Genzano, which forms so conspicuous a feature in the view from Nemi, is reached by a circuitous walk along the paths near the water until the Casa del Pescatore is reached, when the ascent begins and passes on direct, encountering here and there the ancient pavement of its original. The slopes beneath the town are occupied by the lovely gardens of Duke Sforza-Cesarini (which 'a silver key' will usually open to visitors). The scenery of this beautiful hill-side is photographed in the description of H. Christian Andersen.

'The lake of Nemi slept calmly in the great round crater, from which at one time fire spouted up to heaven. We went down the amphitheatre-like rocky slope, through the great beech wood and the thick groves of plane trees, where the vines wreathed themselves amongst the tree-branches. On the opposite steep lay the village of Nemi, which mirrored itself in the blue lake. As we went along we bound garlands, entwining the dark green olive and fresh vine-leaves with the wild golden cistus. Now the deep-lying blue lake and the bright heavens above us were hidden by the thick branches and the vine-leaves, now they gleamed forth again as if they were only one united infinite blue. Everything was new and glorious to me; my soul trembled for its great joy. There are even still moments in which the remembrance of these feelings comes forth again like the beautiful mosaic fragments of a buried city.

'The sun burned hotly, and it was not until we were by the water-side, where the plane trees raise aloft their ancient trunks from the lake, and bend down their branches, heavy with enwreathing vines, to the watery mirror, that we found it cool enough to continue our work. Beautiful water-plants nodded here as if they dreamed under the cool shadow. And they too made part of our garlands. Presently, however, the sunbeams no longer reached the lake, but only played upon the roofs of Nemi and Genzano; and the gloom descended upon where we sate. I went a little distance from the others, yet only a few paces, for my mother was afraid that I should fall into the lake where it was deep and the banks were steep. Not far from the small stone ruins of an old temple of Diana there lay a huge fig-tree which the ivy had already begun to bind fast to the earth; I climbed upon this, and wove a garland whilst I sang from a canzonet,—

"Ah, rossi, rossi fiori!
Un mazzo di viole,
Un gelsomin d' amore."'

The Palazzo Cesarini contains little of especial interest, but it is associated with one of those dramas of real life which are seldom found out of Italy. A Duchess Cesarini dreamt before her confinement that she should give birth to twins, one of whom would endanger the happiness of the other. Determined to obviate this misfortune, she bribed the midwife to convey one of the children away as soon as it was born, and bring it up as a peasant. This was done, and the young Cesarini served as a shepherd, supposing himself to be a shepherd's son, till after he came of age. Then his adopted shepherd-mother happened to hear that the young Duke Cesarini and his father and mother were dead and that there was no heir to the fortunes and title; and, going to the palace with the midwife, she was able to produce indisputable proofs to the astonished heirs at-law which established the claims of the shepherd-boy, who was sent to Paris to be educated and became the late Duke Cesarini.

Genzano is now chiefly celebrated for its excellent white wine and for the festival of the Infiorata, which takes place on the eighth day after Corpus Domini, and is wonderfully appropriate to this land of flowers.

'I dreamed till the sun shone in at my window, and awoke me to the beautiful feast of flowers.

'How shall I describe the first glance into the street- that bright picture as I then saw it? The entire, long, gently-ascending street was covered with flowers; the ground colour was blue; it looked as if they had robbed all the gardens, all the fields, to collect flowers enough of the same colour to cover the street; over these lay in long stripes, green, composed of leaves, alternately with rose-colour, and at some distance from this was a similar stripe, as it were a broad border to the whole carpet. The middle of this represented stars and suns, which were formed by a close mass of yellow, round, and star-like flowers; more labour still had been spent upon the formation of names—here flower was laid upon flower, leaf upon leaf. The whole was a living flower-carpet, a mosaic floor, richer in pomp of colouring than anything which Pompeii can show. Not a breath of air stirred—the flowers lay immovable, as if they were heavy, firmly-set precious stones. From all the windows were hung upon the walls large carpets, worked, in leaves and flowers, representing holy pictures. Here Joseph led the ass on which sat the Madonna and the Child ; roses formed the faces, the feet and the arms, gillyflowers and anemones their fluttering garments, and crowns were made of white water-lilies, brought from Lake Nemi. Saint Michael fought with the dragon; the holy Rosalia showered down roses upon the dark blue globe; wherever my eye fell flowers related to me Biblical legends; and the people all round about were as joyful as myself. Rich foreigners, from beyond the mountains, clad in festal garments, stood in the balconies, and by the side of the houses moved along a vast crowd of people, all in full holiday costume, each in the fashion of his country. The sun burnt hotly, all the bells rang, and the procession moved along the beautiful flower-carpet; the most charming music and singing announced its approach, choristers swung the censer before the Host, the most beautiful girls in the country followed, with garlands of flowers in their hands, and poor children, with wings to their naked shoulders, sang hymns, as of angels, while awaiting the arrival of the procession at the high altar. Young fellows wore fluttering ribands around their pointed hats, upon which a picture of the Madonna was fastened ; silver and gold rings bung to a chain round their necks, and handsome brightcoloured scarfs looked splendidly upon their black velvet jackets. The girls of Albano and Frascatl came, with their thin veils elegantly thrown over their black, plaited hair, in which was stuck the silver arrow; those of Velletri, on the contrary, wore garlands around their hair, and the smart handkerchief, fastened so low down in the dress as to leave visible the beautiful shoulder and the round bosom. From Abruzzi, from the Marches, from every other neighbouring district, came all in their peculiar national costume, and produced altogether the most brilliant effect. Cardinals, in their mantles woven with silver, advanced under canopies adorned with flowers, then monks of various orders, all bearing burning tapers. When the procession came out of church, an immense crowd followed.'—The Improvisatore.

