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I send you the following quotation from Timbs' “ Garland for the Year" :

According to Fosbrooke, pancakes are taken from the heathen Fornacalia, celebrated on February 18th, in memory of making bread before ovens were invented, by the Goddess Fornax.

“Brand considers we have borrowed the custom from the Greek Church.

“The frying of the pancakes was formerly commenced, universally, at the ringing of the Pancake Bell.'” -Yours,

&c., E. W. W.



SIR,—In answer to the question of your correspondent Daisy on the subject of the verses including the lines beginning, “There are briers besetting every patb ;" they occur in the opening piece of a volume of verses, entitled, “Hymns and Meditations,” by A. L. W. London: Bennett, 1863. It has passed through nine editions, and its price is 2s. 6d. The name of the authoress is Waring, and her latest verses are in the “Good Words" for June. The volume is remarkable for its deep devotional feeling, though it is wanting in the subtle charm of the highest religious poetry. It is Catholic in spirit, but Protestant in expression.Yours, &c. Thai.

[M. E. B., H. A. S. N., and JoHANNA, give the same information.-Ed. C. C.] " BLEST SIGN OF MAN'S REDEMP

TION.SIR, -Allow me to inform your correspondent ETHELDREDA that the lines beginning, “Blest sign of man's redemption,” are by the Rev. J. S. B. Monsell, D.D., Vicar of Egham; and your correspondent C. M. that “Steps to the Altar,”

first French lodge was not formed till 1725. The Pope published a Bull against it in 1738. I have heard it stated that Pius IX. is a member himself, though he disowns the Society. Mr. Orchard Halliwell, F.R.S., has published a little work on the early history of Freemasonry, which your correspondent had better procure. It is published by J. Russell Smith, of Soho Square, price 2s. 60.-Yours, &c., J. P.



SIR,—May I recommend to your correspondents, AGNES and ConSTANCE, “The Altar Book for Young Persons,” published by Masters? It is an excellent little book, especially intended for children who communicate or remain in church during the Eucharistic Service.--Yours, &c., A. M. H.

[JOHANNA also recommends the same.-Ed. C.C.]

MANUAL OF THANKSGIVING. SIR,-I would inform C. M. of several “ Manuals of Thanksgivings for Holy Communion," for more than the evening after the reception. “Devotions before and after Holy Communion,” edited by Keble, 2s.; Scudamore's “Steps to the Altar,” from 6d. upwards ; Ridley's “Preparation for Weekly Communion,” 3d.; “ The Eucharistica,”2s.6d.; and “The Churchman's Guide to Faith and Piety," 28. 6d. The two last mentioned give as much space for Thanksgiving as for the Preparation, and in all the spirit of thankfulness is prominently brought forward in the devotions both before and after. -Yours, &c., H. A.S. N.


SIR,-In answer to CLOTILDE'S question as to the reason for eating Pancakes on Shrove Tuesday,

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8. LIGUORI'S WORKS. SIR-I am sorry it is not in my power to answer H. J. Y.'s question satisfactorily, but I would recommend him to apply to Messrs. Burns and Lambert, or any other leading Roman Catholic publishers.-Yours, &c., H. "EVERY ONE HAD FOUR FACES."

EZEK, I. 6.

Face I. Immoral. SIR, –This is a very startling and no less common aspect of heretical schism, and is one of those carefully concealed under the veil we treated of in our last month's letter. From the Adamites and Nicolaitanes of the second century to the Agapemone of the present, is but a step easily taken by Dissent in its infancy or Dissent in its decay. THE ORIGIN OF EVERY SECT HAS BEEN IMMORAL. Whether we see in Independency the followers of Jesse, or know that Prince thirty years ago founded the Plymouth Brethren and the Agapemone together, or ascending earlier, remark that Protestantism is but the offspring of an unsanctified will and nourished with the life-blood of Catholic England, we notice the same beginning and the inevitable end. Thus in the reigns of Edward, Charles, Mary, and the “Good Queen Bess,” does not history relate the progress of a cause sustained by the death of a martyred king, reaping glory in fanatical suicide, or exulting in the cries of Elizabethan prey ?

