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ship under sail, he forgot, forsook, and betrayed her answer, that he would deny her nothing them that fought for him, and embarked upon reasonable, so that she would either put Antoa galley with five banks of oars to follow her nius to death, or drive him out of her country.” that had already begun to overthrow him, and would in the end be his utter destruction."
20 SCENE XI.—“A messenger from Cæsar."
“Therewithal he sent Thyreus, one of his 18 SCENE IX.-—“Friends, come hither."
men, unto her, a very wise and discreet man, “Now for himself he determined to cross over who, bringing letters of credit from a young into Afric, and took one of his carects, or hulks, lord unto. a noble lady, and that, besides, laden with gold and silver, and other rich greatly liked her beauty, might easily by his carriage, and gave it unto his friends, command- eloquence have persuaded her. He was longer ing them to depart, and seek to save themselves. in talk with her than any man else was, and the They answered him weeping, that they would queen herself also did him great honour, insoneither do it, nor yet forsake him. Then Anto- much as he made Antonius jealous of him. nius very courteously and lovingly did comfort Whereupon Antonius caused him to be taken them, and prayed them to depart, and wrote and well favouredly whipped, and so sent him unto Theophilus, governor of Corinth, that he unto Cæsar, and bade him tell him that he made would see them safe, and help to hide them in him angry with him, because he showed himsome secret place until they had made their self proud and disdainful towards him; and peace with Cæsar."
now, specially, when he was easy to be angered
by reason of his present misery. To be short, 19 SCENE X.
if this mislike thee (said he), thou hast Hippar“Let him appear that's come from Antony." chus, one of my enfranchised bondmen, with
“They sent ambassadors unto Octavius Cæsar thee; hang him if thou wilt, or whip him at thy in Asia, Cleopatra requesting the realm of Egypt pleasure, that we may cry quittance. From for their children, and Antonius praying that henceforth, Cleopatra, to clear herself of the he might be suffered to live at Athens like a suspicion he had of her, made more of him than private man, if Cæsar would not let him remain ever she did. For, first of all, where she did in Egypt. And because they had no other men solemnise the day of her birth very meanly and of estimation about them, for that some were sparingly, fit for her present misfortune, she fled, and those that remained they did not now in contrary manner did keep it with such greatly trust, they were enforced to send Euphro- solemnity that she exceeded all measure of nius, the schoolmaster of their children. sumptuousness and magnificence, so that the Furthermore, Cæsar would not grant unto guests that were bidden to the feasts, and came Antonius' requests ; but for Cleopatra, he made poor, went away rich.”
21 SCENE I.
“Let the old ruffian know, | to reward his manliness, gave him an armour I have many other ways to die,” &c. and head-piece of clean gold; howbeit, the man“So Cæsar came, and pitched his camp hard by at-arms, when he received this rich gift, stole the city (Alexandria), in the place where they away by night, and went to Cæsar. Antonius run and manage their horses. Antonius made sent again to challenge Cæsar to fight with him a sally upon him, and fought very valiantly, so
hand to hand. Cæsar answered him that he had that he drave Cæsar's horsemen back, fighting many other ways to die than so." with his men, even into their camp. Then he came again to the palace, greatly boasting of
22 SCENE II.—“Call forth my household servants." this victory, and sweetly kissed Cleopatra, armed “Then Antonius seeing there was no way as he was when he came from the fight, recom- more honourable for him to die than fighting mending one of his men-at-arms unto her that valiantly, he determined to set up his rest both had valiantly fought in this skirmish. Cleopatra, by sea and land. So, being at supper (as it is
reported), he commanded his officers and house them, with whom he had made war for her bold servants that waited on him at his board sake." that they should fill his cups full, and make as much of him as they could, for, said he, You
25 SCENE XII.—“My mistress lov'd thee,” &c. know not whether you shall do so much for me “Then she, being afraid of his fury, fled into to-morrow or not, or whether you shall serve the tomb which she had caused to be made, and another master; it may be you shall see me no there locked the doors unto her, and shut all more, but a dead body. This notwithstanding, the springs of the locks with great bolts, and perceiving that his friends and men fell a weep- in the mean time sent unto Antonius to tell ing to hear him say so, to salve that he had him that she was dead. Antonius, believing it, spoken he added this more unto it, that he said unto himself, What dost thou look for would not lead them to battle where he thought further, Antonius, sith spiteful fortune hath not rather safely to return with victory than taken from thee the only joy thou haddest, for valiantly to die with honour.”
