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them said, “I am of Paul,” and others, “ I am of Apollos,” whereas the “preaching of the Cross” is the purport of the commission which CHRIST gives to the ministers of the Gospel; and what they have to teach is the faith delivered to them.”

With such an end in view, they assume the position of Fathers in Christ, of Teachers in His stead, but oh how different this to what the position of the chief priests and elders, scribes and Pharisees, Sadducees and Herodians, whom the LORD denounced. And Fathers indeed may the priests of the LORD, after the example of S. Paul, allow themselves to be called, so long as S. Paul's confession and practice is theirs, “We preach not ourselves, but CHRIST JESUS the LORD, and ourselves your servants for Jesus' sake.? -Yours, &c., G. W. L.

charias' ministration ; and again, when our LORD is called a Minister or Leitourgos of the Sanctuary, the term is applied exclusively, both by the Eastern and Western Churches to the Mass; all other Services are Divine Offiees, not a Liturgy. The Creed did not form a portion of the Mass of the Catechumens, but of the Faithful.

Therefore every act done in the Sanctuary is a solemn act of Liturgy by the Body of CHRIST on earth, in the very presence of GOD, -each act is a sacrifice, and sacrifice must be offered.

The Creed is a confession of faith concerning God and in God, it is a sacrifice of the lips, offered to GOD as our service, and this is why it should be said or sung.

The notion of reading a Creed, to refresh our memories, would be to reduce it to a level with the multiplication table or the alphabet.

Our Blessed LORD liturgizes before the Mercy Seat of the FATHER, that is, as High Priest over His own house, He, in the white alb and golden girdle, pours the. offerings of every living thing into the censer, and cleansing all with His Blood, brings all up, an offering of a sweet-smelling savour in the Father's sight. And thus it is that all our petitions are offered in His Name, for all must pass through Him; He heads up the Cherubic or fourfold worship-viz., Confession, Intercession, Thanksgiving, and Praise. His is the highest liturgical act in all creation, because it is the liturgy of all creation.

Perhaps these few thoughts may help E. B.; the subject itself is inexhaustible.—Yours, &c., A CATHOLIC.


SIR,-E. B.'s second question opens up the whole theory of worship, and so utterly had all idea of worship died out, that the Indians who waved the shoulder of the animal killed in hunting, did a more intelligent and spiritual act than ninety-nine out of any hundred Protestants during the eighteenth century-it was an act of dedication to the Great Spirit. The genius and soul of Protestantism is the “sitting under" a man. The singing of the Creed is a crucial test, and I will confine myself to that, only premising, that as much can be said for any other portions of Divine Service. We must understand first what the word Liturgy means. It is applied in the Old Testament to the services of the Jewish priests in the tabernacle and temple, and particularly to their ministry at the altar, - thus in Joel i. 9, the LXX. has it, “the priests who liturgise at the altar.” In the New Testament speaking of Za

S. NINIAN. SIR, -The first apostle of the Scots of whom we have any cer

1 Our authorities for the life of S. Ninian are the Venerable Bede and Aidred, Abbot of Rievaux.

tain information is Saint Ninian. He was the son of a British prince, and was born in Strathclyde in A.D. 360. He lived a very holy youth, being early called by God to devote himself unreservedly to His service. At twenty years old he went to study at Rome, the head-quarters of Christianity and civilization; and during the long probation he passed there, he had opportunities of seeing and hearing much, of “proving all things.' Stirring questions upon important doctrines were alarming the faithful, and S. Jerome was spreading around him the holy contagion of his zeal. In 397 Ninian was consecrated, and we may imagine what a wealth of faith and love was needed to tear himself from the busy city, the delightful climate, the holy friends, to return to his barbarian fatherland. On his way home he visited S. Martin of Tours, “the glory of Gaul,” who hailed in Ninian the future saint, perceiving by prophetic light that he would be the instrument of salvation to many.

On Ninian discovering to him the desire of his heart to rear a church in his own land, the aged bishop promised his son skilled artificers, and then with prayers and tears they parted, and Ninian went forth “ to his work until the evening," to the burden and heat of the day. That work was the evangelization of the Southern Picts, who inhabited the country between the Forth and the Grampians. He chose for the centre of this work a promontory near the Solway, where he erected a church called Candida Casa, or the White House, because it was built of stone, in a manner unusual among the Britons. Here he also formed a religious house, where he passed much of his time in solitude, and in the education of the young clergy and religious. Candida Casa was dedicated to S. Mar. tin, in remembrance of their neverforgotten interview; and "in many

