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but, as a set-off, how many things are there to be found there, of which there is no trace in heaven or on earth.'

“ If any one left, by will, ten thousand louis d'ors to the greatest rascal in Germany, I should like to know how many claimants there would be.”......

“ The skin of man is a soil upon which hairs grow. I am astonished that a method of sowing wool upon it has not yet been discovered; it would be more profitable, as men might then be shorn.”....

“ Condamine relates that he met with apes in America, who imitated all his operations. They ran to the clock, then to the eye-glass, then they pretended to write. We have many of these philosophers.”......

“ Oh yes, Doctor -was a most worthy man; he visited everybody, great and small, were it even at midnight. One might say of him, as of the physician in ordinary of the Emperor Augustus, Æquo pulsat pede pauperum tabernas regumque turres.'”.

“ Among those great discoveries which the human mind has made in modern times, the foremost, in my opinion, is the art of criticising books without having read them.”......

“ If it happens sometimes that a man is buried alive, there remain, in revenge, a hundred on earth who are already dead.”......

“ When the Goths and the Vandals took it into their heads to make their grand tour in Europe together, the taverns in Italy were so full, that no one could be heard; often three or four of them were ringing the bell at the same time.”......

“ When any person in Cochin China says doji' (I am hungry), people hasten immediately to bring him something to eat. There are certain districts in Germany where a poor devil may exclaim twenty times, 'I am hungry,' and which would be of as much service to him as if he said . doji.'.

“ I have had the journals of last year bound. I have tried to peruse them again ; a most tiresome experiment. Fifty instances of false anticipations, forty-seven of false prophecy, three of truth. This perusal has very much diminished my estimation of the gazettes of this year; for what the latter are, the former were also.”......

“ In the system of zoologists, the monkey ranks next to man, although at an immense distance. If a Linnæus were to classify animals according to their happiness, or the advantages of their condition, there are many men who would be placed below dogs of the chase and coach-horses."......

With the favourable conclusion which will be drawn from the evidence that we have adduced, and the reference to the

other written testimonies which we have named, we shall let the case go to the jury of our countrymen, without the usual artful appeal of the pleader, which too often is a tissue of falsehood, blandishment, and sophistry, seeking rather the winning of a cause, than the establishment of any great principle of truth, justice, or public virtue. It will be well if they make themselves fully acquainted with that mass of proof which we have pointed out: friend Bouhours and the calumniators will then have the verdict against them, and they will themselves have acquired indubitable conviction that the literature of Germany, however short of perfection and completeness, is one of which that country may be proud; which other nations, in many of its qualifications, would do well to study and to emulate, as the production of an able and original people, destined to produce a large and important influence on the intellectual condition of the world.

The day of national bigotries and national antipathies is passed, or passing rapidly away. The wide heart of humanity is beating in all its arteries, full of an embracing activity, a yearning hope, a loving spirit of comprehensiveness. Full gladly must we learn ;-as gladly teach. Synthesis, not antithesis, is beginning to develope itself as the aim of man's exertions; and as mind is to be the mighty agent in all ultimate union, let us have a right understanding and a reverential appreciation of the mind of other nations.

ART. V.-1. The Apostolical Jurisdiction and Succession of

the Episcopacy in the British Churches. By the Rev. Wm. Palmer, M.A. London: 1840.

rigines Liturgicae, or Antiquities of the English Ritual, &c. By the Rev. William Palmer, M.X. Oxford: 1839. T must have excited a smile in many of our readers, to

observe with what regularity, about once a quarter, Mr. Palmer comes forward in the character of a polemic, and fires a shot, in the shape of a pamphlet, at the popish champion, Dr. Wiseman. We have now lying on our desk “ A fifth Letter to N. Wiseman, D.D., by the Rev. William Palmer, M.A., of Worcester College, Oxford.” Five letters in little more than the space of one year! What pertinacity of zeal, and fecundity of pen! But on this subject we have no right to interfere. We must not put in our sickle to reap another man's harvest. The letters are addressed to Dr. Wiseman; and we shall leave it to him to answer them, if he deem them worthy of the honour: being satisfied that, whatever provocation may have been given, he will perform the task with that command of temper which becomes a Christian, and in that mild and honied phraseology which is to be expected from a bishop of Melipotamus.

