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My mate, that's never to be found again,
O, peace, Paulina !
found mine ; But how, is to be question'd; for I saw her, 139 As I thought, dead, and have in vain said many A prayer upon her grave. I'll not seek farFor him, I partly know his mind to find thee An honourable husband. Come, Camillo, And take her by the hand, whose worth and
Is richly noted and here justified
ing, Is troth-plight to your daughter. Good Paulina, Lead us from hence, where we may leisurely Each one demand and answer to his part Perform'd in this wide gap of time since first We were dissever'd. Hastily lead away.
The TEMPEST first appeared in print as the opening play in the First Folio. This fact bas, curiously enough, been taken as a reason for considering it Shakespeare's last drama; but more substantial evidence exists for placing it thus late. One limit is fixed by its presence in a list of plays performed during the marriage festivities of King James's daughter Elizabeth in the early spring of 1613. The other is less definite, but is approximately indicated by the author's use of details from various accounts of the wreck of Sir George Somers in 1609. Within these limits 1610 to 1613, opinion varies. Metrical evidence associates The Tempest with Cymbeline and The Winter's Tale, but does not decide their relative order. Those who place the play in 1612 regard it as having been specially written for the betrothal or the marriage of the Princess, adducing in support the large spectacular element and the nature of the masque in the fourth act. Further attempts to strengthen the argument by finding in Prospero a portrait of King James, and in the supposed drowning of Ferdinand references to the death of Prince Henry, are not convincing ; nor does the mere fact of performance at the wedding prove anything, since the numerous other plays then acted were revivals. The Revels accounts contain an entry stating that The Tempest was presented at Whitehall on Hallowmas night, 1611, and though this is now known to have been forged, it may have been well founded, since sixty years before the forgery Malone had stated, on evidence no longer accessible, that he knew the play existed in the autumn of 1611. On the whole, there is no evidence quite strong enough to counterbalance the standing presumption in favor of Malone's accuracy, so that 1611 remains the most probable date. There is thus nothing to hinder us from regarding the play as the last completed by Shakespeare alone.
For the main thread of the plot no source has been discovered. The resemblance to Die Schöne Sidea of Jakob Ayrer of Nuremberg, who died in 1603, is much less striking when the whole of Ayrer's play is read than when the points of likeness are extracted. In both plays we have a prince given to magic, and driven into exile with a daughter who marries the son of his enemy; an attendant spirit; and — most striking of all — the imposition of log-carrying upon the captive prince, and the fixing of his sword in his scabbard. But there is absolutely no similarity in character, and Ayrer's devil has nothing in common with Ariel, save his function as a supernatural servant. The fixing of the sword is a commonplace of magic, and even the carrying or splitting of logs is found as a task imposed by a magician on a captive prince in folk-tales having no connection with the present plays. The most that can be said is that both dramas may go back to a common origin, which, however, may have been far from immediate. “A fellow-actor's description" of the German play is of course a possibility, especially since English comedians are known to have been in Nuremberg in 1604 and 1606; but a positive statement is not warranted by the evidence.
Of the origin of minor details we can speak with more assurance. Shakespeare was well read in the literature of travel of his time, and evidences of this abound in the present case. In his descriptions of the island and of the storm he drew especially from the narratives of Sylvester Jourdan and William Strachey, who wrote accounts of the wreck on the Bermudas of one of the ships belonging to the expedition to Virginia led by Somers and Gates in 1609. Information with regard to this and similar adventures may well have reached him from oral sources also. Gonzalo's commonwealth (11. i. 147 ff.) was suggested by two passages in Florio's translation of Montaigne (1603). Prospero's abjuration speech (v. i. 33 ff.) is influenced by a passage in Golding's Ovid. Setebos is taken from Eden's History of Travaile (1577), where the name occurs as that of the devil-god of the Patagonian giants. Ariel occurs in Isaiah, and is the name of a prince of spirits in cabalistic literature. Miranda is evidently a significant coinage, like Perdita and Marina; and Caliban may be merely an anagram for “cannibal.” The island is clearly not meant to be identified with Bermuda or any other.
(DRAMATIS PERSONÆ] ALONSO, king of Naples.
Master of a Ship. SEBASTIAN, his brother.
Boatswain. PROSPERO, the right duke of Milan.
MIRANDA, daughter to Prospero.
ARIEL, an airy Spirit.
JUNO, Spirits. TRINCULO, a Jester.
