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would also enable the grave-diggers to wheel them away, one after another, as fast as they were filled, and, when the grave was completed, to leave it quite free on every side for the approach of mourners, who would in this case walk on the turf, instead of walking on loose earth or planks. This result is sometimes obtained by throwing all the excavated soil into wheelbarrows, and removing these to a short distance, there to stand till the coffin is deposited. Either of these modes is much better than the common one of throwing up the soil on each side of the grave, and obliging the coffin-bearers to clamber over it. As the grave-boxes are readily taken to pieces, they can be stowed away, in sheds or tool-houses, in little space.
The grave-platform is a flooring of boards about 10 ft. long by 5 ft. broad, with an opening in the middle, of the shape and dimensions
of an ordinarysized coffin. It is hinged, so as to fold together lengthwise. Its use is io place over the grave, after the soil has been removed in boxes or barrows, for the double purpose of forming a guide to the lowering of the coffin, and a floor for those who lower it, who in Scotland are commonly the relations or mourners, to stand on. In most cemeteries loose boards, or two or three boards nailed together so as to form a platform, are laid down on each side of the grave, leaving the ground at the end of the grave uncovered ; but this arrangement is far from being so complete and commodious as a hinged plat-. form.
The grave-cover is a low roof of light boards, or of a frame and canvass, of dimensions sufficient to cover the opening of a newly made grave, and with handles like those of a hand-barrow, to allow of carrying it readily from place to place. Its use is to exclude rain or snow; and also, in the case of a very deep grave, to guard against the danger of persons approaching too near its edge. In large cemeteries it is found convenient to have at all times two or three graves prepared, both common graves and brick graves, ready to admit of interments on the shortest notice. The unoccupied brick graves are commonly protected by the ledger which is to constitute their permanent cover and finish, but the common graves are protected from the weather by the portable cover described.
The grave-mould is a box without either bottom or top, but with the sides and ends shaped like a coffin, to serve as a guide to the form of the graveridge, or mound of earth raised over a grave immediately after interment. When the grave is filled to the brim and properly rammed, the box is placed over the soil, and more is added and firmly rammed till the box is full, when the soil is raised in the middle, and rounded off in the manner seen in all neatly kept churchyards. Afterwards the grave-ridge is covered with turf, or planted with flowers. In some of the London cemeteries the stone. crop is planted on the grave-ridge, and forms a very neat evergreen covering, always within bounds. Some of the evergreen saxifrages might be used for the same purpose ; and a friend has suggested that the common thrift would be an excellent plant, as its thick mass of dark green grass-like foliage would contrast with the light green of the grass forming the common covering of the cemetery. Where economy is an object, grass inoculation or grass seeds might be resorted to.
A clergyman's shelter is unnecessary where a tarpaulin or a movable shed is used over the grave; but, where this is not the case, it may be formed of five pieces, viz. A flooring of boards, or, to prevent slipping when the boards are wet, as well as to render the floor lighter, of wooden grating, raised one or two steps above the general surface, in order to give the reader of the service a more commanding position. To this floor three sides, each consisting of a frame of canvass, are readily fixed by means of studs in the lower rails of the sides, dropping into holes in the framework of the bottom ; and they are as readily connected together by hooks dropping into eyes. The roof-piece, which ought to be raised a little in the middle to throw off the rain, can readily be dropped on four iron bolts, fixed in the upper ends of the styles of the sides. The whole may be painted black; and, when not in
use, it should be taken to pieces, and kept in a dry airy situation. A tent or movable structure, to cover not only the clergyman but the inourners assembled, either during rainy weather or hot sunshine, might be formed without difficulty, and at no great expense. The framework might be light iron rods ; and the canvass might be so arranged as to be drawn up and let down like the awnings to tulip beds, or the outside gauze shades to hothouses. (See Sub. Hort., fig. 115. p. 175.)
The other articles of cemetery furniture having nothing particular in their construction, and being in use either by mechanics, ground workmen, or cultivators of the soil, do not require farther notice.
Roots and Plants.— In some of the London cemeteries dahlias are planted in the summer season, and these are kept through the winter in the unoccupied catacombs, and, with geraniums and other greenhouse plants, are brought forward in spring in frames in the reserve ground, or in some other concealed part of the cemetery, or perhaps in an adjoining garden or nursery. In the reserve ground of the great cemetery at Rouen, there is a large greenhouse, and the curator lets out plants in pots during summer at so much a pot, undertaking to keep them watered and trimmed, to decorate graves and monuments.
(To be continued.)
Art. II. Bicton Gardens, their Culture and Management, in a Series
of Letters to the Conductor. By James Barnes, Gardener to the Right Honourable Lady Rolle.
