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withdrawal of the flocks and herds of the disaffected Boers from the colony, will be speedily made up to him, when he himself, from a consumer, becomes a producer. We consider these estimates, which we have chiefly derived from the talented pen of Mr. Fairbairn, the able editor of the South African Advertiser, to err upon the less sanguine side. We know that Mr. Cloete's labourers, in his Constantia vineyard, earn about 278. a-month, and their food and lodging. According to the affidavits of the labourers of another proprietor, Captain Blankenberg, of New Constantia, they received at his vineyard daily, besides two bottles of wine, or one good meal with coffee, as much as 28. or 2s. 6d., and even, on one occasion, 38.! Even the “ Caffres, Bechuanas, and Fingoes, in Graham's Town,” according to Mr. Boyce (p. 126), “ are in the weekly receipt of wages averaging those of respectable labourers in England.” And yet their work is of course vastly inferior to that of Europeans ; neither would the missionary influence over the latter prevent them from hiring themselves, at their own pleasure, for longer terms than by the day, as it has done with these senseless aborigines, to the great distress of their employers, whom the dearth of other labour has placed completely at their mercy,
As to mechanics, they are in universal request; even Cape Town, the capital, is far from being adequately supplied ; and it is impossible to estimate what exorbitant wages await them in the interior. Towards the middle of 1840, a great public meeting at the Cape unanimously resolved to tempt Irish emigrant labourers to visit their shores. This is the only way to touch the evil, which is general, demanding the attention of the government and the whole community. The former,* so supine in all its colonial measures, must yield at last to the complaints and the pressure of the latter, and, sooner or later, must Mr. Fairbairn’s valuable suggestion be adopted, and the present Crown quit rents, and the proceeds of the future land sales, be devoted to the purposes of European emigration. The Crown quit-rents of 1838 amounted to more than 15,0001.; and even supposing that the yearly land-fund is never to exceed that amount, that alone would suffice to import annually fifteen hundred labourers from Europe. Among Catholic countries, Ireland, -among Irish provinces, Galway,
* We cannot better illustrate our accusation than by a reference to the deplorable want of good roads in the most valuable districts of the colony. The rich garden-district of Stellenbosch, with its dairies and store-farms, is, from the want of a good road, nearly useless to the Cape Town residents, and the ships in Table Bay, although the distance is but twenty-six miles. A few portions of the present beaten track cross some patches of deep white sand; all the rest of the line of road being confessedly excellent. Yet the SurveyorGeneral, Major Mitchell, whose duty it would be to superintend the work, if undertaken by the government, has reported against its practicability, by reason of this white sand, although he admits that he has not bored it in any place to a greater depth than five feet. The scientific Mr. Darwin, who visited the Cape in 1836, most incorrectly states, in the book, to publish which he received, he says, 10001, from the Admiralty, that “the sands have been bored along the whole line to the depth of about forty feet without any success.” (Researches in Geology, p. 576.) But all road-ınakers will tell him, and Major Mitchell, too, that it is easier to make a firm road over even the deepest white sand, than a railroad over Chat Moss, or the common country-roads over Irish bogs. And yet the foundations of these latter, solid and hard as Irish tourists have always found them, are of a simple and cheap construction. A deep bed of heather bushes ranged in regular lines, is first laid ;-upon these, coarse gravel mixed slightly with loam is heaped, and the summit is covered over with a thick coating of macadamised metal,-two trenches being first cut on either side to drain off the imprisoned waters. Upon the Cape Flats, these would not be wanted for drainage, but would be filled with stones or other consistent solids, and would thus support the intervening road-way, by resisting its lateral expansion, when compressed. But argument is almost superfluous; the inhabitants of the district have themselves offered to make the road, and so open Stellenbosch to Cape Town and its markets, at their own expense, if government will permit them to levy a toll for their own reimbursement. And the government has refused them that permission! The consequence is, that to convey 152 gallons of wine to the town-merchant, who pays, at the present market-price, 60 rixdollars for the lot upon delivery, the grower must continue to pay the carrier 20 rix-dollars, or one-third of its value !-(See Major Parlby's letter in the " South African Advertiser,” of the 4th March 1840).
- have taken the lead in opening a subscription-fund for the relief of all from the pauperism of many, by the emigration of the latter. May that example be followed elsewhere! And, when the most useful clause in the Irish Poor-Law act, the emigration-rating clause, is put in force, the guardians of the poor should remember that the Cape needs emigrants, as well as the Australias. They may perhaps bethink themselves, too, of the smaller outlay which the South African voyage demands, and the solemn trust commended to them, not to waste or misapply money so sacred as that which is, emphatically, the money of the poor. The same expense to their localities will relieve them of a greater number of paupers through the Cape, than through the more distant countries to the eastward of that colony. And these poor Irishmen will find a new home within eight weeks' journey from their old one, and, with it the hope of speedier return to their still beloved father-land. And, on the other hand, the pious Irish ecclesiastics, who labour there, will find themselves a hundred-fold repaid for the increase of their duties, by the renewed devotion, the freshened Catholicity, engendered everywhere by the novel examples of these simple and faithful men. And, as often as old congregations restored or recruited, and new ones formed, by these emigrations of European Catholics, shall offer to the eyes of the government the requisite amount of one hundred members in one place, so often will new altars raise their heads amid the desert, fraught with the pure oblation making the name of its High Priest “great among the Gentiles," who as yet have known Him not. And lastly, by degrees, will be fulfilled, in a better and more perfect sense than that wherein he intended it, the prediction of the sagacious and observing traveller, whom we have so often quoted :* for thus “ the place vacated by every Dutch farmer will be filled by an industrious peasant; and when the colony shall have recovered from the first shock, it will be found not to have suffered from the change." And so we shut his book, and close our own remarks, with these appropriate last words of comfort and “Good Hope.”
