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them to the faith and discipline of Rome, that old mistress of the nations. And the Hottentots and the Griquas within our African possession, and the Korannas, Namequas, Caffres, and Bechuanas, whose hordes are thick upon the frontiers, and the warlike Mantatees, and the powerful Zoulahs, and the rest of the ancient tribes of “ Afric and her hundred thrones,” waxing ever the mightier, as their seats are farther and farther distant from our ill-defined boundaries, and all holding different superstitions, each as opposed as the other to the gospel of truth, may well demand of us a trial at least of those charitable enterprises into which the magnitude of even the Indian mission has not deterred us from embarking ourselves. But the coloured inhabitants of the first-named class, which slavery first introduced, and then maintained amongst the European residents, present in their religious tenets an obstacle to good government, unknown to the West Indies, but very familiar to the Eastern, and which must be removed by those apostolically commissioned to teach, before, in their regard, material civilization can achieve anything. Being for the most part Malays, the slaves, while slavery lasted, professed in general the Mahometanism of that peculiar kind, and mingled with those local superstitions, which the Malays are known to observe. The other slaves remained destitute of any religious principles, as their masters would not permit them to embrace the Malay-Islam tenets, which they most desired, because of the charms and spells which were current among those people; and still less the sublimer doctrines of the Reformed Christian Churches, since these were regarded as the especial heritage of the always free, and moreover imported the manumission of the converted slave, under the provisions of the Dutch law. And even at a more recent period, when the minister of a reformed congregation in the interior, for the honour and glory of his Church, paraded before his astonished flock some of these unhappy beings, as candidates for what the Calvinists consider baptism, in an instant the meeting-house was deserted by one half of his “ dearly beloved friends,” thereby designating their resentment at the unwarranted intrusion. Nor was he afterwards able to conquer their repugnance to describe them as “ Christians," or to persuade them to style the neophytes as more than “ Christened people.” But when emancipation came, the slaves without a religion were left to choose one, and, thanks to the heartless utilitarians who deliberately gave them a freedom from bondage, without the means of guidance


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in their new estate that religion alone can give, the greater part joined the Malay worshippers, who received them with open arms; and it were well if the Moslem faith could boast only of these coloured proselytes! There are among them those whose skin is white, and whose European fathers have worshipped in the Reformed Church! Of the whites we can scarcely say more than may be gathered from a former portion of this article. Ignorance and indifference in ethics and in religion, and in all that is not valuable in coined monies, the natural result of the wretched dearth of education in every class, but chequered by the low bigotry of parson or minister, occasionally stirred up, and by local circumstances kept alive, are the characteristics of the Protestant community The boors, whose splenetic movements have lately attracted more notice than they merit, are represented alike by friends and foes, as great eaters, great drinkers large-limbed, et voilà tout ! a character easily conceivable of Dutch Protestants, settled down for some generations in the lone Karroos of Africa, feeding fat their herds and the flocks upon the pasturages of the Bushmen, and themselves upon those herds and flocks; and having no care beyond these daily occupations, or the occasional nightly banquet, and the gross vrolykheid” which prolonged it till the morning meal.* Even their apologist, Mr. Boyce, the Wesleyan missionary, confesses that they are a “lethargic horde, ... at least two centuries in civilization behind the rest of the European world. The moral corruptions, incidental to the state of slavery, have largely visited the Cape of Good Hope. Concubinage is by no means uncommon; the white Christian blushes not to take to himself a Moslem or idolatrous helpmate, without the decorous mockery of marriage-rites. And the powerful tribe of Griquas, numbering 20,000, receives that Caffre name, and its plainer low Dutch synonym of Bastaards, from the mixed parentage it derives from Caffre or Bushman mothers and Dutch sires, itself so completely pagan and savage in tenets and instincts, as to have been made the chief object of a proselytism to Christianity, by the Independents, who even now are by no means assured that their motley pupils are not upon the eve of relapsing into the heathenism and nomade state, whence, by the teaching of a material civilization, they have apparently and for a while

* See “ Thomson's Travels in Southern Africa," Vol. ii. p. 118. † “ Boyce's Notes on South African Affairs,” p. 191.

reclaimed them. The Cape Colony contained, in 1838, not more than 65,000 white inhabitants, including the Malays; 53,000 freedmen of colour, or offspring of such ; and 32,000 Hottentots. * It is yet time, but the night draweth on apace : let Catholic Europe work in season, before the hour shall knell in its ear, wherein no man shall work.

But, beyond the frontiers of our civilization, a wider mis- · sion, untried by apostolic missionary, opens itself. No Catholic priest has crossed the Orange river, and perhaps none as yet have seen it. But, on the other bank, there are those nations, looking for the Orient on high, whom the fleeting meteors of heresy have dazzled for a moment, and then reconsigned to former darkness. The pious bishop in partibus, and the little colonial church he governs, while they sigh over the scantiness of the labourers, and the greatness of the harvest within the colonial borders, dare not hope that the time will come, when theirs will be the mission to these independent nations. For it demands the distinct and sustained endeavour of men especially confined to this abundant province of duty; and it is to evangelizing Europe that they look, for a share in her regard, who has added Oceanica to the Church on earth militant, and has recruited the heavenly hosts of martyrs with myriads from China, whose robes of snowy hue retain not the crimson dye of earthly torments, because they are also washed in the life-blood of the Lamb of God. A glorious mission is indeed open here! The salu

