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and a strict adherence to the key or tonic in a composition. The three primary forms, the circle, the triangle, and the square, have each only one proper position. The first, indeed, can take no position but one, while the secondary and tertiary forms have two proper positions, the horizontal and vertical. These positions must be strictly adhered to; for obliquity in this case is inadmissible, and, as already shown, can only be employed to produce angular forms. When the circle is the key or tonic adopted, the square and the equilateral triangle will be the leading features of the forms introduced into the composition. When the ellipsis is the tonic, their leading features will be the parallelogram and rhombus, whether the composition be horizontal or vertical. There can be no properly harmonious composition in which this classification is not attended to. No doubt men of great genius can do this instinctively, and to such, a knowledge of rules is superfluous: but rules are requisite to enable the generality of mankind to appreciate judiciously the works of men of genius.” (p. 48.)
ART. III. An introductory Lecture, delivered at King's College,
London, January 24. 1842, on the Principles and Practice of Architecture. To which are now added a few Notes, and some further Remarks on the modern Practice of Competition. By William Hosking, F.S.A., Architect and Civil Engineer. London, 1842. Pamph. 8vo, pp. 42.
The pages of this pamphlet are occupied in enumerating the various kinds of buildings, and operations connected with them, which fall within the province of the architect to originate and direct, with the author's particular opinions on the modern practice of competition. We shall make one short extract, for the sake of the last sentence.
“The largest class of buildings yet remains; and it will be found that, great as the variety of requirement is in buildings distinguished as public, it is even greater in the class of dwelling-houses; for, although every house may be resolved into the three departments which the uses and habits of social life require (every house having its sitting-room, its sleeping-room, and its cooking-room), the nobleman's mansion must have these multiplied and extended, with accessories to include all that human wants and wishes can demand; whilst the shopkeeper is content to expose his goods for sale in the best parts of his house, and to cook, eat, and sleep where his business may leave him room; and the labourer, in his turn, is but too glad to find his cottage so arranged by the economic skill of the architect, that cooking, eating, and sleeping have each a separate apartment. The idea of a peasant's cottage being included in the studies of an architect may excite a smile ; but, if architects were more employed upon peasants' cottages, there might be less occasion for their services in building county hospitals and union workhouses.”
ART. IV. Literary Notices. FREQUENT complaints have been made to us that we do not state the prices of the books which we review or recommend ; and the reason is, that we cannot do so, except under particular circumstances, without incurring the advertisement duty. We propose, however, in future to adopt the mode followed in the Literary Gazette, Atheneum, and similar journals, to give a monthly list of books, which we think worth purchasing or reading by gardeners or their employers, with their prices, unless we find some consequences resulting from the publishing of such a list, which we do not anticipate. Our list for this month is :
Hay on Form, 4to, 16s. (rev. p. 126.).
A POCKET Plant-Case for Ladies. Some ladies of our acquaintance who are remarkably fond of gardening, and particularly of raising plants from seed, having been lately residing principally in London, where they have no garden, have contrived a very ingenious substitute for a hotbed, by having recourse to their side pockets as a source of heat for germinating seeds. The seed, enveloped in some moist moss, is put in a small tin case, commonly one which has been used for pepperment lozenges, or acidulated drops. The case, so filled, is carried about the person constantly during the day, and put with the pocket under the pillow during the night. When the seeds have germinated, and the plumule, as well as the radicle, has appeared, the seed, having now become a plant, is taken out and planted in a pot. The same ladies have germinated seeds by suspending them over water in a hyacinth glass, or small carafe ; and in this manner they have raised trees from filberts, which, being afterwards planted in the open ground in the country, have, in the course of a few years, borne fruit. They have also raised oaks, sweet chestnuts, and various other plants.
Welch's Bricks for forming circular Flues, without any ad
6 ditional expense for materials or labour beyond what is necessary for the common square flues, well deserve the attention of the architect and builder. Two moulds are all that are necessary to effect
a the object, viz. moulds to make the bricks (a and b, fig. 13.), each 9 in. long. The idea is a peculiarly happy one and does Mr. Welch great credit. He has taken out a patent for it. Any direction may be given to the flues by beveling the bricks, which, of course, will require other two moulds.
Fig. 13. Welch's Bricks for circular Flues. Cond.