whom thou yet reservedst thy life? When he
had said these words, he went into a chamber 23 SCENE III.--" Peace, what noise ?" and unarmed himself, and, being naked, said “Furthermore, the self-same night, within a thus:-0 Cleopatra, it grieveth me not that I little of midnight, when all the city was quiet, have lost thy company, for I will not be long full of fear and sorrow, thinking what would be from thee: but I am sorry that, having been so the issue and end of this war, it is said that great a captain and emperor, I am indeed consuddenly they heard a marvellous sweet harmony demned to be judged of less courage and noble of sundry sorts of instruments of music, with mind than a woman. Now he had a man of the cry of a multitude of people, as they had his, called Eros, whom he loved and trusted been dancing, and had sung as they used in much, and whom he had long before caused to Bacchus' feasts, with movings and turnings swear unto him that he should kill him when after the manner of the Satyrs; and it seemed he did command him, and then he willed him that this dance went through the city unto the to keep his promise. This man, drawing his gate that opened to the enemies, and that all sword, lift it up as though he had meant to the troop that made this noise they heard went have stricken his master; but, turning his out of the city at that gate. Now, such as in head at one side, he thrust his sword into himreason sought the depth of the interpretation of self, and fell down dead at his master's foot. this wonder, thought that it was the god unto Then said Antonius, 0 noble Eros, I thank thee whom Antonius bare singular devotion to for this, and it is valiantly done of thee, to counterfeit and resemble him that did forsake show me what I should do to myself, which them.”
thou couldst not do for me. Therewithal he 24 SCENE X.
took his sword, and thrust it into his belly, and
so fell down upon a little bed. The wound he “ This foul Egyptian hath betrayed me."
had killed him not presently, for the blood “The next morning by break of day he went stinted a little when he was laid; and when he to set those few footmen he had in order upon came somewhat to himself again, he prayed the hills adjoining unto the city, and there he | them that were about him to despatch him ; stood to behold his galleys which departed from but they all fled out of the chamber, and left the haven, and rowed against the galleys of his him crying and tormenting himself, until at enemies, and so stood still, looking what ex- last there came a secretary unto him called ploit his soldiers in them would do. But when Diomedes, who was commanded to bring him by force of rowing they were come near unto into the tomb or monument where Cleopatra them, they first saluted Cæsar's men, and then When he heard that she was alive, he Cæsar's men resaluted them also, and of two very earnestly prayed his men to carry his body armies made but one, and then did altogether thither, and so he was carried in his men's arms row toward the city. When Antonius saw that into the entry of the monument." his men did forsake him, and yielded unto Cæsar, and that his footmen were broken and
26 SCENE XIII. overthrown, he then fled into the city, crying "O Charmian, I will never go from hence.” out that Cleopatra had betrayed him unto “Notwithstanding, Cleopatra would not open
the gates, but came to the high windows, and she dried up his blood that had berayed his cast out certain chains and ropes, in the which face, and called him her lord, her husband, and Antonius was trussed ; and Cleopatra her own emperor, forgetting her own misery and calaself, with two women only which she had mity for the pity and compassion she took of suffered to come with her into these monu- him. Antonius made her cease her lamenting, ments, “trised' Antonius up. They that were and called for wine, either because he was present to behold it said they never saw so athirst, or else for that he thought thereby pitiful a sight; for they plucked up poor Anto- to hasten his death. When he had drunk he nius, all bloody as he was, and drawing on with earnestly prayed her and persuaded her that pangs of death, who, holding up his hands to she would seek to save her life, if she could Cleopatra, raised up himself as well as he could. possible, without reproach and dishonour, and It was a hard thing for these women to do, to that chiefly she should trust Proculeius above lift him up; but Cleopatra stooping down with any man else about Cæsar; and, as for himself, her head, putting to all her strength to her that she should not lament nor sorrow for the uttermost power, did lift him up with much miserable change of his fortune at the end of ado, and never let go her hold, with the help of his days, but rather that she should think him the women beneath that bade her be of good the more fortunate for the former triumphs courage, and were as sorry to see her labour so and honours he had received, considering that as she herself. So when she had gotten him in while he lived he was the noblest and greatest after that sort, and laid him on a bed, she rent prince of the world, and that now he was overher garments upon him, clapping her breast, come, not cowardly, but valiantly, a Roman by and scratching her face and stomach. Then another Roman."
