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Rates must lead to the general resort to the offertory, and yet we fear there are many parishes in which the selfish feeling prevails of getting as much out of the church as is possible in the pews, and of giving as little as possible to its support. In all these cases Mr. Clarke's pamphlet is well calculated for circulation.

The well-known authoress of “The Tales of Kirkbeck” has put forth a very pleasantly written and interesting Memoir of Madame Louise of France, (Rivingtons.) The subject of the Memoir was one of the daughters of the selfish and degenerate Louis XV., who, one is glad to remember, had at least the grace to give his consent to his daughter's adoption of the Religious Life. Perhaps in doing so he hardly believed how real that life would be to her. He may have thought she would carry still with her the savour of Versailles, and receive as fully as thereif on a smaller scale and in a narrower circle—the homage and adulation of the court. Thus had many princesses-blasées and disappointed with this world—exchanged the court for the cloister.

But the offering of Madame Louise was that of a heart overflowing with generous, self-sacrificing love. She chose the strict order of the Carmelites in which to fulfil her vocation, and her lowly humility and her hard treatment of herself became a marvel even to the ascetic women among whom she cast her lot. She only wished all to forget her rank, and to take the humblest place and perform the lowliest offices. We hope most of our readers will procure this charming volume, in which there is little distinctively Roman, and which presents so striking a picture of a holy and devoted woman.

Correspondence.

The Editor is not responsible for the opinions of the Correspondents.

To the Editor of the Churchman's Companion.
Answers.

would just point out the very sig

nificant silence observed in Holy THE CULTUS OF THE B.V.M.

Scripture concerning her. SIR,—Your correspondent asks The last mention of her in the when the worship of S. Mary grew Gospels is that she was taken by up. Leaving others to answer the S. John “ to his own home,” a query historieally, as they can, I statement which certainly implies that she needed protection rather than was able to give it. In the Acts of the Apostles she is only once mentioned-in no prominent position—" with the women, and Mary the mother of JESUS, and with His brethren."

the Bible, on “ Mary the Virgin," thus sums up the question of the Cultus. “Thus, then, in the worship of the Blessed Virgin there are two distinctly marked periods. The first is that which commences with the Apostolic times, and brings us down to the close of the century in which the Council of Ephesus was held, during which time the worship of S. Mary was wholly external to the Church, and was regarded by the Church as heretical, and confined to Gnostics and Collyridian heretics. The second period commences with the sixth century, when it began to spread within the Church; and in spite of the shock given it by the Reformation, has continued to spread, as shown by Liguori's teaching; and is spreading still, as shown by the manner in which the Papal decree of Dec. 8, 1854, has been, not universally indeed, but yet generally, received.". Yours, &c., H.

In the Epistles and in the Apocalypse, her name does not occur so much as once.

In Apostolical Christianity then she certainly had no place for worship. This then is the point to start from.-Yours, &c., S. N.

SIR,—The earliest passage, so far as I know, brought forward to support the practice of private Invocation of the B.V.M. is out of the Oration of S. Gregory Nazianzen, about A.D. 370, containing the story of Justina, who invoked her in time of peril—but the whole passage, though retained by the Benedictine editors as genuine, is very, doubtful, if not certainly spurious. (See “Worship of the Blessed Virgin,” by Rev.J. Endell Taylor, p. 378.) From an Essay on “ The Invocation of Saints and Angels,” in “The Church and the World,” 1868, CLOTILDE may learn that direct Invocation, probably commenced some short time subsequent to the Council of Chalcedon, A.D. 451, i.e. during the latter half of the fifth century. Some it was introduced into public worship by Peter Fullo, Eutychian Bishop, Patriarch of Antioch, A.D. 470. Also that the first intimation we have of the use of the “ Angelus” in England, in its simplest form, is in A.D. 1337.

Hook, in his “ Church Dictionary,” says “ The Adoration of the Virgin was first introduced in the fourth century, and was regarded as a heresy by the Catholic Church. It commenced in Arabia, about the year 373, and seems to have given rise to the opposite heresy, that of the Antidicomarians, who spoke irreverently of the Blessed Virgin.”