a rough wild heart the sight of that fair church, conspicuous on its promontory, may have produced the first perceptions of the beauty and stability of the new faith, brought by a British prince from a city heretofore associated with legions, ramparts, and iron-hearted repression.” S. Ninian's work was permitted to be very successful among the Picts. By the stories about him in the account of his life, we see him to have been a very beautiful character; and though 80 brave and so sternly in earnest, he was as simple as a child. Very edifying is the legend of the rain. One day S. Ninian was out walking with a brother of the monastery. At a certain spot they halted, opened their Psalters, and began to read. While thus employed, a sudden shower came on, but it wetted them not. The air formed around them into a protecting vault, and not a drop fell through. But presently S. Ninian lifted his eyes from the page, and a light thought, cogitatio illicita, crossing his mind, the rain fell both upon him and his book. His companion seeing this, conjectured the cause, and gently expostulated with Ninian, who, recollecting himself, blushed, recovered his attention, and forth with the rain ceased to wet him.-Yours, &c., K.


BAPTIST, CLEWER. SIR,- In the letter signed INQUIRER, in this month's Churchman's Companion there is the following remark referring to a statement made by a former correspondent, that certain congregations give largely, to such places as Clewer and Brighton: “If they do,” says INQUIRER, “I must take leave to say, the fact does not appear in any of their public statements that I have seen, and I should quite have thought that those wealthy societies could have supported themselves.

As any such "fact as this certainly would appear in such public statements, did it exist; if it does not so appear, your correspondent does rightly to doubt its reality. The object of this letter, however, is to remark upon the want of “fact” in the "thought” aroused by INQUIRER relating to the wealth of the Clewer Community, and its not needing external help.

It is a frequently received, though very mistaken notion, that the Clewer Sisterhood is a “wealthy society," and calls for no outward support. The interesting account of one of the works carried on by it in S. Alban's, Holborn, in the same number of your magazine, may help to correct this most mistaken idea; and the appeal which has been admitted into its pages for the S. Stephen's Mission, Clewer Fields, also proves poverty, not wealth.

Much might be said of the needs of all the Clewer works, and of how money is wanted, not only to extend and support that of the branch houses already named, but for that of the various Houses of Mercy, Convalescent Homes, Orphanages, &c. I would gladly add further details, for knowing how want of friends cripples many of the Community's efforts, it is painful that others should believe in unreal wealth, and so withhold the aid they might otherwise gladly give; but the object of this letter is to correct a misstatement, and not to appeal for funds, which are 80 valuable, as making the Community, by the blessing of God and through His help alone, to be, though poor, yet making many rich."-Yours, &c., S. E. B.

tures on Daniel the Prophet," (2nd edit.,) pp. 495 ü.—512.Yours, &c., H.


SIR, -Your correspondent AnNIE will find the text she refers to fully examined in that excellent work of the Rev. M. F. Sadler, “ Church doctrine-Bible truth." -Yours, &c., BLOCKLEY.


SIR, -In reply

to your correspon; dent, MEMBER C. B. S., I would recommend “The Manuals" by S. W. which are used throughout the Diocese of Exeter. There is a manual of Collects, Epistles and Gospels, one of Baptism and Confirmation, one of the Litany and one of the Te Deum. The price of each is 6d., and they are published by Messrs. Mozley.-Yours,

&c., E. L.


SIR, -I think your correspondent will find Easy Lessons for the Younger Children in Sunday schools, adapted to the Church services, for every Sunday in the year, answer his purpose. I do not know the author, but it is published by Mr. Masters.--Yours, &c., H.

THE CONSCIENCE CLAUSE. SIR,-Allow me, through your columns, to press upon Churchmen very strongly the imperative duty of not hindering the progress of Church education at this critical moment by refusing the adoption of a Conscience clause. Practically most clergymen are averse to enforcing attendance at Church; neither do they believe that the teaching of our schools secures any real appreciation of the Church. I maintain, therefore, that we are



SIR, – Allow me to refer your correspondent C. A. M. W., in addition to the Bishop of Ely on Article VII., to Dr. Pusey's “Lecfighting for what is of no substantial value—whereas it is plain that if the Church fails without loss of time to make her system of education commensurate with the wants of the nation, a counter system will be infallibly set up by the State, for which these overscrupulous persons will in effect be responsible.-Yours, &c., S. T. M.

times in the year, but the laxest members of that Church would consider it a duty to assist at least weekly at the Sacrifice.

E. B. should consult a clergyman as to the frequency of Commupion in individual cases. Yours, &c., ORIENS.


ANCE. SIR,—The question asked by E. B. as to non-communicating attendance is one which cannot be answered by any rigid rule—as it must depend much on the feelings and circumstances of the individual. There can be no doubt that generally speaking, faithful Christians ought not to leave the church where the Holy Eucharist is about to be celebrated, yet many reasons may make it expedient that they should not themselves communicate, such as, not having had time fora sufficient preparation, orinevitable distractions occurring before the service, or perplexity of mind on some point which requires spiritual counsel, or a weight on the conscience which there has not been opportunity to sift or confess, yet under such circumstances there is no reason why persons should not join in the offering of the Sacrifice, though they may not share the Feast.