(Continued from p. 113.) LETTER XII. Reasons for following the Business of a Market-Gardener. HAVING sent you a rough description of a few things contained in these noble gardens, before I commence giving you my method of growing, training, &c., my fruit trees and plants, I will tell you my reasons for following the business of a market-gardener for so many as twelve years. Hearing, when a boy, gentlemen's servants and others that had been in London talk of having there seen such fine and early fruits and flowers, I always felt anxious to go there to see them grow; and I started when quite young for that purpose, and got work with a noted cucumber and mushroom grower; a good grower too of grapes, pines, and melons, and a forcer of all early fruits and flowering plants. I stopped there more than four years, until I thought there was nothing more to learn. I next went as framer to a large market-gardener, quite on the other side of London ; where I had the charge of 1000 lights of framing, 2600 hand and bell glasses for growing cucumbers, melons, early potatoes, &c., forcing asparagus and sea-kale in an extensive way, and fourteen acres of beautiful ground for vegetable-growing, under the spade, managed in a first-rate style as to cropping and the general management of it. I remained there until I thought I knew all I wanted, and then went to a very extensive grower of grapes, peaches, pines, strawberries, mushrooms, and all kinds
of salads, fruits, and vegetables. I from there went to an extensive general grower of out-door fruits ; having twenty-six acres of cropping ground under the spade, with more than 600 lights of framing for the early forcing of various things, and about 1200 hand and bell glasses ; so that, in those twelve years, I had the opportunity of seeing the different methods of sowing and growing, from the commonest vegetable and salad to the most rare and expensive fruits. Market-gardeners, generally speaking, are the most industrious persevering class of men I ever met with; but they are at an enormous expense, and subject to very heavy losses. Nobody has an idea to what expense they go; and their men taking the year through) I consider to work harder, and to have more hardships to contend with, than
other class of men I have ever met with. Two thirds, or more, of the men are Irish; at least they were so at the time I followed that kind of business; and I never met with more than one Scotchman amongst them as a workman. I have kept an account of the expense of working one acre of ground under the spade, reckoning the rent, taxes, manure, horses, &c., and getting the produce to market, and I found it averaged
per acre. I have heard hundreds of people complain of being tired with working ; but they never knew what it was to follow marketgardening for one year in the neighbourhood of London. If they had done so, they would soon have found out what it was to be tired. I have worked, and been paid, at the rate of ten days a week; and generally made, at some work or other, eight days all the season, for some years, out of my time. I could sleep as well riding on the top of a load all through London to Covent Garden as I now can on a bed, and have done so many times; and sometimes then what little sleep I did get was on the pavement in the old market, amongst vegetables, and before the business of the market began, and I never thought it any hardship
The method the market-gardeners have of cropping and changing their crops is astonishing to many. For instance, you will see a large space of ground cropped, and arrived at the greatest state of perfection one day, and in about three days afterwards you will see it all gone; the ground manured, trenched, and cropped, almost in the space of time a WestCountry man would turn round to reply to a question.
Some of them pay their workmen ready money every night ; others three times a week; others twice a week, and some every Saturday evening. The reason why we find so few of these workmen afterwards as gentlemen's gardeners (in my opinion) is, first, that, if a man is a scholar, he thinks he can make better use of his time than following market-gardening; secondly, he is frightened at the thoughts of the hard laborious work he will have. It is of no use for any man to think of going to work in a market-garden, that has not made up his mind to persevere and be industrious, and to make himself generally useful; no skulking about is ever suffered there. I used to find it a difficult matter to procure a good lodging ; I have paid more than one fourth of my weekly earnings for one, and then had my cupboard sadly pillaged and robbed.
The next subject I shall address you upon will be my method of growing and forcing mushrooms; they spring out of the earth so quickly, and they are a very useful vegetable indeed.
Bicton Gardens, Oct. 31. 1842.
ART. III. On Laying out and Planting the Lawn, Shrubbery, and
Flower-Garden. By the CONDUCTOR. The principles which serve to guide ys in laying out the details of a place are derived from its natural and artificial character, and the wants and wishes of the proprietor. By natural character is to be understood the condition of the situation in respect to climate, the kind of surface, the nature of the soil, subsoil, rock, and springs, ponds, rills, or other forms of water, or the
By artificial character we mean the style of the architecture of the house, the present state of the ground as far as art is concerned, and the various topographical circumstances ; such as roads, trees, neighbouring houses, cottages, villages, manufactories, &c. The wants and wishes of the proprietor require to be attended to no less than the character of the ground and the locality. An important object, in the first place, is to ascertain the extent to which he will go in regard to expense. Next his peculiar taste and that of his family are to be studied, and, as far as practicable, accommodated ; except in the case of what the artist considers bad taste. In this case he must respectfully submit his reasons for what he proposes, and endeavour to argue the matter with his employer. Should he fail in producing the conviction desired, it will be a question for him to resolve how far he can, consistently with his own reputation, sanction the production of what he considers in bad taste; at the same time carefully distinguishing between taste which is inherently bad, and taste which is merely peculiar. For example, suppose an employer wished to terminate a vista with a landscape painted on canvass ; or to introduce, in a verdant scene, a flat surface of boards painted so as to resemble a rock or a cottage? This taste, except in the garden of a guinguette, we should consider as radically bad; and should respectfully protest against it in the pleasure-grounds of a private gentleman.
