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and Anio Novus, and Vetus, and Aqua Marcia. The streamlet called Aqua Rossa flows under it. The two arches are of opus quadratum: and the height of the Ponte is 75 feet with an extreme width of 400. There is a group of reed-huts along the summit which can be reaehed by a path on the side of the cliff. The entire scene so shut away in the silence and sunshine of the Campagna is very impressive.

San Vittorino, a mile farther, and across another Fossa, occupies a ridge between two valleys, and displays picturesquely two mediaeval towers overlooking its steep olive slopes. The Barberini Bees are seen above its gate. We may pass through it and descend into the farther valley or fossa on our way to'Ponte Lucano to catch the afternoon tramway back to Rome. The path is accompanied by silver-green prickly-pear and wild fig trees, and clouds of old man's beard over the olives and brambles. Sharp staccato notes of the small finches and tits are heard from the olive-yards. We presently pass by a tunnel and an ancient cutting, and so reach a road falling steeply to the plain. Later we notice some rockchambers half-quarried away. At Casetta Bianca the rain begins to fall, and in the distance we see the Corniculani hills are being rapidly obscured by a storm. Moreover, the far off Albans on the other side, on our left, are sending forth lightnings. We pity the buffaloes harnessed to a cart which passes us. But as they are rather amphibious, they will appreciate the rain that will overtake them.

Zagarolo, 21 miles from Rome, will scarcely be made the object of an especial excursion, but may be visited by those who drive to Palestrina. It is a mediaeval town chiefly built by the Colonnesi, in whose wars it was twice sacked, first by Boniface VIII. (1298), and afterwards by Cardinal Vitelleschi in the reign of Eugenius IV. (1436). It now gives a ducal title to the Rospigliosi. Many Roman antiquities found in the neighbourhood are built up into the walls and houses, and over the Roman gate is a seated statue of Jupiter. The commission for the revision of the Vulgate under Gregory XIV. met in the palace of Zagarolo.

CHAPTER IX

CERVARA, LUNGHEZZA, AND COLLATIA

(If not done by means of the railway it is a short and pleasant afternoon's drive to Cervara, but a day must be given to Lunghezza and Collatia, though, if visited on horseback or cycle, these may be combined with the ruins of Gabii.)

AFTER passing the Torre degli Sohiavi, the road (Via Collatina) to Lunghezza turns off to the left. On our right at some distance stands Tor Sapienza, and behind it Tor di Tre Teste (7 kilos.); on the left we pass close to a fountain of the Acqua Vergine, which rises at Salone, not far off. We cross the railway. to Tivoli. On the left is now seen the great castellated farm of the Borghese called Oervelletta, rising above the low marshy ground. The field-road which passes in front of the farther side of this castle, leads on a mile farther to another Campagna castle, Cervara (13th cent.), a picturesque red-brick tower with some farm buildings attached to it.

Close to this are the Grotte di Cervara, or caverns formed by quarrying tufo in ancient times. It is a strange place. Unconscious of any break in the grassy Campagna, you find yourself on the edge of a precipice, with narrow, miniature ravines yawning beneath in all directions till they emerge on meadow-land near the winding Anio. When you descend into these ravines, openings in the rocks lead on again into vast chambers, their roofs supported by pillars of natural red tufo, rising from a floor deep in sand, while long tresses of ivy, and laurustinus, wave in upon the gloom, whenever light streams in. One point is especially charming, where the Anio and the hills beyond it are seen through an arch of the natural rock.

On April 21, the birthday of Rome, these solitudes were enlivened until 1894 by the costume and revels of the Festa degli Artisti, which was worth seeing. Some historical scene, such as the triumph of Vitellius (as in 1870), was usually taken as the groundwork of a costumed procession — tournaments were held in a meadow near the Anio, wonderful cavalcades of Arabs in rich dresses ride waving their long spears through the Petra-like ravines, while a bellowing Dragon vomiting forth fire and smoke emerged from the caves, and was presently despatched by an imaginary S. George in the rock-girt hollow*

The aqueduct of Acqua Vergine accompanies us, being sometimes coincident with the Via Collatina.

About the fifth mile from Rome, the tall tower of Rustica beyond the railway (L.) looks over the swellings of the Campagna. According to Nibby this was the Ager Lucullanus. It was later the property of Aelius, father of the Emperor Lucius Verus, who was adopted by Hadrian as his successor. Rustica is most easily seen from the opposite side of the river, reached by the road to Tivoli, turning off to the right beyond Ponte Mammolo. Returning to the Via Collatina, between the sixth and seventh mile, a tolerable road leads us over the Campagna passing the Fossa di Ponte di Nona, until between the eighth and ninth mile, we take the left branch of the bifurcation and finally cross the rails again close to the Anio, which is here bordered with willows. The great castle or rather fortified farm of Lunghezza is seen on the opposite slope, backed by the purple peaks of Sabina. It is occupied as a village to-day. This was an ancient possession of the Strozzi family, but has lately been sold to the Duca di Grazioli. Here the Osa unites with the Anio.

'C'est le bon plaisir des souverains pontiles qui a fait entrer quolques riches parvenus dans l'aristocratie rornaine.

'Un boulanger du nom de Grazioli fait une grande fortune, et le pape ordonne qu'il soit inscrit sur la liste dn patriciat romain. II achete une baronnie et le pape le fait baron. II achete un dnche et le voila due Grazioli. Son fils epouse une Lante de la Rovere.'—About.

Hither in their plight, under Boniface VIII., fled the Colonna cardinals and held council among themselves.

There is little remarkable about Lunghezza, except its picturesque situation, but some hours may be pleasantly spent in sketching on the river-bank lower down the valley.

A pleasant walk of about two miles up the stream of the Osa (turning to the left in descending from the Castle) leads along fields and through a wood, filled in spring with snowdrops, to the ruined Castello dell' Osa, which occupies a declivity on the left of the stream.

It used to be disputed whether Castel dell' Osa or Lunghezza is the site of the celebrated Collatia. Beneath the ruined castle near the Osa some fragments of ancient wall, in regular blocks, may be observed, and this was the only fact advanced in favour of its being the site of Lucretia's home; but Sir W. Gell, rightly in favour of Lunghezza, drew attention to the existence of the Via Collatina, leading direct to Lunghezza, which would have been unnecessary had Collatia occupied a site such as Castel dell' Osa, which is but two miles from Gabii, inasmuch as a slight turning from the Via Gabina would have led to it. Lunghezza also accords better than Castel dell' Osa with the description of Virgil:—'Collatinas imponent montibus arces.'

—Aen. vi. 774

Virgil and Dionysius notice Collatia as a colony of Alba Longa. It was reduced into subjection to Rome in the reign of Tarquinius Priscus, who established a garrison there, and appointed his nephew

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