Shall we call Jesse pure, or Mormonism holy? Can we take in Christian love the hand of Prince's disciples ? Is it possible to believe in the “CHRIST-like simplicity'' of the Baptist religion when we learn that its originators, John

Bockhold, a tailor, and Matthias, a baker, entered in 1533 into the fair city of Münster, deceived the populace, burnt the churches, caused themselves per ipsos to be anointed “Kings of New Zion,” destroyed all books but the Bible, revived polygamy, patronised fornication, attempted to assassinate the Bishop of Münster, declared war against all other states, and as a grand finale were condemned by a Protestant court to be tortured to death with red-hot pincers, and hung about the walls of a Protestant church. Not even could the good Wesley refrain from unconsciously founding a part of his religion upon the least objectionable doctrines of the Monothelites, of whom probably the greater part of his followers have never heard. Therefore “ beware of false prophets,” said our Blessed LORD, * do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles ? A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit, neither can a corrupt tree bring forth good fruit." Let the doctrines of any existing sect, or of any all but forgotten party, be traced to their very source, and, notwithstanding the outward appearance of sanctity they now may wear, shall be revealed the poisonous fount from which they sprang, weaken it, purer waters dilute it, but the poison is there till absorbed into the ocean of Death.

The sincerity of many I will treat of hereafter. I would not say that some who are not already initiated into the inner veil of their adopted religion, are not sincere, earnest, nay, even pressing forward to holiness in their mistaken way: May they be mercifully dealt with by their God. If it be possible in the Intermediate state which all must experience, that the erring or misguided may be purged of their accumulated load of sin, unconfessed and unabsolved, I am willing to believe that hope may be entertained for all, however mista

Time may ken, who have endeavoured to love the LORD JESUS. Let those however beware, who have fallen from their first estate as members of Christ's Fold, and of His mystical Body, that their last condition be not worse than their first. And especially to those who have deserted our Catholic Church for (in this country) the schismatical Church of Rome, would I address the holy Apostle's words written in Ephesians ii. 14, while exhorting them to be at peace with us even as we would through Jesus' blood be one with them.

Now there is little more to say, but when our LORD whom we have waited for so long shall come in His glory to judge all men according to their works, may He receive His own into the promised Heaven which through Jesus we hope to attain.

From the beginning of the Christian religion to the present day, a tendency has been observed to depart from the delivered Faith. The fountain head of these many sects has been in the first place a muddy rivulet supplied from a noisome spring. It is true that the brook may make a great commotion among the pebbles on its bed, may mingle with other streams and conclude itself a river, nay, may even aspire to run side by side with the True and only River of Life!

It may exult as it bubbles noisily over the stones, how much faster it is hastening homewards than the old stream it is leaving behind, -Then in the midst of its career a thirsty soil arrests its course, scattering over its surface it makes only a treacherous bog, and now who can tell the end thereof?

If any chance to read this letter who have forsaken their first love, or belonging to the Church only in name despise her commandments, attend her Sacraments seldom or not at all, I would entreat them to abandon their luke

warmness ere their candlestick be removed out of his place, and to return to the loving arms of JESU's Spouse, lest the Day which is coming shall be never for them. Sincerity will avail nothing at the last great Day, although many now think that they may love their LORD and take the pay of the devil as well: by-and-by will all love grow cold, and temptation will come oftener and sharper. “ Woe also to them when I depart from them, saith the LORD."

Religion, purity, happiness, are all combined in the Church of God, and in her alone.-Yours, &c., H. J. Y. BONAR'S HYMN,

LESS.' SIR, - In the January number of the Churchman's Companion a correspondent, A. E. L., inquires where she can procure the music to Dr. Bonar's hymn, “The Cloudless." It is to be found in a magazine called “The Christian Treasury' for March, 1865, arranged from an air by Haydn. If A. E. L. cannot procure it I shall be happy to copy it for her, if she furnish you with her address.-Yours, &c., A. E. C.U.



SIR,-I should be obliged by the counsels of any of your more experienced correspondents in reference to the use of devotions which introduce the “Hail Mary,” and ask for the intercession of Š. Mary and the other Saints. I confess that I was surprised and disturbed to find both of these given in Mr. Carter's new “ Treasury of Devotion," a book in many ways very valuable.

1. The Angelic Salutation does not seem to me nearly so good, as a commemoration or text for meditation, as, either “A Virgin shall be with Child and shall bring forth a Son, and they shall call His Name Emmanuel,” which avoids all apostrophizing of S. Mary; or as other texts which might be mentioned, nor yet as an Antiphon found in the “Sarum Hours,' * When Thou wast born of a Virgin ineffably, then were the Scriptures fulfilled. As the dew upon the fleece didst Thou descend to give salvation to the race of man."