We were at Genzano on Good Friday, when all the boys of the place were busy, not only 'grinding Judas's bones' in the ordinary fashion, i.e. by rattling them together in a box, but were banging large planks of wood and broad strips of bark up and down upon the church steps, with almost frantic fury, to show what good Christians they were.

We took a little carriage in the piazza, in which we trundled merrily down the hill-side for about two miles, along the Appia Nuova to Civita Lavinia, occupying the site of the ancient Lanuvium, remarkable as the birth-place of the Emperors Antoninus Pius and Commodus, of T. Annius Milo the enemy of Clodius, of Roscius the comedian, L. Muraena who was defended by Cicero, and P. Sulpicius Quirinus who was (perhaps) Cyrenius the Governor of Syria, mentioned in St. Luke's Gospel. Lanuvium was celebrated for the worship of Juno Sospita, and when it took part with the other Latin cities against Rome and was defeated, its inhabitants were not only unpunished, but were allowed the rights of Roman citizens, on condition that the temple of their goddess should be common to the Romans also.

'Quos Castrum, Fhrygibusque gravis quondam Ardea misit,
Quos celso devexa jugo Junonia sedes
Lianuvium.' — Sil. Hal. viii. 361.

'Lanuvio generate, inquit, quem Sospita Juno
Dat nobis, Milo, Gradivi cape victor honorem.'—Id. xiii. 364.

'Inspice, quos habeat memoralis Aricia Fastos,
Et populus Laurens, Lannviumquc meum:
Est illic mensis Jnnonius.'

- Ovid, 'Fast: vi. b9.

'Livy mentions the Juno of Lanuvium more than once. Lib. xxi. 62, he says, "among other prodigies, it was affirmed that the spear of Lanuvian Jnno vibrated spontaneously, and that a raven flew into the temple " ; and again: "forty pounds of gold were sent to Lanuvium, as an offering to the goddess." In another place he says (xxiii. 31), "the statues at Lanuvium in the temple of Juno Sospita, shed blood, and a shower of stones fell round the temple "; and in Lib. xxiv. 10 : " the crows built nests in the temple of Juno Sospita at Lannvium." Cicero also, in Orat. pro Mur. ad fin., speaks of the sacrifices made by the consuls to Juno Sospita, in connection with the "municipium honestissimum" of Lanuvium. In Fropertius we read,

"Lanuvium annosi vctns est tutela draconis."

There were great treasures in the temple, which Augustus borrowed, as well as those of the Capitol, of Antinm, Nemus, and Tibur.'—Sir W. Gelt.

Civita Lavinia (700 ft.) crowns a long ridge commanding a majestic view across the lonely Pontine Marshes to the Circean mount and the sea. It stands on the edge of a promontory and is surrounded by dark walls of peperino, in some places of great antiquity, measured out by towers. Mediaeval houses, everywhere built along the walls, are highly picturesque, and near the gateway stands a fine machicolated tower. In the little piazza is a grand 3rd-cent. sarcophagus, now used as a fountain. Some remains of the theatre were found in 1831, on the western slope below the town, and the ancient paven road may still be followed in its descent toward the plain. The visitor may reach it from the railway by this road.

Looking over the parapet near this tower, the ground is seen to fall steeply down in gardens flaming with peach and almond blossom, and vineyards, to the great plain and Cisterna; out upon which are discerned, here and there, forlorn, mediaeval towers. To the left is seen Velletri with the winding white road leading thither; while far beyond march the Volscian mountains, purple with mantling woods, and the town of Cori is on their flank. Portions of the ancient walls can be traced outside the Porta di Nettuno.