Art. II.-1. Historisch-politische Blätter fur das Katholische
Deutschland. (Historico-political Papers for Catholic Germany.) Edited by Professor Philips and Dr. Guido Görres.
5 vols. from 1838-1840. Munich. 2. Der Sion. (The Sion.) A Journal edited by Dr. F.
Herbst, from January to July. Augsburg: 1840. 3. Der Allgemeine Religions und Kirchenfreund. (The Uni
versal Friend of Religion and the Church.) À Journal
edited by Dr. Beukert. January to July 1840. 4. Der Katholik, herausgegeben von Dr. Weis. Nos. January
to July 1840. 5. Conversation's-Lexicon der Gegenwart. (Dictionary of Con
versation for the Present Times.) Leipzig: 1840. 6. A Handbook of Travellers for Southern Germany. Murray,
London : 1838. 7. Ausflug nach Wien und Presburg im Sommer 1839. (Ex
cursion to Vienna and Presburg in the Summer of 1839.)
By Dr. Frederick Hurter. Schaffhausen: 1840. 8. Social and Political Condition of Austria. By G. P. Turn
bull, Esq. London : 1839. 9. Kunst und Künstler in München. (Art and Artists in
* Harris's Expedition, p. 363.
Munich.) By J. W. Söltl. (Extracted from the Journal
The German Pandora.) Stuttgard: 1840. 10. Münchener Jahrbücher fur bildende Kunst. (The Munich
Annals of Imitative Art.) Edited by Dr. Rudolf Marggraff. Leipzig : 1839-40. N the first part of this article we shall lay before our
readers the state of religion and morality in the Catholic provinces, principalities, and kingdoms of Southern and Western Germany; in the second, the state of public education, literature, science, and art therein, dwelling more particularly on such, as, from their geographical extent, their political importance, and moral and intellectual eminence, are most deserving of notice and consideration. These states and provinces are Rhenish Prussia, Westphalia, the duchy of HesseDarmstadt, the duchy of Nassau, the free city of Frankfort, the grand-duchy of Baden, the kingdom of Wurtemberg, the kingdom of Bavaria, and the German provinces of the Austrian empire. The moral and intellectual condition of the Catholic population in the other parts of the Germanic confederation will claim our attention on some future opportunity. when we shall be happy to supply, in regard to the abovementioned states, any omissions which want of space, or imperfect information, may have occasioned. The political state of these cities, provinces, and kingdoms, is either not at all, or but very cursorily noticed, the subjects treated being quite ample enough for the limits of an article. The works, whose titles have been given above, are the main authorities for the statements we have advanced. But these authorities have been compared with other works; some important facts we have derived from the oral communications of German friends; and others again, particularly as regards Rhenish Prussia, we have drawn from our own personal observation.
We shall now premise a short account of the works, whose titles have been prefixed to this article. No. 1 is a widelyspread periodical, supported by the most distinguished literati of Catholic Germany. It contains most valuable historical essays, and affords abundant information on all topics connected with the state of the Church, politics, and literature in Germany. The Sion, and the Friend of Religion, are two excellent Bavarian journals, noted for their orthodoxy and the copious intelligence they give of ecclesiastical affairs. No. 4, Der Katholik, the oldest of the German Catholic periolicals, is distinguished for the purity of its principles, and the services which, in the worst of times, it has rendered to
the Church. No. 5. The Conocrsation's-Lexicon is one of the ablest organs of the Rationalist party in Germany, and therefore any of its admissions in favour of the Catholic Church and its members cannot be regarded by the most prejudiced Protestant with suspicion. No. 6, Mr. Murray's able and well-known Handbook for Travellers in Southern Germany, evinces, in speaking of Catholics and Catholic usages, more liberality and fairness than might be expected in the quarter from which it emanates. No. 7, Dr. Hurter's Excursion to Vienna, contains many masterly sketches of the state of religion, manners, and science in Austria. The tone of candour which it breathes, the soundness of its principles, and the depth of many of its observations, are worthy the illustrious author of the Life of Innocent III. No. 8, Mr. Turnbull's Social and Political Condition of Austria, is the work of an honest, acute, and sensible Englishman, full of judicious remarks and valuable information on the political and commercial relations of Austria, and, in matters ecclesiastical, endeavouring to be as impartial as the early prejudices of education, and his ignorance of Catholic dogmas and discipline, will permit. No. 9 is an interesting essay on the state of art in Munich, by a literary gentleman of that city. No. 10 is a valuable periodical devoted to the same subject.
Germany, the most powerful, flourishing, and enlightened empire of the middle age, was shaken to its basis by the Reformation. This great event, prepared by the opinions and the practical abuses that grew out of the great western schism, as well as by the heresies of Wycliffe and Huss, was more immediately brought about by the moral relaxation of a large portion of the clergy, by the spiritual ignorance to which their neglect had abandoned the people, by the degeneracy of the scholastic philosophy, the abuse of classical literature, and the revolutionary spirit of the German nobility. The lava-flood rolled with resistless impetuosity over the north of Germany, and threatened to inundate the south. But happily in those provinces, which had remained faithful to the Church, a prodigious moral reaction took place. Providence raises up zealous and learned champions of the faith, the fervour of ancient piety revives ; ecclesiastical seminaries are everywhere established; the old universities become informed with a new spirit; and the great society of Jesus in particular, in all the elastic vigour of youth, rolls back the tide of religious innovation. But towards the close of the seventeenth century, torpor succeeded to this religious enthusiasm ; and about the