picturesque may be applied to garden scenery in which only the common trees and shrubs of the country are planted, and the grassy surface is left, like that of a common pasture, without either the wildness of the forest glade, or the smoothness and polish of the lawn. The rough picturesque is exemplified in a surface more or less irregular or broken, among the grass of which ferns and other strong-growing plants spring up along with low shrubs ; such, in short, as we see on the margins of forest glades, where the bushes have been kept down by the browsing of cattle and sheep. The elegant or refined picturesque is exemplified in lawns and pleasure-grounds, where the surface has been reduced to smooth undulations, levels, or slopes, and where the trees and shrubs grouped on these surfaces are of exotic species, or of such varieties of the common kinds as are not frequently to be met with. Other varieties of the picturesque, resulting from rocks, water, &c., will readily occur to the reader.
The gardenesque style is to gardening, as an art of culture, what the picturesque style is to landscape-painting, as an art of design and taste. All the trees, shrubs, and plants, in the gardenesque style, are planted and managed in such a way as that each may arrive at perfection, and display its beauties to as great advantage as if it were cultivated for that purpose alone; while, at the same time, the plants, relatively to one another and to the whole scene or place to which they belong, are either grouped or connected on the same principles of composition as in the picturesque style, or placed regularly or syminetrically as in the geometric style. Hence there are two distinct varieties of the gardenesque, the geometric gardenesque, and the pictorial gardenesque; and of each of these there are subvarieties arising from the use, in connexion with them, of architecture, sculpture, common trees and plants, or exotic trees and plants, &c. The tonsile style, however, can never be united with the gardenesque, because it violates the fundamental principle, that of allowing each plant to grow in such a manner as to come to perfection"; nor will the picturesque, because in that style every tree and shrub is left, unpruned, to assume the form which it takes by nature, or which it may be forced to assume by its connexion or grouping with other trees and shrubs.
Mixed Styles. --Two or more of these styles may be employed in the same pleasure-ground, but not indiscriminately mixed there. When more than one style is employed, it can only be done with a good effect by using the styles in succession, in different parts of the same pleasure.ground. For example, the Italian style may prevail on the lawn front of the house, and may lose itself in grass terraces of the Dutch style ; beyond which may be exhibited, first the gardenesque, and then the picturesque ; but to introduce alternately portions of geometric or tonsile scenery with picturesque scenery would distract attention, and be destructive of that first of all principles in composition, the unity of the whole, which can only be produced by the connexion and harmony of the parts. Such scenery cannot be rendered tolerable otherwise than by being the effect of neglect, and exhibiting the character of a garden in ruins ; of which there are a few fine specimens in the country, produced by only partially keeping up scenery originally in the tonsile style.
It is much to be regretted that the tonsile style is not occasionally revivcd,
for the sake of variety, and the striking effect which it would produce from its novelty. At present, the most general mode of laying out pleasure-grounds, whether on a small or on a large scale, is to adopt the architectural, or the Italian, style, immediately on the lawn front of the house; and, where this style terminates, to commence either with the picturesque or the gardenesque style. We shall illustrate these two modes by two sketches. Fig. 47.
represents a small pleasure-ground, laid out in the gardenesque style, with the trees and shrubs in vertical profile ; a b represents a terracegarden, embracing the house on three sides ; the fourth being the entrance front. The general surface of the ground is supposed to be flat, but the terrace is raised 6 or 8 feet above it, as indicated by the steps at a and b. At the base of the steps, the ground may be supposed to be 3 ft. above the general surface, whence it slopes gradually till it becomes united with it. A walk commences at a, and is continued by d and c to b. On the supposition that the grounds are more extensive than is shown in the figure, a second walk commences at d, and is continued through a shrubbery to the kitchen-garden and farm, from which it returns by c; so that either a long walk or a short one may be taken without going over the same ground twice. There are two circles marked w w, which represent basins of water for watering the beds, and for a few of the most showy water plants. All the beds are circular, and vary in diameter from 18 in. to 3 ft. All the naked circles are supposed to be planted with flowers, one kind in a bed; or temporary shrubs, such as roses, cistuses, &c. ; while the others are planted chiefly with flowering shrubs, some beds containing among these a low or fastigiate tree. The greater number of the shrubs are supposed to be rhododendrons, azaleas, kalmias, lilacs, roses, cistuses, and other shrubs which make a great show when in flower, and form compact bushes at all times. In a number of the small circles, standard roses and dwarf or trailing plants grafted standard high, such as Cotoneaster buxifòlia, Halimodendron argenteum, &c., are supposed to be planted, in order to combine to a certain extent the singular with the gardenesque ; but the great object, in laying out and planting this lawn, is to exhibit a blaze of flowers from the windows of the house and the surrounding walk.