Turf Drains are used in different parts of the country, particularly in meadows and pastures. Mr. Saul recommends section fig. 14., and as a cover fig. 15., which is 10 in. long, 7 in. broad on the upper side, 5 in. broad on the under side, and 34 in. thick. When made of peat and thoroughly dried
View of a
in the sun, they are remarkably strong, and will last many years : some in this part of the country have stood for thirty years, both in land pastured
and under the plough. A man will cut about 2,500 of
rows to dry in the sun and wind. Fig. 15. Fig. 14.
dried Peal CoreringSection of a They stand a few weeks in this Turf Drain.
Turf for a Drain. way, and are then turned over and remain for some time longer. They are then piled up in rows three deep, so that the sun and wind get better at them than if they were all on the ground. In this state they remain till they are completely dried; they are then made into large stacks till they are wanted for use.
The stacks are so made that the rain passes off them the same as off the roof of a house. These peats are sold at 58. per thousand. The prime cost may be considered about 3s. per thousand. The man has about 28. 6d. per day, and labourer 2s. The time of cutting them is in April and June ; it will not do to cut them till the frost is over.
Fig. 14. shows the drain cut and furnished with the peat cover. The drain is cut from 20 in. to 30 in. deep, as circumstances may require. The workmen have spades made on purpose. The price of making these drains is 21d. per rood, so called here, which is seven yards in length, the materials being laid at the place. At this price a man will make about 28. per day. When the covers are placed on the drain, a little strong gravel or small stones are put in, as shown in the figure, to take the top water into the drain. The drain covers being on the principle of the wedge, weight increases rather than diminishes their strength, which is not the case with common draining tiles.M. Saul. Garstang, Dec. 22. 1842.
Perhaps the following plan may be added to the one above described. Where peat earth is not to be got, I have seen the following mode practised to a great extent, and it has been fairly proved to stand for a great number of years. The plan is simply this. Line out the drains in pasture lands; and, in cutting out the top sod, do it on the wedge system. The drains are cut the same as in fig. 14. The plan is called sod-draining. These sod-drain covers are cut so that the grass side is downwards. They are about 6 in. thick, and of the same length and breadth as the peat covers shown in fig. 15., and they are laid in the drain in the way before mentioned. I have been induced to try whether these sod covers could be forced into the drain by pressure, and have jumped upon them for this purpose, but found that the more I jumped upon them, the stronger they were ; so that, after the drains have been filled up according to the plan I sent you, there is no fear of their being injured by either cattle or carts passing over them. — Idem. Dec. 29, 1842.
By a subsequent letter from Mr. Saul, we learn that the Duke of Hamilton is supposed to have housed more than 100,000 of the turf-drain covers (fig. 15. above) on his estate in the neighbourhood of Lancaster, and that he would have housed more if they had been to be got ; but the demand by other proprietors and by farmers has greatly exceeded the supply.
Flower-pots with hollow Sides (figs. 16. and 17.), by Mr. Brown of Ewell, and Mr. Saul of Garstang:
Mr. Brown's Pot with hollow Sides (fig. 16. copied from the Gard. Chron. for 1842, p. 803.) may have the vacuity filled with water through a small orifice in the rim shown in the figure, or left empty at pleasure. Every
reader is aware that plants will be prevented from suffering from want of water when the vacuity is filled, and from having so much heat as usual carried off by evaporation from the sides of the pot when the vacuity is empty. Such pots are peculiarly suited for plants in rooms, and they might be rendered clean-looking or ornamental by being glazed externally. Care should be taken, however, not to glaze them of a green colour, nor to endeavour to render them ornamental by coloured imitations of flowers, or other natural objects, for reasons that we need not here insist on. The colour may be of stone or brick, and the ornaments, if any, should be sculptures, not paintings. (See Quatremère de Quincy On Imita- Fig. 16. Mr. Brown's Florer. tron.)
pot with double closed Sides. Saul's Fountain Flower-pot (fig. 17.) has hollow sides with a stopper, and it supplies the plant with water on the same principle that a glass fountain supplies a bird in a cage. An outer basin is made on the bottom of the pot, to which the water enters at a, and is carried round the pot in the basin, there being two or three holes through the bottom of the pot, as seen at bbb. By these means the water is drawn up from the basin by the roots of the plants ; or, if it should be desirable to prevent it from being drawn up, the exterior orifices of the holes which open
into the basin or saucer can be closed. The fountain is supplied with water by taking out the stopper c, the entrance into the basin at a being at that moment closed ; and, as soon as the water runs over
Fig. 17. Saul's Fountain Flower-pot. at с, the cork or stopper of that orifice is put in, and the stopper at a removed. This pot is the invention of Mr. Saul of Garstang, who sent the above description, and the sketch from which the engraving is made, on Dec. 5., and who informed us at the time that he had had them both some weeks by him. — Cond.