Turning up the street to the left of the public lavatojo, or washing tank, within a hundred yards we reach the remains of a long porticus built of opus incertum and reticulatum. Above this the ground rises strewn with the ruins of a nymphaeum. In the Casino Dionigi, where James (self-called) the Third of England lived, are collected many relics of antiquity, but none of great importance. Opposite this house, and across the road, may be noted important remains, and on the rocky terrace above, once stood the temple of Juno Sospita. Lord Savile also undertook very successful excavations here, in 1884-6, and the chief objects found are to be seen in the Villino Serratrice. The group of Cupid and Psyche in the Capitoline Museum came from here ; also, the busts of Elius Verus, Annius Verus, and Commodus. Guiseppe Gozzi is a civil, quiet guide. There are no beggars here. From higher points of the ridge the far-off Abruzzi can be descried brilliantly white with their snowy shoulders, looking over the violet valleys.

Standing out from the main line of hills, below Genzano are two projecting spurs. The higher one is Monte Due Torre, once crowned by two towers, of which only one is now standing, the other lying in ruins beside it. In ancient days there was a military station here. The lower, covered with vineyards and fruit gardens, and only marked at the summit by a tower and some farm buildings, is now called Monte Giove, but is allowed to have been the site of Corioli, the Volscian city, which gave the title of Coriolanus to its captor, C. Marcius, and which once headed a confederation almost too strong for Rome.

'There was a war between the Romans and the Volscians; and the Romans attacked the city of Corioli. The citizens of Corioli opened their grates, and made a sally, and drove the Romans back to their camp. Then Cains ran forwards with a few brave men, and called back the runaways, and he stayed the enemy and turned the tide of battle, so that the Volscians fled back into the city. But Cains followed them, and when he saw the gates still open, for the Volscians were flying into the city, then he called to the Romans, and said, "For us are yonder gates set wide rather than for the Volscians; why are wo afraid to rush in?" He himself followed the fugitives into the town, and the enemy fled before him; but when they saw that he was but one man they turned against him; but Caius held his ground, for he was strong of hand, and light of foot, and stout of heart, and he drove the Volscians to the furthest side of the town, and all was clear behind him, so that tho Romans came in after him without any trouble and took the city. Then all men said, "Caius and none else has won Corioli," and Cominius the general said, "Let him be called after the name of the city." So they called him Caius Marcius Coriolanus.'—Arnold, 'Hist, of Rome.'

The farmhouse of Monte Giove now stands desolate amongst its vineyards, and there are no remains of the ancient city aboveground. It is supposed that the present name of the hill commemorates a temple of Jupiter which may have remained to later times, for the Romans usually spared the temples of the cities they destroyed. Even in imperial days the town had quite disappeared. CHAPTER IV


Grand Albergo Frascati: near the station; expensive ; and beware of the water. It is usually empty for several months. Lodgings easily to be found. There are several trains daily and a tramway between Rome and Frascati which allow time for a pleasant sight of Frascnti, and for a ride or walk to Tusculum (3-4 hours) and the Villa Moudragone, or to Tuscnlum and Grotta Ferrata. Donkeys cost five lire for the day, including a guide; but a distinct agreement must be made. A carriage to Albano, Nemi, and Genzano, 20-lire (two horses). To Rocca di Papa, 6-8 lire.

IT is an hour by rail to Frascati (Faggots), and the change is so complete and reviving, that it is strange more sojourners at Rome do not take advantage of it.

Even the railway journey is delightful and characteristic. The train runs close to the aqueducts, the Paoline first, and then the nobler, but ruined, Claudian. As we pass beyond the Porta Furba (5 kil.), the artificial sepulchral mound called Monte del Grano (in which the Portland Vase was found) is seen on the left, with the Via Tuscolana, and then the vast ruins called Sette Basse (Septimius Bassus), belonging to a suburban villa of Hadrianic date, and, as the light streams through their ruined windows, forming a beautiful foreground to the delicate distances of mountain and plain. In the distance, on the left, are seen the beautiful stone-pines at the farm of Torre Nuova, on Via Labicana, where some authorities place Pupinia, the villa of Attilius Regulus. We also see fragments in hollow places of the aqueduct of Alexander Severus (A.D. 222-234), called Alessandrina.

'Arches after arches in unendiug lines stretching across the uninhabited wilderness, the blue defined lines of the mountains seen between them; masses of nameless ruin standing like rocks out of the plain, and the plain itself, with its billowy and unequal surface, announce the neighbourhood of Rome.'—Shelley, 'Letters.'

As we approach nearer the Hills, Colonna is seen far away to their left on its knoll, then Monte Porzio and Monte Compatri (ancient Labicum). When the lights and shadows are favourable, the difference between the two chief craters of this volcanic chain of hills now becomes strikingly evident.

'The Alban hills form a totally distinct group, consisting of two principal extinct volcanic craters, somewhat resembling in their relation to each other the great Neapolitan craters of Vesuvius and Somma. One of them lies within the embrace of the other, just as Vesuvius lies half enclosed by Monte Somma. The walls of the outer Alban crater are of peperino, while those of

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