Methinks he hath no drowning mark upon him;
his complexion is perfect gallows. Stand fast, SCENE I. (On a ship at sea :/ a tempestuous good Fate, to his hanging ; make the rope of
noise of thunder and lightning heard. his destiny our cable, for our own doth little Enter a SHIP-MASTER and a BOATSWAIN.
advantage. If he be not born to be hang'd, our case is miserable.
(Exeunt. 36 Mast. Boatswain !
Re-enter BOATSWAIN. Boats. Here, master ; what cheer ?
Mast. Good ; speak to the mariners, Fall Boats. Down with the topmast ! yare ! lower, to 't, yarely, or we run ourselves aground. Be- | lower ! Bring her to try wi' the main-course. stir, bestir [Exit. 6 A plague
(A cry within.) Enter MARINERS.
Enter SEBASTIAN, ANTONIO, and GONZALO. Boats. Heigh, my hearts! cheerly, cheerly, upon this howling! They are louder than the my hearts! yare, yare! Take in the topsail. weather or our office. - Yet again! What (40 Tend to the master's whistle. - Blow till thou do you here? Shall we give o'er and drown? burst thy wind, if room enough!
Have you a mind to sink? Enter ALONSO, SEBASTIAN, ANTONIO, FERDI
Seb. A pox of your throat, you bawling,
blasphemous, incharitable dog! NAND, GONZALO, and others.
Boats. Work you, then. Alon. Good boatswain, have care. Where's Ant. Hang, cur! hang, you whoreson, inthe master ? Play the men.
solent noisemaker! We are less afraid to be Boats. I pray now, keep below.
drown'd than thou art. Ant. Where is the master, boatswain ?
Gon. I'll warrant him for drowning though Boats. Do you not hear him ? You mar our the ship were no stronger than a nut-shell and labour. Keep your cabins ; you do assist the as leaky as an unstanched wench. storm.
Boats. Lay her a-hold, a-hold ! Set her two Gon. Nay, good, be patient.
courses off to sea again! Lay her off. Boats. When the sea is. Hence! What
Enter MARINERS wet. cares these roarers for the name of king? To cabin! silence! trouble us not.
Mariners. All lost! To prayers, to prayers ! Gon. Good, yet remember whom thou hast All lost! aboard.
Boats. What, must our mouths be cold? Boats. None that I more love than myself. Gon. The King and Prince at prayers ! Let's You are a counsellor; if you can command assist them, these elements to silence, and work the peace For our case is as theirs. of the present, we will not hand a rope more; use Seb.
I'm out of patience. your anthority. If you cannot, give thanks
Ant. We are merely cheated of our lives by have liv'd so long, and make yourself ready in drunkards. your cabin for the mischance of the hour, if it This wide-chapp'd rascal — would thou mightst so hap. - Cheerly, good hearts ! - Out of our lie drowning way, I say.
(Eril. 29 The washing of ten tides ! Gon. I have great comfort from this fellow.
He 'll be hang'd yet,
Though every drop of water swear against it And gape at wid'st to glut him.
(A confused noise within. Mercy on us ! We split, we split! Farewell, my wife and
children ! Farewell, brother! We split, we split, we split!
Ant. Let's all sink wi' the King.
Gon. Now would I give a thousand furlongs of sea for an acre of barren ground, long heath, brown furze, anything. The wills above be done! but I would fain die a dry death.
(Exeunt. SCENE II. (The island. Before Prospero's cell.]
Enter PROSPERO and MIRANDA. Mir. If by your art, my dearest father, you
have Put the wild waters in this roar, allay them. The sky, it seems, would pour down stinking
pitch, But that the sea, mounting the welkin's
cheek, Dashes the fire out. O, I have suffered With those that I saw suffer! A brave vessel, Who had, no doubt, some noble creature in her, Dash'd all to pieces ! O, the cry did knock Against my very heart. Poor souls, they per
ish'd. Had I been any god of power, I would Have sunk the sea within the earth or ere It should the good ship so have swallow'd and The fraughting souls within her. Pros.
Be collected ; No more amazement. Tell your piteous heart There 's no harm done. Mir.
O, woe the day ! Pros.
More to know
'T is time I should inform thee farther. Lend thy hand, And pluck my magic garment from me. So,
(Lays down his mantle.) Lie there, my art. Wipe thou thine eyes ;
have comfort. l'he direful spectacle of the wreck, which
touch'd The very virtue of compassion in thee, I have with such provision in mine art So safely ordered that there is no soul No, not so much perdition as an hair Betid to any creature in the vessel Which thou heard'st cry, which thou saw'st
sink. Sit down; For thou must now know farther. Mir.