It may be necessary to observe that it is not essential to the gardenesque that the beds should be circular ; they may be of any other regular form, and they may even be irregular : but the circular shape is by far the best for entering into composition, either with one another or with scattered trees or shrubs ; and what gives it a decided preference over all other forms is, that it is best adapted for culture.
Fig. 48. is a plan, with the trees in elevation, of the same space of ground as in fig. 47. It is laid out chiefly in the picturesque style, but combines also
the architectural, the gardenesque, and even in a slight degree the geometric, style. The entrance front of the house is at a, in the entrance court. There is a terrace-garden from b to c; and a walk commencing at b, proceeding by e and d, and returning to the terrace by c.. The scenery from c to d, and also that near the water basins w w, is decidedly picturesque ; that is, trees, shrubs, and flowers are grouped together in the same beds. On leaving the terrace at 6, we pass between small trees, such as thorns, crabs, &c., placed at regular distances like an avenue, with circular flower-beds between; descends by a succession of square tazzas of stone to the basin, which is bordered by a stone kerb.
b b are circles of grass to harmonise with the grass of the lawn beyond; in the centre of each circle there are a pedestal and statue.
cc are pedestals for vases, containing select flowers. dd are square beds for standard roses, and mignonnette in suinmer ; and winter aconite, crocuses, scillas, &c., during early spring.
List of Plants for the Flower-Garden fig. 50. By Mr. Frost. As the beds are narrow (3 ft. wide), Mr. Frost observes, I have confined the list to rather weak-growing plants ; if they had been 5 ft. wide, I should have added many things, such as petunias, salvias, &c., which would probably grow too large ; though some persons, by care, might render these kinds suita able. I have chiefly included such things as we grow here, and what I know to be good. The small square beds not numbered will do well for standard roses and mignonnette; but I should have in them crocuses of sorts, Scilla præ'cox, s. ama'na, Erythrònium Dens cànis (the three varieties), and snowdrops ; also tulips in the beds allotted for planting afterwards with pelargoniums, or any of the other bulbs alternately, as it gives the garden a gay appearance early in the spring. The stock beds, 16, 26, &c., might be succeeded by later-sown stocks, or clarkias, collinsias, nemophilas, or any other hardy annuals : indeed, they might be sown in the autumn for the spring show as well as for that of summer, and used instead of tulips where tulips are not to be easily obtained. I have endeavoured to pair the beds, so that each corresponding bed should have plants of similar habits ; and, should any one wish to deviate from the list laid down, they might readily substitute some favourite plant that might range for height and colour ; such as the verbenas, for example, of which there might be better sorts selected than I have now specified, which can be arranged according to the same principle. – Philip Frost. Dropmore Gardens, March 7. 1843. 1. Nierembérgia gracilis.
20. Tropæ'olum majus flòre pleno. 2. Lobelia Erìnus.
21. Calceolària viscosissima." 3. Nolana atriplicifolia.
22. Pelargonium, Ingram's scarlet. 4. Pelargònium, Cooper's dwarf 23. Lobelia unidentàta. scarlet.
24. O'xalis tuberosa. 5. Calceolària angustifolia.
25. Alonsòa linearis. 6. Fuchsia Bréwsteri.
26. Rose-coloured German Stock. 7. White ten-week Stock.
27. Calceolària Stewartü. 8. Isótoma axillaris.
28. Gladiolus cardinalis. 9. Lobelia spléndens.
29. Pelargonium, cup-leaved pink. 10. Heliotropium peruviànum. 30. Pelargonium compáctum. 11. Pelargonium Daveydnum.
31. Verbèna, Ivory's queen. 12. Verbena pícta.
32. Verbena máxima. 13. Verbena formosa.
33. Pelargonium pavoninum. 14. Lantàna Selloviàna.
34. Senècio élegans flòre pléno. 15. Pelargonium, pink nosegay.
35. Lobelia propinqua. 16. Purple German Stock.
36. Pelargonium, Prince of Orange. 17. Lupinus nanus.
37. Scarlet ten-week Stock. 18. Ferrària pavonia.
38. Fuchsia globosa. 19. Alonsòa incisifolia.
List of Plants which will keep up a Show of Flowers in the Flower-Garden
fig. 50. til June. By Mr. CAIE. 1. A'rabis præ'cox. White.
4. Alyssum saxátile. Yellow. 2. Eranthis hyemalis. Yellow. 5. Hesperis repánda. Purple. 3. Scilla hyacinthoides. Blue. 6. Tulipa Gesneriana.