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built for their own honour, and that of their house, unmindful of Him by whom kings reign, and the lords of the earth hold their power. If we look to the churches which spring up at king Lewis's bidding, we should be tempted to believe they formed the only foci, wherein all the productive energies, and all the achievements of art, and all the physical resources of the country, were concentrated. But if we traverse the halls of the royal residence, which are either complete or in the course of building, we might fancy they absorbed all attention and activity, and engrossed the unseen, as well as visible, agency of men.”Hurter's Excursion, vol. ii. p. 343.

In the short space of fifteen years, this monarch has constructed the Pinacothek (a stately edifice for the exhibition of the productions of the various schools of painting), a magnificent palace decorated with superb frescoes by the living artists of Munich, and four or five noble churches and basilicas, where architecture, sculpture, and “her rainbow sister," vie with each other in splendour.

In a former number of this journal,* an account was given of the rise of the modern school of German painting. It was there stated that the three founders of this school, Cornelius, Overbeck, and Veit, made a noble debut in the art, by embellishing the walls of a palace at Rome with frescoes taken from the three great Italian poets, Dante, Ariosto, and Tasso.f. Of these, Veit is now the director of the academy of painting at Frankfort, and besides other remarkable works, has recently completed a noble fresco in the academy itself, representing the introduction of Christianity into Germany by the preaching of St. Boniface. Cornelius at first devoted his pencil to subjects from pagan mythology and profane history; but in latter years, having consecrated his genius to higher themes, he has produced a vast and sublime work, “ The Last Judgment,” which, in the opinion of competent critics, rivals the great production of Michael Angelo himself. This gigantic fresco forms the high-altar piece to the new church of St. Lewis. Overbeck, the most profound Christian painter of the age, resides habitually at Rome; but his productions are found in various parts of Germany, and

* See No. XI. art. “ Rio on Christian Art."

† When this noble triad began the work of the regeneration of modern painting, the art of fresco was completely forgotten in Italy. It was a common journeyman mason, who, in the last century, had been in the employ of Mengs during his stay in Sicily, that from recollection was enabled to direct in some degree these artists how to set about the work. This account we received from the lips of M. Veit himself.

his spirit pervades and imbues the minds of many of the Munich artists. As the want of space forbids us at present to dilate on his merits, we beg leave to refer our readers to the account given of him in the above-quoted number of this journal. Henry Hess is an artist of transcendant merit, who was commissioned by the king of Bavaria to decorate the roof and walls of the new royal church of “ All Saints” with a grand cycle of paintings, representing the three great dispensations of the Almighty to man, the Patriarchal, Mosaic, and Christian revelations.

This chapel,” says Hurter, “may be called a golden chapel, because all the principal pictures and the embellishments are cast on a ground of gold. It might be called a summary of the divine revelations—an outline of God's progressive scheme for man's redemption—a popular compendium of Catholic divinity exhibited in images. All is distributed with such propriety, and consistency of feeling, and such depth of thought, that we can follow in all its stages the march of Divine Providence for the illumination and regeneration of humanity.”Hurter's Excursion, vol. i. p. 349.

The same artist is now employed in executing for the Byzantine church of St. Boniface, now in course of erection, a series of cartoons delineating the apostolic labours and miracles of that saint and his companions in the conversion of Germany. The engravings of some of these cartoons we have seen, and can bear a willing testimony to the skill displayed in the management of the groups, and to the life, variety, and interest of expression in the principal figures.

Julius Schnorr and Zimmerman are artists employed by the king in adorning the walls of the new palace with frescoes, representing subjects taken partly from the old classical poetry, and partly from the Niebelungen-lied, and the modern German poets. Julius Schnorr has acquired great celebrity by his pictorial representations from romantic poesy and the ancient national chivalry: and, among other productions, his magnificent and gigantic fresco pourtraying the crusade of the emperor Barbarossa may well challenge admiration.

In the productions of all the artists we have named, the impress of the style of the old German school of painting is more or less discernible; and the money that the king of Bavaria expended in the purchase of the Boisserée gallery, has been amply repaid by the splendid works of living art, which are nearly or remotely traceable to its influence.

Among the sculptors, Schwanthaler has obtained the

VOL. XI. -NO. XXI.

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greatest reputation, and has embellished many churches in the capital and the provinces with the monuments of his skill.

Among the architects, Von Klenze and Gärtner are the most celebrated in the round Byzantine style of architecture, and Ohlmüller, who is unfortunately now no more, in the pointed Gothic. The church of All Saints, of whose interior decorations we have already had occasion to speak, is the work of Von Klenze, and is executed in the round Byzantine style. The foundation-stone was laid in the year 1828: it has 165 feet in length, and 100 in breadth.

The church of St. Lewis, which was begun to be built in the year 1829, owes its plan and construction to Professor Gärtner, and will be consecrated at the close of the present year, or at the commencement of the next. This church is in the Florentine-Byzantine style of architecture,—a style that has been adopted as the one best calculated to exhibit to advantage the splendid frescoes wherewith the interior is adorned. The width of the principle façade, which, together with the towers, is constructed of massive flags of white limestone, measures one hundred and fifty feet, the length of the nave two hundred and fifty, and the height of the towers two hundred and twenty.