You have often Begun to tell me what I am, but stopp'd
And left me to a bootless inquisition,
The hour's now come;
not Out three years old. Mir.
Certainly, sir, I can. Pros. By what? By any other house or perOf anything the image tell me, that Hath kept with thy remembrance. Mir.
'T is far off And rather like a dream than an assurance That my remembrance warrants. Had I not Four or five women once that tended me ? Pros. Thou hadst, and more, Miranda. But
how is it That this lives in thy mind? What seest thon
else In the dark backward and abysm of time? 50 If thou remenib'rest aught ere thou cam'st here, How thou cam'st here thou may'st. Mir.
But that I do not, Pros. Twelve year since, Miranda, twelve
Sir, are not you my father? Pros. Thy mother was a piece of virtae, and She said thou wast my daughter; and thy fa
O the heavens! What foul play had we, that we came from
thence ? Or blessed was 't we did ? Pros.
Both, both, my girl. By foul play, as thou say'st, were we heard
thence, But blessedly holp hither. Mir.
O, my heart bleeds To think o' the teen that I have turn'd you to, Which is from my remembrance ! Please you,
farther. Pros. My brother and thy uncle, call’d An
Sir, most heedfully. Pros. Being once perfected how to grant
suits, How to deny them, who to advance and who #
To trash for overtopping, new created
tend'st not. Mir. O, good sir, I do. Pros.
I pray thee, mark me. 1, thus neglecting worldly ends, all dedicated To closeness and the bettering of my mind With that which, but by being so retir'd, O'er-priz'd all popular rate, in my false brother Awak'd an evil nature; and my trust, Like a good parent, did beget of him A falsehood, in its contrary as great As my trust was; which had indeed no limit, A confidence sans bound. He being thus lorded, Not only with what my revenue yielded, But what my power might else exact, — like Who having into truth, by telling of it, Made such a sinner of his memory. To credit his own lie, - he did believe He was indeed the Duke. Out o' the substitu
tion, And executing the outward face of royalty, With all prerogative, hence his ambition grow
ing Dost thou hear ?
Mir. Your tale, sir, would cure deafness. Pros. To have no screen between this part
he play'd And him he play'd it for, he needs will be Absolute Milan. Me, poor man! - my library Was dukedom large enough --- of temporal roy
alties He thinks me now incapable; confederates So dry he was for sway — wi' the King of
Naples To give him annual tribute do him homage, Subject his coronet to his crown, and bend The dukedom yet unbow'd - alas, poor Mi
lanTo most ignoble stooping. Mir,
O the heavens: Pros. Mark his condition and the event,
then tell me
I should sin
Now the condition.
The ministers for the purpose hurried thence
Alack, for pity!
Hear a little further, And then I 'll bring thee to the present business Which now's upon 's, without the which this
story Were most impertinent. Mir.
Wherefore did they not That hour destroy us? Pros.
Well demanded, wench; My tale provokes that question. Dear, they
durst not (So dear the love my people bore me) set A mark so bloody on the business ; but With colours fairer painted their foul ends. In few, they hurried us aboard a bark, Bore us some leagues to sea; where they pre
pared A rotten carcass of a butt, not rigg'd, Nor tackle, sail, nor mast; the very rats Instinctively have quit it. There they hoist us, To cry to the sea that roar'd to us, to sigh To the winds whose pity, sighing back again, 160 Did us but loving wrong. Mir.
Alack, what trouble Was I then to you! Pros.
0, a cherubin Thou wast that did preserve me. Thou didst
smile, Infused with a fortitude from heaven, When I have deck'd the sea with drops full
salt, Under my burden groan'd; which rais'd in me An undergoing stomach, to bear up Against what should ensue. Mir.
How came we ashore ? Pros. By Providence divine. Some food we had and some freshwater
Would I might
Now I arise.
(Puts on his robe.] Sit still, and hear the last of our sea-sorrow. 170 Here in this island we arriv'd; and here Have I, thy schoolmaster, made thee more
profit Than other princess can that have more time For vainer hours, and tutors not so careful. Mir. Heavens thank you for 't! And now, I
pray you, sir, For still 't is beating in my mind, your reason For raising this sea-storm? Pros.
Know thus far forth.