An article in the Dictionary of

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SIR,—In answer to CLOTILDE'S question, at what period of the Christian era the Cultus of the B.V.M. was introduced, it may be said that it dates from the period of the General Council held at Ephesus, in the year 431. I quote from Mrs. Jameson's “ Legends of the Madonna,” the following :“The Nestorians maintained that in CHRIST the two natures of GOD and Man remained separate, and that Mary, His human mother, was parent of the Man, but not of the God, consequently the title which, during the previous century, had been popularly applied to her, Theotokos, (Mother of God,) was improper and profane. The party opposed to Nestorius, the Monophysites, maintained that in CHRIST the divine and human were blended in one incarnate nature, and that consequently Mary was indeed the Mother of God. By the decree of the First Council of Ephesus, Nestorius and his party

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were condemned as heretics, and ner was not forbidden to kiss the henceforth the representation of SAVIOUR's feet, how much more that beautiful group, since popu- might the tried follower be allowed larly known as the Madonna and to touch Him ! Child, became the expression of Some have construed the words the orthodox faith.”-Yours, &c., into a prohibition to worship REGINALD.

CHRIST's human nature. This

view I also reject, because, in the SIR,-It would, of course, be first place, there is no proof that impossible in a short space to give Mary was thinking of worshipping anything like a correct idea of Christ's human nature; and in the gradual rise of the Cultus the next place, when under preof the B.V.M., in the Roman cisely similar circumstances the Church, CLOTILDE had better disciples did worship Him, (s. read Ffoulkes' “Christendom's Di- Matth. xxviii. 17.) they were not visions," and a capital article by restrained from doing so. a member of the Holy Eastern I think that our LORD simply Church in the Union Review for meant to say, “Do not delay now May, 1867, on the “ Orthodox when there are other things to be Doctrine of the Mother of GOD." done; you will have opportunities -Yours, &c., J. P.

of seeing Me again before My as

cension into heaven.” Compare ASSISTING AT THE CELEBRATION.

the charge to the disciples, (S. Luke

x. 4,) “Salute no man by the SIR,-In answer to A. Q. T.'s

way,” i.e., you have no time to first question, I would venture to lose in superfluous formalities. suggest that to those who believe

Yours, &c., W. R. W. in our Blessed LORD'S Presence in the holy Eucharist there can be SIR,-If DAVID will refer to no doubt that it is right and a Vol. i. (N. s.) p. 363, of the Churchprivilege to remain to worship Him man's Companion he will find, in a there. We cannot be too often or note, an explanation of this passage too long in His Presence, always which, with the references there supposing that we do our best to given, will enable him to realize meet Him with reverence and de- in some degree the manner in votion.

which the Church has interpreted In answer to the second

it. It is beautifully commented

also in “Daily Readings,” Satise on the Holy Eucharist,” by turday in Easter Week, in a pasthe Rev. J. R. West, and “ Our sage too long to be quoted entire, New Life in CHRIST,” (Masters,) and which I cannot bring myself may be safely recommended. They to spoil by mutilation. both inexpensive. — Yours,

He will not be disposed to ac&c., A.

cept the “reason” as satisfactory

which has been given, if he con[JOHANNA also recommends Mr.

sider with attention the full force West's work.-Ed. C. C.]

of our Divine LORD's words, s.

Luke vii. 47, 48, 50. — Yours, NOLI ME TANGERE.

&c., H. SIR,-The notion that Mary

THE WALDENSES. Magdalene was not allowed to touch our SAVIOUR on account of SIR,—The Waldenses or Valdenher former sinful life strikes me ses are said to form the connecting as being unnatural to the last de- link between the Primitive Church gree. If the still unpardoned sin- and the apostolic age. Their anVOL. VI. (N. s.)

H

tion, "A Short Elementary Trea

are

voc.

suits, penal punishments, and all attempts to acquire wealth.”

The above extracts are from “ Hook's Church Dictionary,” sub

A fuller account of them may be found in J. H. Blunt's “Sketch of the Reformation in England," pp. 78, 79, who says, “ Among many of their tenets to which their enemies bear witness, we find that they gave no credit to modern miracles, rejected extreme unction, held offerings for the dead as nothing worth except to the priest, and denied the doctrines of transubstantiation, purgatory, and invocation of saints. It is possible that other sentiments were combined with these of a more questionable character-things which they knew not were laid to their charge.” A little further on he refers to Archbishop Usher's Examination of their tenets in his “De Christianarum Ecclesiarum Successione et Statu,” cap. vi. § 19, 33.—Yours, &c., H.

cestors are said to have possessed an ecclesiastical system of their own as early, as 820. Bishop Claude of Turin advocated their principles in the ninth century, protesting against image-worship and other Roman practices. A confession of their faith dated 1120_is extant, and the “Nobla. Leyçzon,” an exposition of their principles, was written in 1100. Peter Valdo or Waldo in 1170 founded a society called the Poor Men of Lyons; but though he is often mentioned as the founder of the Waldenses, they existed long before. The Archbishop of Lyons prohibited the followers of Valdo from preaching in 1178, and Valdo took refuge in Bohemia and died in 1197. This people were excommunicated about 1184. A colony professing their tenets settled in Calabria, and founded several towns in the fourteenth century. Innocent VIII. ordered a crusade against them in 1487, and in the sixteenth century they suffered_many persecutions.-Yours, &c., J. P.