Stephens's Plant-protecting Flower-pot, with double Rim, of which fig. 18. is a section, was sent to us by Mr. James Stephens of Carr House, near Doncaster, a gardener who has read this Magazine from its commencement. It was sent in April last, but we did not receive it till Dec. 29. This pot not only supplies the plant with moisture where it is most wanted, but serves as a plant-protector, as there are but few creeping insects that will venture to cross Fig. 18. Stephens's Double-rimmed
Flower-pot. from one rim to the other when the space between is full of water. For plants that stand out in the open ground, Mr. Stephens has the pots made with two small holes, one on each side, half an inch from the bottom; and as there are no holes in the bottom, worms cannot get into the pots, nor can the roots of the plants root through these holes into the ground; advantages both of which are of no mean importance.
Mr. Stephens, though he invented these pots, has no pecuniary interest in them; they are manufactured by Robinson & Co., at Kiln-hurst, near Swinton Station, Yorkshire, at from one penny each upwards. Mr. Mearns of Leeds, and a number of experienced gardeners, Mr. Stephens informs us, declare this pot to be the most decided improvement hitherto made in flowerpots. — Cond.
A new Plough for raising Potatoes has been invented by Mr. David Goudie, overseer upon Hillhead Farm, near Kilmarnock. The implement somewhat resembles the grubber harrow, being held by two handles, drawn by two horses, and supported upon two wheels. Details will be found in the Kilmarnock Journal, in the Stirling Advertiser for October 14.; and the implement itself may be procured of Messrs. Drummond, Agricultural Museum, Stirling. Cond. The
Scotch Pine, a Substitute for Candle. Distillation of Oil of Turpentine from ils Roots. — The Pinus sylvestris, or native fir of Scotland, abounds with resinous matter and turpentine throughout its whole structure, which is particularly the case in the lower part of its trunk and roots. Dr. Howison, many years ago, when residing in and passing through various parts of the Russian empire, observed that the principal (or almost entire) light used by the peasantry in the northern departments was produced from slips or laths of the fir tree fixed horizontally, or in a slightly sloping direction, on iron stands, and set fire to at the lower extremity. "These laths might be a yard in length, and of small diameter. Each one gave a flame of greater size than a candle, and continued burning for a considerable time, when its place was supplied by a fresh one. Might not the same method be followed in some parts of Great Britain ? In the Highlands and northern islands of Scotland the peasantry use the extreme roots of the fir tree, dug out from the bogs and peat niosses, as a substitute for candle ; and, in consequence of the quantity of turpentine contained in them, they burn with vivacity and splendour, furnishing a brilliant light. Around the cottages or isbas of the Russian peasantry Dr. Howison observed the large roots of the fir tree, dug from the earth after the trunk had been cut down for the numerous useful purposes to which it is applied, lying indiscriminately about. These were obtained previously to the falling of the winter snow, which remains for seven or eight months of the year. Ďuring the above period, when no other more valuable work can be obtained, the peasantry break them down into small pieces with hatchets, put them into a small still, and obtain oil of turpentine in large quantities at no expense, the exhausted slips, the refuse of the boiler, from which the turpentine has been already extracted, furnishing fuel for the future fire. The receiver is a glass bottle with a hole in its bottom filled up with a plug. When the distillation is over the plug is withdrawn, the water, falling to the bottom from its greater specific gravity, is allowed to escape, and the floating oil of turpentine is retained. The sale of the turpentine pays the expense of dig. ging up the roots (which leaves the ground free for the plough), and allows a surplus for the labour. Might not the same be done by the unemployed labourers in some parts of Great Britain ? - H.
The Stimulus of Competition in Agriculture. — Our great manufacturers have thriven under the sometimes too feverish and intense, but yet generally wholesome, stimulus of competition. We think it can hardly be said that of late years this principle has been brought sufficiently to bear upon the growers of agricultural produce. We speak of them, as a body, with the highest respect ; they are the very trunk of our social health and strength : may the day never come when they shall cease to be the first among the classes of the noble country they adorn! But to say that they require to be stimulated; to say that, unless stimulated, they will not use their utmost and sustained efforts to devise the means of economising production, and of selling as cheaply as possible; and further, that the stimulus they may afford to one another cannot, under all circumstances, be considered sufficient ; all this is merely to say that they are men, and that they are not wholly exempt