We know that the true members of CHRIST's Body are all priests in Him, and as such, none may deprive them of liberty to exercise their functions by assisting at the Sacrifice whereby His Death is commemorated before God.

There is reason to think that this peculiar act of worship is of very ancient origin.

In the orthodox and unchanging Church of the East, the fast before Communion is so that even the most devout seldom communicate more than three

WORSHIP SIR,—There are different means for the same end. The Glory of God is the incentive to all worship both on earth and in heaven. And yet worship heavenly is PERFECT, worship earthly very imperfect. Why, our worship, but for the intention of God's glory that pervades it, would be ludicrous, sinful, when we think (if we can) of what it ought to be. God is a Spirit, and they that worship Him must worship Him in spirit and in truth. Yes, spiritual worship without visible worship is like Haydn's Creation without a performer; it lacks the application. The Holy Sacrifice offered in a barn would be accepted by the FATHER, were there no church at hand wherein the Eucharist might be celebrated, But not otherwise. God is a God of order and peace, not of confusion, Protestantism and its spirit, disregarding blessed Paul's commandomnia autem honeste et secundum ordinem fiant, substitute their own Take care of your own homes, and be careful in life's business; but let the House of God, the Gate of Heaven, have here a' broken window, and there a rotten beam or a ruined floor, let the spider and the beetle hold unrivalled sway, let His worship before Whom the angels veil their faces, be hurried over, even while singing the angels' song, Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Sabaoth. Ita fiat.

Take a South Sea Islander into S. Alban’s, Holborn, and then into a fashionable West End Sanctuary-God's House—and ask him which he thinks most likely to attract the dissolute, ignorant, or


man will not lose his reward. Let us then remember Pulchritudo sanctitas is always the same to Him.-Yours, &c., H. J. Y.

idle. It may be said, “You appeal to the senses.” So be it. Take the same “benighted heathen,' and show him the labours of love scattered in the vile alleys and crowded courts of Holborn, London, by the ministers of that Catholic Church; appeal to THE sense with which God has endued him, whether the armchair and fireside comforts of Ritualism's opponents are the better. Would one not rather that a few more flowers adorn God's holy Table, or a few more candles lighted, or perhaps a fragrant odour pervade the crowded church, than that the poor be left unheeded, the naked unclothed, the ignorant to die in their ignorance and unbelief, that heretics be unreclaimed? Setting aside the legal basis of the question, is it not according to the holy Apostles' teaching that the worship of the Blessed Trinity be from without as well as from within. It is true that ceremonies cannot act for the Blood of JESUS or His sacrifice on the Cross; but it is equally certain that a desire for the application of that most Precious Blood, may arise from a love of what is beautiful and simple, or vested in the mystic garment of holiness. Homines sunt mortales as much now as they were when in Old Testament times, God appealed to the natural feelings of the Israelites, that they might love, fear, and reverence Him, JEHOVAH.

Let us take an example. Can a heretic possessing a “soul for music" be persuaded to enter a church a second time after once having his ears offended by, e.g., a shrieking chant à la mode Anglican. Our delicate senses often cause indelible impressions to be engraven on our hearts. God looks for the soul of man to be devoted for Him and to Him, and if he shows his devotion to the Almighty God and LORD, FATHER, Son, and Holy Ghost, be it only in the giving of a cup of cold water, or the adornment of His Altar with His own gifts, that

Queries. LEGENDARY TREES. SIR, I am collecting as many legends as I can find concerning trees in their relation to spiritual things, and I shall be glad if you or any of your correspondents will give me assistance by relating any which they know to be current among the unlearned, who are usually the most conversant with these pretty traditions. What is the most general explanation in this way given to the aspen shaking, as there are two interpretations current and of the willow? Any traditions also about flowers, such as the spotted arum and others, would be very acceptable. I shall be glad to know what "the Judas tree” is, which is referred to in Miss Procter's poem “The Wayside Inn.”-Yours, &c., FLORA.

ALL SOULS' DAY. SIR, I shall be obliged by some information as to the actual intention of All Souls' Day. Is it intended as a day of commemoration of All Souls, good and bad, or as a day of intercession for souls in a state of waiting for their final purification ?-Yours, &c., ВЕТА.



SIR,-Will you, or any of your correspondents kindly inform me if there is any authority for the Priest to deliver the Holy Communion of Bread and Wine to a whole rail of communicants, instead of each one receiving separately? I shall be much obliged for an answer, or any information on the subject.-Yours, &c., AN OLD SUBSCRIBER.

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