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to stare at their empty table-cloth. But things have considerably improved since then.
The view from the top is most magnificent. No wonder that Hannibal ascended in order to further his military operations against Rome. It is the most historical panorama imaginable. Rome is seen amidst the mists of the plain. Nearer us are Gabii (with the tower of Castiglione), and Zagarolo. On the Alban hills are Tusculum, Frascati, Monte Porzio, Monte Compatri, Corbio (now Rocca Priora), Velitrae (now Velletri). Then on the distant sea-coast we can make out Astura, Nettuno, Antium (Porto d'Anzio), Ardea, Pratica, Ostia, Porto, and Fiumicino. On the Volscian hills are Monte Fortino, Colleferro and Signia (Segni); on the Hernican, Anagni, Ferentino, Paliano, Genazzano, and Cave; and the foreground is formed by the walls of Praeneste itself! Looking down upon all these scenes, girt by the polygonal walls of the ancient citadel, or arx, is the modern village of S. Pietro, a place so dilapidated and crumbling, so bare and colourless, that it looks as if it had been transported from Africa to this windy height. Here the devout believe that S. Peter dwelt for some time, and in the church, he is commemorated with a statue by Bernini, as well as in a good picture, representing his martyrdom, by Pietro da Cortona, The holy water basins are supported 'by ancient cippi. Jacopone da Todi was imprisoned here for criticising the doings of Boniface VIII.
Still higher, on the last peak, stand the ruins of the fortress, rebuilt by Stefano Colonna, which bears over its gate, beneath the Colonna arms, the inscription, 'Magnificus DNS Stefanus de Columna redificavit civitatem penestre cv monte et arce. Anno
In summer the stagnation of Palestrina is sometimes enlivened by the presence of the Barberini family, who live, not at the palace with the mosaic, but at another lower down in the town, quite in a feudal manner, and, as Prince and Princess of Palestrina, hold receptions in their garden, to which all the small gentry of the place are invited.
The Ponte di S. Antonio may be visited from Palestrina. It is a magnificent Roman arch 120 feet in height, not far from Poli, by which the Aqua Claudia and the Anio Novus were carried across a deep fossa or ravine in the Campagna.
CHAPTER XVIII GENAZZANO, PALIANO, AND OLEVANO
(At Olevano there are two tolerable country inns, much frequented by artists, who reside here for months in summer. The charges for pension, including everything, are five lire a day, or four lire if for a long time. A carriage may be obtained from Olevano to meet the train at the Valmontone Station (kil. 17), by writing beforehand to the Albergo Serafino Baldi. At Subiaco there is a small hotel not too clean, but with capital food —Locanda delta Pernice—pension, five lire a day.)
IT is a pleasant drive of three miles from Palestrina to Cave (Locanda del Sole, 1280 ft.), which is surrounded with vineyards, and built on the edge of a steep bank over a torrent. It is approached by a handsome seven-arched bridge, and entered by a gateway, over which is an inscription, dedicating the place to the especial protection of the Madonna. To her the inhabitants trust to supply them with all the necessaries of life, and exist themselves in a far niente not particularly dolce, but unending. The very dogs seemed too apathetic to move when the carriage approached where they lay in the sun. Some ragged children were rolling in the gutter, while their mother was engaged in lavishing the tenderest embraces and kisses upon a pet pig—the son of her heart. In the market-place rises a column decorated with the arms of the Colonna, of whom Cave is a fief, and Madonna del Campo. The dialect of the people here is very peculiar. Six miles beyond Cave, after passing a chapel beautifully situated near an old pine and some cypresses, Genazzano (11 kil.) rises in a valley on the left about half a mile distant from the road. It contains the shrine of the Madonna di Buon Consiglio, who flew hither through the air from Albania.