. brity of the climate, the greater reverence for Europe which these southern Africans are forced to entertain, by rumours of our colonial power and prosperity, spread among them by the traders who have dealt with us, the little intercourse with our wretched border settlers --" pioneers of civilization,”—as some have pleasantly called them, and, above all, the nonexistence of that disenchanting and disgraceful alliance between white and coloured men, the slave-trade, renders this untrodden path the fittest that the Catholic missionary can take, first to the Tropic, and hereafter to central Africa. For the depopulating maladies of the western, and the Arab piracies on the eastern coast, and the demoralizing presence of the white kidnapper upon both, warn us that it is only

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Boyce's Notes on South African Affairs,” p. 119. The “ Cape Calendar" for 1840 gives the relative numbers at 68,542 whites, without specifying the Malays, and 78,799 coloured people ; but adopts no distinctions among the latter class.

from the northern and southern points of this hoary continent, that the gospel can pursue its way to the Equator, subduing empires like Monomotapa and Timbuctù upon its path, and pausing not till the messengers from the south shall meet those who bear the like commission from the north, and the Arab of Algeria and the Caffre of the Cape become the extreme links of a precious chain enclasping Africa in its golden embrace. And that it may not be lightly thought, either that the difficulties are too great, or that the ground is too well beset by the rich or powerful emissaries of heresy,--that, on the one hand, the plan is intrinsically impracticable, or, on the other hand, so practicable as to have succeeded in unsanctioned hands, which, on the coming of an apostolical missionary, would be lifted up for battle, we will here briefly delineate, with the help of the Dissenting missionaries themselves, or their friendls, and none other, what are the prospects of the Christian Church to the northward of our frontier, and southward of Capricorn; and we shall see how very small have been the results of what missions these men have as yet found good to establish in the whole South African territory.

The principal Protestant missions among the aborigines of south Africa are those of the Independents, or London Missionary Society, those of the Wesleyans, and those of the Moravians. These last are considerably older than either of the other two; but they have fewer missionaries, and their objects are apparently more limited as to place, since their establishments are few in number, and also as to the amelioration of those they teach, since they avowedly look to the physical civilization of the catechumen, before they hope to better his spiritual state. It will be seen, however, that the difference between Moravian and other missionaries amounts to this, that the former avow this honestly and fairly, and act accordingly, while the others have been compelled, by repeated failures in a work, whích, if they believe St. Paul, they cannot discharge who were not sent unto it, to resort to a similar policy, although they scruple not to report to the “ Unions” and “ Auxiliary Branches,” which ordained them to the ministry, that “ their labours prosper in the field,”(not that field which they and their catechumens substantially delved in spring, and materially reaped in autumn, but spiritually, “ the field”) — “ of the Lord's Gospel.” Caffraria would seem to have originally fallen exclusively to the lot of the Wesleyans. Among the Amakose they now claim five missions, among the Amatembù three, and among the Amapondo two. Some of these however are vacant; and there seems as yet no better foundation for their further pretensions to the Zoulah mission at Port Natal, than their advertisement that two missionaries “are earnestly requested.” Among the Bechuanas, to the northward, they are encountered by the Independents; and bitter are the reciprocal complaints touching vested rights in Griqua and Bechuana. Advowsons,* and recriminatory charges of “forgetfulness of truth and love, jealousy of the good name of fellow-missionaries, ...."and of " endeavours, by the most unworthy arts, to destroy them;"+ or, more courteously and charitably, “ painful doubts” which“ impress the mind” of the missionary of the one body, “as to the sincerity of the motives of his reverend brethren of the rival one. So the Congregational Magazine (volume for 1837, p. 232), accuses the Wesleyan missionaries of countenancing, against the Caffres, “ consummate villainy, robbery, and murder," having in the volume immediately foregoing (p. 733), mournfully declared that it sees, in that affair, “a melancholy illustration of Wesleyan methodist policy, which too often regards circumstances rather than principles,” and that it is now incumbent on them to show “ that they have higher objects than to win the smiles of colonial governors, or the eulogies of Tory statesmen.” To all which Mr. Shaw retorts charges of " scurrility," and " interpolation of documents,”-in other words, forgery; and the occasional practice of “ doing evil that good may come;" although, he admits that, upon such grounds, it would not be, after all, “reasonable to represent the editor of the Congregational Magazine, and the ministers of his denomination, as jesuits !” (Introduction, x.); and, at the same time, he tells his adversary how “painfully sensible he is," and how “ ashamed to think that this controversy will afford ” (us, we suppose, and others) “enemies of the missions, a fiend-like triumph.” (p. 42.) Despite these difficulties, however, among the Bechuanas, Korannas, Mantatees, and Marolongs, the Wesleyans have three missionaries; and two among the Griquas. Within the colony they have five more missions. Their first establishment at the Cape seems to date from 1820. The Independents date from 1795; their missions, for the most part, are within the settled districts,

* “Shaw's Defence of the Wesleyan Missionaries,” 48 and 73. † Id. p. 59.

† “ Dr. Philip's Letter apud Shaw's Defence," p. 5.

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