But the largest and most magnificent of the new churches is that of St. Boniface, which in its exterior part is now completed. The principle façade has a front screen, with eight round-arched columns. The side façades, with their double row of round-arched windows, present from their simple, beautiful proportions a most agreeable aspect to the eye, The interior is divided into a nave and four aisles by four rows of Corinthian columns, each row consisting of sixteen columns, and each column being twenty-five feet high. This church will be given up to the Benedictines, and a noble abbey, built in the true monastic style, will be annexed to it.

The new church dedicated to our Blessed Lady in the suburb Au, is the only one of the new erections in the pointed Gothic style. The architect was Ohlmüller, and the church is the first of the kind, that for upwards of a century has been constructed in Germany. It has two hundred and thirty-five feet in length, eighty-one in breadth, and is eightyfive feet high in the centre of the nave. The spire is two hundred and seventy feet in height. Our readers will perceive that this church is but a size larger than the one which the English Catholics are erecting in St. George's Fields in London. According to Mr. Pugin's design, as seen in the engraving, the latter church will be two hundred feet in length, seventy in breadth, crowned by a magnificent steeple running up to the prodigious elevation of three hundred feet.

In the Munich church, the painted windows representing the joyous and dolorous mysteries in the life of the Blessed Virgin,—whether the design, the drawing, or the vividness and delicacy of the colours be considered, -rival, in the opinion of the best judges, the most admired specimens of the ancient cathedrals. The wood-carvings, wherewith the confessionals in the aisles, and the stalls in the chancel, are decorated, are executed with all the life and spirit of the best models of the Middle Age. This church was raised by the joint contributions of the king, and of the parish in which it is situate; and including the painted windows, it occupied in its construction and internal decoration 360 workmen uninterruptedly for eight years.

This magnificent revival of Christian art, which we have succinctly laid before our readers, could scarcely have occurred in any but a Catholic country, and one in truth that had undergone a great intellectual regeneration. It could not, for example, have taken place in Protestant Germany, where, in despite of the liberal patronage of the governments, and particularly that of Prussia, the religion hostile to all the outward symbols of devotional feeling, is fatal to the efforts of the higher art. Nor could this regeneration have so easily occurred in a Catholic country like Italy, where, in despite of the wonderful inborn talent of the inhabitants for the fine arts, the Italian mind pining under the loss of political freedom and national independence, vegetates, as it were, on the glory of former ages. And, however faithfully the great mass of the Italian nation have clung to their Church throughout the calamitous period of the last seventy years, still the religious indifference of that epoch has more or less infected many of those that exert a great influence on art. We mean the nobles and the literati; and as the malady here was less intense than in Catholic Germany, so, from the absence of great shocks, it has been more lingering and tenacious. Yet better things, we would fain believe, are reserved for Italy. The milder system of policy which Austria has of late years pursued in her Transalpine provinces,--the wise administrative improvements, and the liberal encouragement of art and science, for which the Roman states are indebted to those two very learned, pious, and enlightened pontiffs, Pope Leo XII, and more particularly his present holiness,—the extraordinary resuscitation of zeal and piety in those parts of Italy, which had most suffered from the French invasion ;* and lastly, the more masculine, as well as more religious spirit, which the illustrious Manzoni has helped to infuse into the popular literature of his country; all incline us to believe that the intellectual regeneration of that beautiful land, the home and cradle

“ Of all that Nature yields, and Art decrees,” is not very distant. And in this glorious wake of a new-born literature, art assuredly will not be slow to follow.

In conclusion, we shall endeavour to sum up our observations on the state of religion and science in Catholic Germany. With respect to religion, the evils which oppress the Church, and impede its progress in this great country, are many and various. These are the paucity and poverty of ecclesiastics in most diocesses,-the want of seminaries in many places for the early education of the clergy, t-the arbitrary interference of the state, which in most parts hampers and annoys the episcopacy in its relations with the Holy See, and with the inferior ministry,-in many dioceses the almost total absence of religious orders, which are so necessary as well to aid the secular clergy in the work of education, and in parochial duties, as to stimulate them in the practice of the higher virtues,—the abuse of ecclesiastical patronage on the part of the Protestant governments, that nominate to the episcopal office and the prebendal dignity,

* See in Görres and Phillips's Historico-political Journal an interesting account of the present pious and charitable establishments in the city of Verona. We scarcely believe that any city in the Middle Age itself ever produced or revived within so short a compass of time so many and such noble institutions for the glory of God and the solace of humanity.—See “ Historisch-politische Blätter," vol. v. p. 590.

† When we were in Germany, we heard the clergy regret the want of these seminaries, as the nurseries of all clerical virtue; and when we were in France, we often heard ecclesiastics exclaim,—“ Oh! that we had the German Universities! What a learned clerical body we should then possess ! How soon would infidelity be put down !" The fact is, the seminary is useful to train to the practice of the clerical virtues, and the university to impart high theological instruction. But if two things, which should be united, must unfortunately be separated, France has doubtless chosen the better part : her seminaries,some of which, even in a scientific point of view, have lately undergone much improvement,-have produced the exemplary clergy, who are achieving the wonders we now witness; and though she possesses no learned faculties of theology, like Germany, she yet has a sort of spiritual floating University, entitled ". L'Université Catholique," of which the latter country itself might be proud.

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