'From this time the Madonna of Genazzano, called "Our Lady of Good Offices," began to work miracles, and a church was built in her honour, with a monastery adjoining it. The Order of the Augustines possessed themselves of this wonder-working and holy source of gain, which is not less profitable, if not more so, than the Madonna of the Augustine monastery at Rome. For this Divinity of Genazzano enjoys throughout the whole of Latium a reputation, which exactly corresponds with that of a heathen oracle. Twice a year, in spring and in summer, her festival is celebrated, and thus a double harvest of offerings is reaped, besides innumerable presents of money and jewels brought by the worshippers. And as even the poorest countryman lays his mite upon the altar of the picture, it may be said that this one Madonna taxes the whole Latian Campagna as well as the State itself. I was told that the offerings were collected by certain confraternities which exist in the Campagna; each member puts into the common fund as much as five baioccbi a month, and thus a travelling confraternity brings sometimes as much as a hundred scudi. The yearly receipts of this place of pilgrimage are estimated at 37,500 francs.'—Gregorovius.
The festa of the Madonna of Genazzano, on April 25, is one of the most celebrated and the most frequented in this part of Italy. A figure-artist should never fail to see it, and the most sanguine expectations as to colour and costume will not be disappointed.
'Even on the eve of the festival the pilgrims begin to arrive, and the place and the whole landscape becomes animated in a wonderful manner, while the air resounds perpetually with the chanting of Litanies. Through all the streets pass gay but orderly crowds. They come from the Abruzzi, from the sandal land, from Sora, from the Liris, and from all parts of the Latian Campagna.
'The festival of Jupiter Latiaris seems to be renewed before our eyes, so numerous are the thousands that approach, so varied their dress and their dialects. They come down from the hills with their solemn chant of the 'Ora,' there down the broad road, here along the river, by field paths, ever and again fresh bands of pilgrims in bright red, green and bine costumes, with their tall pilgrim staves \bordoni) in their hands, and the sight combined with the grandeur of the scenery is one which would be alike wonderful to the artist, the poet, and the historian.
'. . . . They wander along the Sacco, and down from the hills (come i grit, che van cantando lor lai), like the cranes who sing as they go. The middle ages passed before me; and I thought of those bands of pilgrims who thronged to Rome at the Jubilee year, and more than once the sight made me repeat that beautiful verse in the pilgrim sonnet of the "Vita Nuova,"
"Deh! peregrini, che pensosi andate
'They go by tens, twenties, fifties, hundreds, and even more. All ages are represented amongst them: the old man leans on the same pilgrim staff which has supported him already fifty times along the same road, and this may perhaps be the last time; the matron passes with her grandchildren; the beautiful and blooming maiden ; the sturdy youth, the boy; even infants are here carried on the heads of their mothers, for in one of these processions I saw a young woman carrying on her head a basket in which lay a laughing child, its eyes wide open as if it was enjoying the beautiful sunshine. Most of the women carry on their heads a basket of provisions, or a bundle of clothes, which still more increases the beauty of the spectacle. If anyone could lift up the veil from these souls they would see concealed crime side by side with innocence, and vice, remorse, pain, and virtue passing in a motley crowd.
'It is like a great and beautiful but serious masked procession which passes over one of the most beautiful scenes of nature, always with fresh dresses and colours and with different faces. One sees the people of Frosinone, of Anagni, the inhabitants of Veroli, of Arpino, of Anticoli, of Ceprano, and the Neapolitans from Sora.
'See the groups from Sora! dark olive complexions and beautiful oval faces. The women look fantastic, like the Arab women; they are adorned with strings of coral or golden chains round their necks, and heavy gold earrings; their heads are covered with white or brown kerchiefs, with long fringes, which hang down upon the neck like a Madonna's veil: they wear white chemisettes quite loose though folded in innumerable plaits, and over these a low, dark red bodice. The skirt is short, of a bright red or blue colour, with a yellow border. And what larire dark eyes, under black, strongly-marked eyebrows!
'The pilgrims of Ceccano! The women wearing red bodices with long aprons of the same colour, white kerchiefs on their heads with long ends