Now when it is borne in mind that the “Hail Mary,” issued in the direct prayer of “Mother of God, pray for us,”—though I believe the first Breviary that contains the prayer is only of the year 1531, -it seems to me very undesirable to put the thin edge of the wedge in again, since it is admitted that the Incarnation may be commemorated equally well in other ways.

2. Of course the Saints pray for everything that is good and right, and therefore for the protection and perfection of all.

But there is certainly nothing to show that they have any direct power of knowing what passes on earth, and that God should ask them to pray for one more than another is not a high view (to say the least) to take of God's Almightiness.

The prayers of the Saints, it seems to me, will be of two kinds : (1) as was before said, general, for all; (2) particular, for such as they knew in the flesh, or are locally or otherwise specially connected with, or interested in. But in neither case would they need to be asked to pray, either by God or by us.

As far as I have been able to look into the question, it appears to me that the custom of praying to the Saints arose from the feeling before referred to that each fresh martyr or saint who passed out of this world would be an advocate for those whom he or she had left behind. It did not go beyond the idea of a bond existing between

two individuals no longer able to hold personal intercourse, and the expression of a confident belief that the one who was gone would not fail to remember such as were left behind.

Moreover, the beginning of it may be distinctly traced to poetry. Prudentius, who flourished about A.D. 400, is, I think, more than any other person responsible for its introduction. Unhappily the rhapsodical language of the poet, aided by the fervid imagination of S. Jerome, passed speedily into the language of ordinary devotion; and so, I fear, it may be again, if sober divines, like Mr. Carter, sanction the practice.-Yours, &c., CAUTUS.

P.S. On the ground above indicated I think also that it is a mistake in the formula for making a Confession to introduce the clause, " before the whole company of heaven.” We shall be judged, it is distinctly said, “before men and angels;" but is there any ground for supposing that they hear the confessions of the penitent? It is commonly thought that in some way or other the saints in bliss or in Paradise are unconscious of the sins and damnation of their friends. Surely it would sadly mar their happiness to hear continually the enumeration of all the sins confessed upon earth.

PRESBYTERIAN BAPTISM. SIR,—Can you or any of your correspondents inform me how the rite of Baptism is administered in the Presbyterian community ? also what the meaning of“ M. or N.” is, as used in the Book of Common Prayer? With many apologies for troubling you.-Yours, &c., RACHEL.


ORDER. SIR-I shall be greatly obliged if you or any of your readers can

inform me what is meant by the phrase “angels in their sevenfold order," which I have sometimes heard in sermons, though there are generally supposed to be nine orders of angels ?-Yours, &c., H. C. B.

3. Who was the first person confirmed ?

4. What is the date of Onesiphorus' death

5. What grounds are there for supposing the LORD's Prayer to be of Jewish origin, and not composed by our SAVIOUR?

6. Can any one tell me of a small book in which are all the Canons of the Church?

Apologising for so many queries, -Yours, &c., LILYOFTHE VALLEY.


SIR,–Will you or any of your learned correspondents kindly tell me by what arguments the Established Church of England justifies its appropriation of Pre-Reformation endowments ?-Yours, &c., AnxiouS INQUIRER.


ETC. SIR,-I should be obliged if you or some of your correspondents would kindly answer the following questions.

1. Why do people bow the head at the mention of the Holy Ghost in the Creed, and nowhere else?

2. Why do some clergymen preach in surplices and some in black gowns, and which is right?


SIR, -At a service I recently attended the Epistle and Gospel were read by the clergymen with their backs to the people—the Epistle by a Deacon, the Gospel by the Celebrant. Can any of your correspondents inform me of the reason ? The Commandments were omitted, also the Exhortation in the Morning Prayer. The above is perhaps correct, but there is no authority for such in the Book of Common Prayer. — Yours, &c., A SUB


Notices to Correspondents.

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Nera had better write to us privately.

Lyona and Remora Borealis must send their addresses before their letters can be published.

Accepted: After an iron factory ;” “Thou shalt keep him in perfect peace;"

“ The widow's whisper;" " Adoro te devote;" “ Lines on S. John's Church, Torquay;" "A legend of S. Austin."

Declined with thanks : “Perfection;" “ A cruce salus," (the author is requested to send her address.)

Erratum : on p. 562, Vol. V., line 28, for "permanent” read “pre-eminent.”

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