SIR,—“Some difficulty exists as to the origin and history of the sect to which this name has been attached. According to Mosheim the sect originated with Peter Waldo, a merchant of Lyons, about the year 1160. They flourished chiefly in the valleys of Piedmont, and hence, rather than from Peter Waldo or Valdo, it is supposed by some that they acquired the name of Paldenses or Vaudois. . . . It is probable that in attacking error the Waldenses themselves sometimes became erroneous. They are accused of having maintained the unlawfulness of oaths and of infant baptism, and of being seditious. These charges were easily made, but writers of celebrity have undertaken to confute them. . It is certain that they were austere if not morose in their practice; that they prohibited wars and law

ATTITUDE OF THE CHOIR DURING

CELEBRATION.

SIR,-In reply to an ENGLISH CHURCHMAN, I would suggest as the reason for the choir turning to the altar during the distribution of the elements, that it is done as a relief from the fatigue of kneeling, and they would naturally turn to the east. I have often seen members of the congregation standing during the same period.

In reply to W. B. M., I think it is generally considered right to use the prayer “for all conditions of men" at all services into which the Litany is not incorporated. 2. The collect for the day only should be used in the Communion Service -the inferior feast being commemorated only at Morning and Evening Prayer.

In reply to ETHELDREDA, I believe thať Dr. Monsell is the author of those lines “Blest sign,” &c.

Noli Me tangere” is also taken

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to mean that S. Mary Magdalene approached our SAVIOUR with too earthly a love-a love more for the person, i.e., not a spiritual love.

A. Q. T. It is quite right to remain at the second celebrationthere is no "authority'' I believe whatever for any one to leave the church after the prayer for the Church Militant. People never think of going out after the third collect.

Freemasonry is a world-wide society, and all who confess there is a God may belong it; but there are several degrees to which only a Christian can be admitted. It dates from the foundation of the world, and is a peculiar system of morality veiled in allegory and illustrated by symbols. Brotherly love, relief, and truth are its great principles. I do not know why it is viewed with disfavour by the Pope, except that it is a secret society,

In answer to Daisy's question on the Ter Sanctus, as there is no direction to stand during the Preface, kneeling would appear the correct posture.—Yours, &c., STEPHANOS.

beautiful sweet-scented flowers (for if there at all they should be, next to those on the Retable, the very best) is a true symbol of the Cross our dear LORD bore for us, and which we, if we would be in very deed His faithful soldiers and servants unto our life's end," ought to be ever ready to take up after Him?

These thoughts may not approve themselves to others, and I shall be very glad to “hear the other side,” if anything more than external prettiness can be alleged in behalf of a harmless practice-provided the water be not used for Holy Baptism.-Yours, &c., H.

SIR,—In the last Rubric before the Baptismal Office it is ordered that the Font shall then be filled with pure water, i.e., when the Priest is coming to the Font. The water therefore must not be left standing from one Baptism to another, and the reason of this is obvious, as the water is consecrated every time. Consequently, as there ought to be no water except at the time of service there can be no Floating Cross, and the words pure water are a real objection to anything else being in the Font at any time.-Yours, &c., H. A. S. N.

FLOATING CROSS IN THE FONT.

SIR,—The objection to the above which has always impressed

itself on my mind is this : That Easter and Whitsuntide are the special times for Holy Baptism; and if you place a Cross in the Font, the Rubric stating that it “is then," i.e. in the Service when the Priest comes to it “to be filled with pure water" cannot be complied with. Moreover, can water that has for some hours had flowers or even only wood in it be considered in the strict sense of the word "pure" and fit for use in the Great Sacrament of Baptism? There is another minor objection that the Font is not intended to contain flowers in any way, and that so to use it is to put it to an improper use. Moreover, can it be said that a Cross of

THE FREEMASONS. SIR, -Some assert that Freemasonry was introduced into Egypt by Mizraim, grandson of Noah; others, that it originated at the building of Solomon's temple, B.c. 1011. The Rev. G. Oliver, in his "Antiquities of Freemasonry, styles S. John the grand patron of the order. It was introduced into England about 676. The grand lodge of York was formed three hundred years after. It is certain that we are greatly indebted to the guilds of Freemasons for the magnificent cathedrals of the Middle Ages. The Order appeared in Scotland in 1140. Henry VI., in 1425, prohibited it in England. Thé

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