ACT V. 27 SCENE I.
take Cleopatra, and bring her alive to Rome, Wherefore is that? and what thou that she would marvellously beautify and set out his dar'st
triumph.” Appear thus to us?"
28 SCENE II.—“Guard her til Cæsar come." “AFTER Antonius had thrust his sword into him- “But Cleopatra would never put herself into self, as they carried him into the tombs and Proculeius' hands, although they spoke together. monuments of Cleopatra, one of his guard, For Proculeius came to the gates, that were very called Dercetæus, took his sword with which he thick and strong, and surely barred; but yet had stricken himself and hid it; then he there were some crannies through the which secretly stole away, and brought Octavius Cæsar her voice might be heard, and so they without the first news of his death, and showed him his understood that Cleopatra demanded the kingsword that was bloodied. Cæsar, hearing these dom of Egypt for her sons; and that Proculeius news, straight withdrew himself into a secret answered her that she should be of good cheer, place of his tent, and there burst out with tears, and not be afraid to refer all unto Cæsar. After lamenting his hard and miserable fortune, that he had viewed the place very well he came and had been his friend and brother-in-law, his reported her answer unto Cæsar, who immeequal in the empire, and companion with him diately sent Gallus to speak once again with in sundry great exploits and battles. Then he her, and bade him purposely hold her with talk called for his friends, and showed them the whilst Proculeius did set up a ladder against letters Antonius had written to him, and his that high window by the which Antonius was answers also sent him again, during their quar- 'trised' up, and came down into the monument rel and strife, and how fiercely and proudly the with two of his men hard by the gate where other answered him to all just and reasonable Cleopatra stood to hear what Gallus said unto matters he wrote unto him. After this he sent her. One of her women which was shut in Proculeius, and commanded him to do what he the monument with her saw Proculeius by could possible to get Cleopatra alive, fearing chance as he came down, and shrieked out, 0, lest otherwise all the treasure would be lost: poor Cleopatra, thou art taken ! Then, when and furthermore, he thought that, if he could she saw Proculeius behind her as she came from
the gate, she thought to have stabbed herself | did not only give her that to dispose of at her with a short dagger she wore of purpose by her pleasure which she had kept back, but further side. But Proculeius came suddenly upon her, promised to use her more honourably and bounand, taking her by both the hands, said unto tifully than she would think for: and so he her, Cleopatra, first thou shalt do thyself great took his leave of her, supposing he had dewrong, and secondly unto Cæsar, to deprive him ceived her, but indeed he was deceived himof the occasion and opportunity openly to show self." his bounty and mercy, and to give his enemies
30 SCENE II.
Cæsar through Syria cause to accuse the most courteous and noble
Intends his journey." prince that ever was, and to 'appeache' him as though he were a cruel and merciless man “There was a young gentleman, Cornelius that were not to be trusted. So, even as he Dolabella, that was one of Cæsar's very great spake the word, he took her dagger from her, familiars, and besides did bear no evil will unto and shook her clothes for fear of any poison Cleopatra. He sent her word secretly, as she hidden about her."
had requested him, that Cæsar determined to
take his journey through Syria, and that within 29 SCENE II.-—" Which is the queen of Egypt ?”
three days he would send her away before with “Shortly after Cæsar came himself in person her children. When this was told Cleopatra, to see her, and to comfort her.