Bearing these data in view, there are three styles or systems of art, according to which lawns and shrubberies may be laid out. The first of these is the geometric style, characterised by lines which require to be drawn geometrically; that is, on paper by the aid of a rule or a pair of compasses, and on ground by similar means; the second is the picturesque style, characterised by that irregularity in forms, lines, and general composition, which we see in natural landscape ; and the third is the gardenesque style, characterised by distinctness in the separate parts when closely examined, but, when viewed as a whole, governed by the same general principles of composition as the picturesque style, the parts, though not blended, being yet connected.
The geometric style admits of several varieties, according to the prevailing features. In one case architectural objects, such as stone terraces, steps, parapets, stone edgings to beds, stone margins to basins, may be prevalent;
and this will constitute the architectural style. In another, statues, vases, and other sculptural objects, may be frequent in a geometric garden, and constitute, of course, the sculpturesque style. Where the trees and shrubs are for the most part cut into artificial shapes, whether architectural, such as walls (hedges), arcades, pyramids, &c., or sculptural, such as statues, vases, and other tonsile works, the result is the tonsile style, or verdant sculpturesque. Where stone terraces, terrace gardens, and sculpture are combined, the result is the Italian style; and grass terraces, turf mounts, and straight canals constitute the Dutch style.
The picturesque style varies according to the natural character of the surface, and the kind of art employed. It may be the hilly, the rocky, the aquatic, the trivial or common, or the elegant or refined, picturesque. The trivial picturesque may be applied to garden scenery in which only the common trees and shrubs of the country are planted, and the grassy surface is left, like that of a common pasture, without either the wildness of the forest glade, or the smoothness and polish of the lawn. The rough picturesque is exemplified in a surface more or less irregular or broken, among the grass of which ferns and other strong-growing plants spring up along with low shrubs ; such, in short, as we see on the margins of forest glades, where the bushes have been kept down by the browsing of cattle and sheep. The elegant or refined picturesque is exemplified in lawns and pleasure-grounds, where the surface has been reduced to smooth undulations, levels, or slopes, and where the trees and shrubs grouped on these surfaces are of exotic species, or of such varieties of the common kinds as are not frequently to be met with. Other varieties of the picturesque, resulting from rocks, water, &c., will readily occur to the reader.
The gardenesque style is to gardening, as an art of culture, what the picturesque style is to landscape-painting, as an art of design and taste. All the trees, shrubs, and plants, in the gardenesque style, are planted and managed in such a way as that each may arrive at perfection, and display its beauties to as great advantage as if it were cultivated for that purpose alone; while, at the same time, the plants, relatively to one another and to the whole scene or place to which they belong, are either grouped or connected on the same principles of composition as in the picturesque style, or placed regularly or symmetrically as in the geometric style. Hence there are two distinct varieties of the gardenesque, the geometric gardenesque, and the pictorial gardenesque; and of each of these there are subvarieties arising from the use, in connexion with them, of architecture, sculpture, common trees and plants, or exotic trees and plants, &c. The tonsile style, however, can never be united with the gardenesque, because it violates the fundamental principle, that of allowing each plant to grow in such a manner as to come to perfection"; nor will the picturesque, because in that style every tree and shrub is left, unpruned, to assume the form which it takes by nature, or which it may be forced to assume by its connexion or grouping with other trees and shrubs.
Mixed Styles.-Two or more of these styles may be employed in the same pleasure-ground, but not indiscriminately mixed there. When more than one style is employed, it can only be done with a good effect by using the styles in succession, in different parts of the same pleasure.ground. For example, the Italian style may prevail on the lawn front of the house, and may lose itself in grass terraces of the Dutch style ; beyond which may be exhibited, first the gardenesque, and then the picturesque ; but to introduce alternately portions of geometric or tonsile scenery with picturesque scenery would distract attention, and be destructive of that first of all principles in composition, the unity of the whole, which can only be produced by the connexion and harmony of the parts. Such scenery cannot be rendered tolerable otherwise than by being the effect of neglect, and exhibiting the character of a garden in ruins ; of which there are a few fine specimens in the country, produced by only partially keeping up scenery originally in the tonsile style.
It is much to be regretted that the tonsile style is not occasionally revived,