Του και από γλώσσης μέλιτος γλυκίων ρεεν αυδή. . But Mr. Palmer is the author of other works besides these epistolary effusions, works of higher pretension, and more general interest, but at the same time advocating paradoxical statements and opinions, which we consider it a duty to controvert and expose. We have already broken a lance with him in a former number: we propose to break another with him in the present. In that the question was whether the Church of England reformed herself in the sixteenth century; in this it shall be, whether she was, for many centuries after her origin, independent of the Church of Rome. The affirmative is maintained by Mr. Palmer: he loses no opportunity of asserting it; he repeats it usque ad nauscam in most of his works. The English Church, he tells us, was independent from the first: she retained that independence during the times of the Augustines, the Bedas, the Dunstans, and the Anselms : it was not till the twelfth or thirteenth century, that the bishops of Rome exercised any jurisdiction over her; then for three hundred years she bent to the yoke,—but at the Reformation burst from her thraldom, and recovered her independence. He finds, indeed, some difficulty in assigning the exact period when, and the manner how, that independence had been lost, taking the duration of a century for the first, and suggesting, to account for the other, that the popes may have acquired their authority in this island by delegation from the English Church, which she was of course at liberty to withdraw, or with the permission or consent of the English bishops, which could bind only for a time, or by the usurpation of the popes themselves, which it could never be unlawful to oppose and overthrow. Now, this indecision and uncertainty cannot fail of provoking some suspicion of Mr. Palmer's accuracy. How comes it that he can ascertain the fact, and yet is unable to discover any of the particulars, which led to so important a revolution ? But of this we shall take no advantage ; because it is our purpose to show, to the full conviction of our readers, that there never was a time, from the arrival of St. Augustine and his fellow-missionaries from Rome, down to the era selected by Mr. Palmer, in which the English Church did not acknowledge the superiority and jurisdiction of the Church of Rome. * To accomplish this, we need only take the torch of history in our hands, and it will be seen that at the very first step which we make, the gorgeous fabric created by the imagination of Mr. Palmer, will melt into air.

It is fortunate that, in the outset of this inquiry, we can appeal to a writer, against whose testimony no objection can lie,—to one who candidly informs us of the sources of his information,—and who is plainly under no bias to lead him to the suppression or the disguisement of the truth;—to the venerable Beda, a contemporary and a countryman, and the first scholar of his age in the western, probably in the whole Christian Church. Beda wrote the Ecclesiastical History of the English, from A.D.596 to A.D. 731, almost the very year before his death. Now, we can often form a satisfactory judgment of the opinions prevalent among a people, from the language which their writers employ in treating of certain subjects. How, then, does Beda speak of the bishops of Rome, and the independence of the English Church? In the language of Mr. Palmer and his friends ? No: in language exactly the reverse. In allusion to the arrival of Augustine and the first missionaries sent by Gregory the Great, bishop of Rome, he tells us that Gregory ought to be styled “ the apostle of the English; because, when he held the first episcopal office in the whole world, and was placed over the Churches already converted to the belief of the truth, he made our nation, which up to that time had been enslaved to the worship of idols, a Church of Christ.”+ Perhaps Mr. Palmer never saw

* As a century intervened between the extinction and renovation of Christianity in those parts of the island occupied by the Anglo-Saxons, we consider the English Church as an establishment totally unconnected with the British Church; and shall therefore take no further notice of Mr. Palmer's opinions respecting the latter, than to remark that occasionally he seems to quote from ancient authorities upon trust; otherwise we cannot explain how he came to refer to the testimony of Eusebius (Dem. Evan. iii. 5) or of Theodoret (tom. iv. 610), as proof that some of the apostles preached personally in Britain. They merely assert that the knowledge of Christianity was spread by the preaching of the apostles, and penetrated from them into Britain.

| “Quia, cum primum in toto orbe pontificatum gereret, et conversis jamdudum ad fidem veritatis esset prælatus ecclesiis, nostram gentem, eatenus idolis mancipatam, Christi fecit ecclesiam.”-Bed. ii. c. i.

this passage; perhaps he would not see it ;for we are not sure that he does not occasionally turn his back on an inconvenient fact or statement, that he may pursue his course in happy or affected ignorance of that which, if it were seen and acknowledged, might operate as a stumbling-block in his way. But whether he saw it or not, this is plain, that it expresses the opinion of Beda and of his fellow-churchmen of that early age, who believed that not only was the Church of Rome the first Church in the whole world, but that the bishops of Rome were placed in authority over all converted Churches, and of course over the Church of England, as soon as the English became aggregated to the Catholic Church. We observe, indeed, that Mr. Palmer is very unwilling to make use of words which sound gratingly on an orthodox ear; and that he therefore converts the commands and decrees, attributed by Beda to the pontiffs, into wishes, or advice, or invitations : whence it is not improbable that he may also interpret this passage of a primacy of honour, and not of jurisdiction. But the subterfuge will not avail him. It is not said that the bishop of Rome is placed over other bishops, but over all converted Churches,-an expression which evidently implies an authority of inspection and correction.

From the opinion of Beda, we proceed to the facts which he relates. As soon as the king of Kent, and a portion of his subjects, had been baptized, Augustine, by order of Gregory, crossed the sea to Arles; where the metropolitan of Gaul, also by the order of Gregory, consecrated him archbishop of the English.* The new prelate, on his return, received from the pontiff the pallium, and a letter, from which the following are extracts : “ We give you permission to wear the pallium in the English Church (but only during the solemn celebration of mass), to the end that you ordain twelve bishops in twelve several places, who shall be subject to your jurisdiction, with this understanding, that always hereafter the bishop of London be consecrated by his own synod, and receive the pallium of honour from this holy and apostolic see, in which I serve under the authority of God. We moreover will, that you send to the city of York, a bishop, whomsoever you shall judge proper to ordain, to the

* “Juxta quod jussa sancti patris Gregorii acceperant.” (Bed. i. 27.) Mr. Palmer is not the only writer who cannot understand the meaning of the word jussum. Even Mr. Churton, from custom we believe, has translated it by advice. * In this he followed the advice of Gregory."-Early English Church, p. 32.

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