she commanded they should prepare her bath, When Cæsar had made her lie down again, and and when she had bathed and washed herself sat by her bedside, Cleopatra began to clear and she fell to her meat, and was sumptuously excuse herself for that she had done, laying all served. Now, whilst she was at dinner, there to the fear she had of Antonius. Cæsar, in came a countryman and brought her a basket. contrary manner, reproved her in every point. The soldiers that warded at the gates asked him Then she suddenly altered her speech, and straight what he had in his basket. He opened prayed him to pardon her, as though she were the basket, and took out the leaves that covered afraid to die, and desirous to live. At length the figs, and showed them that they were figs she gave him a brief and memorial of all the he brought. They all of them marvelled to ready money and treasure she had. But by see such goodly figs. The countryman laughed chance there stood Seleucus by, one of her to hear them, and bade them take some if they treasurers, who, to seem a good servant, came would. They believed he told them truly, and straight to Cæsar to disprove Cleopatra, that so bade him carry them in. After Cleopatra she had not set in all, but kept many things had dined, she sent a certain table, written and back of purpose. Cleopatra was in such a rage sealed, unto Cæsar, and commanded them all to with him, that she flew upon him, and took go out of the tombs where she was but the two him by the hair of the head, and boxed him women; then she shut the doors to her. Cæsar, well favouredly. Cæsar fell a-laughing, and when he received this table, and began to read parted the fray. Alas! said she, O, Cæsar ! is her lamentation and petition, requesting him not this a great shame and reproach, that thou that he would let her be buried with Antonius, having vouchsafed to take the pains to come found straight what she meant, and thought to unto me, and hast done me this honour, poor have gone thither himself: howbeit he sent one wretch and caitiff creature, brought unto this before him in all haste that might be to see pitiful and miserable estate; and that mine what it was. Her death was very sudden; for own servants should come now to accuse me, those whom Cæsar sent unto her ran thither in though it may be I have reserved some jewels all haste possible, and found the soldiers standand trifles meet for women, but not for me ing at the gate, mistrusting nothing, nor under(poor soul) to set out myself withal, but mean- standing of her death. But when they had ing to give some pretty presents and gifts unto opened the doors they found Cleopatra stark Octavia and Livia, that, they making means dead, laid upon a bed of gold, attired and arand intercession for me to thee, thou mightest rayed in her royal robes, and one of her two yet extend thy favour and mercy upon me? | women, which was called Iras, dead at her feet; Cæsar was glad to hear her say so, persuading and her other woman, called Charmian, half himself thereby that she had yet a desire to dead, and trembling, trimming the diadem save her life. So he made her answer, that he which Cleopatra wore upon her head. One of the soldiers, seeing her, angrily said unto her, poison in a hollow razor which she carried in the Is that well done, Charmian? Very well, said hair of her head; and yet was there no mark seen she again, and meet for a princess descended of her body, or any sign discerned that she was from the race of so many noble kings. She poisoned, neither also did they find this serpent said no more, but fell down dead hard by the in her tomb. But it was reported only that bed. Some report that this aspic was brought there were seen certain fresh steps or tracks unto her in the basket with figs, and that she where it had gone on the tomb side toward the had commanded them to hide it under the fig- sea, and specially by the door's side. Some say leaves, that when she should think to take out also that they found two pretty bitings in her the figs the aspic should bite her before she arm, scant to be discerned: the which it seemshould see her. Howbeit, that, when she would eth Cæsar himself gave credit unto, because in have taken away the leaves from the figs, she his triumph he carried Cleopatra's image with perceived it, and said, Art thou here then ? an aspic biting of her arm. And thus goeth And so, her arm being naked, she put it to the the report of her death. Now Cæsar, though aspic to be bitten. Other say again she kept it he was marvellous sorry for the death of Cleoin a box, and that she did prick and thrust it patra, yet he wondered at her noble mind and with a spindle of gold, so that the aspic, being courage, and therefore commanded she should angered withal, leapt out with great fury, and be nobly buried, and laid by Antonius; and bit her in the arm. Howbeit, few can tell the willed also that her two women should have truth : for they report also that she had hidden honourable burial.”
COSTUME. For the costume of the Roman personages of tume of their conquerors, or the conquerors this play, we, of course refer our readers to the themselves assumed that of the vanquished. Notice appended to that of Julius Cæsar : but In the work on Egyptian Antiquities published for the costume of Egypt during the latter in the Library of Entertaining Knowledge, the period of Greek domination we have no satis- few facts bearing upon this subject have been factory authority. Winckelmann describes some assembled, and the minutest details of the figures which he asserts were "made by Egyp- more ancient Egyptian costume will be found tian sculptors under the dominion of the in the admirable works of Sir G. Wilkinson ; Greeks, who introduced into Egypt their gods but it would be worse than useless for us to as well as their arts; while, on the other hand, enter here into a long description of the costhe Greeks adopted Egyptian usages." But tume of the Pharaohs, unless we could assert from these mutilated remains of Greco-Egyp- how much, if any part of it, was retained by tian workmanship we are unable to ascertain the Ptolemies. how far the Egyptians generally adopted the cos