« 上一頁繼續 »
account of the general slaughter of cattle at this time, for winter provision (known for a long time afterwards as Martinmas beef) and for sacrifice. This custom was not cod. fined to the Saxons, but prevailed in northern Germany, and even as far south as Spain
NOVGOROD', a government of great Russia, extends immediately s.e. of the govern ment of St. Petersburg: Area, 48,780 sq. m.; pop:. '80, 1,078,955. The surface is gently undulating, with the Valdai hills in the south, which rise to about 300 ft., and may be said to form the water-shed between the Baltic, Caspian, and White seas. ernment contains many lakes and rivers; of the former, the lakes Ilmen and Bieloe are the largest; and of the latter, the Wolchof, Msta, Szeksna, and Mologa are the most important. The rivers are connected by canals, which are of great service to trade. The soil, especially in the n.e., is not fertile, and the climate is severe; agriculture and cattle. rearing are carried on only to a limited extent. Forests and pasture-lands are numerous and extensive, and the timber and hay sent to the capital realize a considerable income. Quarries of the best stone for paving occur on the river Tosna, and near StaraRussa there are mineral and saline springs.
NOVGOROD, an important t. of European Russia, capital of the government of the same name, is situated on the Volkhof, near where it issues from lake Ilmen, 122 m. s.s.e. of St. Petersburg. It is the cradle of Russian history. In 862 the Norman prince Rurik, of the tribe of Variago-Ross (whence the name Russia), was invited hither by the neighboring tribes, and from him begins the history of the country, and the line of its sovereigns. A monument, commemorative of this event, was erected here, with great pomp, in Sept. 1862. In the 9th c. Oleg, the successor of Rurik, transported the capital to Kief; but bestowed many privileges and liberties upon Novgorod, and from that time it began to prosper. The greatness of Novgorod provoked the jealousy of the princes of Moscow, and in 1471 the czar Ivan III. nearly destroyed the town, bereft it of its liberties, and exiled the most influential citizens. During the time of its prosperity, the town was called Novgorod the Great; and had 400,000 inhabitants, and extended its sway to the White sea and the river Petchora. Its government was a sort of republic, the prince being less a sovereign than the chief commander 'of the troops. Its greatness was due to its vast foreign trade alone, and when Archangel was opened for English trading vessels, but especially after the foundation of St. Petersburg, its trade fell away, and the town rapidly declined. Of the existing ancient buildings, the most remarkable are the church of St. Sophia, founded in the 11th c., possessing a fine old library, as well as some remarkable paintings and tombs; and the Kreml, in the steeple of which hung the famous bell used to summon the citizens for the deliberation of state affairs. Pop. '80, 17,579.
NOVGOROD-SSJEWERSK, or NovGOROD-SEVERSKO'IE, a t. of Russia, in the province of Tchernigov, 89 m. n.e. from Tchernigov, on the right bank of the Desna, a branch of the Dnieper. It is the capital of a district, and is a place of considerable trade and activity. Pop. '80, 6,500.
NOVGRAD-VOLYNSKI', a t. of European Russia, in the government of Volhynia, 53 m. w.n.w. from Jitomir. It is the capital of a circle, and is situated on the banks of the Slutch, a feeder of the Pripet, and so of the Dnieper. Pop. '80, 8,900.
NO'VI, a t. of northern Italy, in the province of Genoa, is a station on the railway from Turin to Genoa, and is 33 m. n.n.w. of the latter city. It presents few attractions, with the exception of a number of picturesque old houses. It carries on a considerable transit trade; and the silk produced in the vicinity is amongst the most celebrated in Italy. Pop. 11,445.
NO'VIBAZAR', also JENIBAZAR, a t. of Bosnia, European Turkey, situated on the river Rashka, an affluent of the Morava, 130 m. s.e, of Bosna-Serai. Several of the great roads of the country cross each other here. Novibazar has celebrated fairs, important trade, and considerable wealth, but the houses are mostly of mud. It is the chief point of communication between Bosnia and the rest of Turkey. Pop. estimated at 15,000.
NOVICE. See NOVITIATE.
NOVIKOFF, NIKOLAI IVANOVITCH, 1744-1818; b. Russia; entered the government service at the age of 18, but soon retired to devote himself to literature. One of his first publications was The Painter, containing satirical sketches of manners somewbat after the fashion of the Spectator. This was followed by his Specimen of a Lericon of Russian Authors. These works won him the favor of the empress Catharine II., and he removed to Moscow, where he founded a typographical society, for the purpose of printing cheap books. He organized the first circulating library in Russia, but was obliged to leave Moscow, as a supposed adherent of the French philosophers. He published 1773–75 a collection of historical materials, called The Old Russian Library.
NOVITIATE, the time of probation, as well as preparatory training, which in all religious orders precedes the solemn PROFESSION (q.v.). Under the head of MONACHISM will be found the general principles by which the training for the "religious” life is regulated. It will be enough to say here, that the novitiate in all orders must continue (Conc. Trid. Sess. XXV. C. 85, De Regul. and Mon.) at least one year. In most orders it is of two, and in several of three. Any attempt to solemnize the profession before the expiration of the noviate, without a dispensation, is invalid. During the novitiate, the novices are immediately subject to a superior, called master (or mistress) of novices. They are not permitted to engage in systematic study, their whole time being devoted to prayer, and to ascetic and liturgical training. During the novitiate, the novice continues free to withdraw, nor is he or she admitted to profession at the close of the noviti. ate, except after proof given of fitness, and of proper dispositions for the particular institute aspired to.
NOVOARKHANGHELSK' (New Archangel), or Sitka, a seaport of Alaska, formerly center of the administration of the Russo-American company, situated on the island of Sitka, on the n.w.coast of the American continent, in lat. 57° 3' n., long. about 135° west. It has a good port, and was the entrepôt of all the stores for the other Russo-American colonies, and of their produce, of which furs were the principal item. There are at Novoarkhanghelsk only 66 clear days in the year. Mean temperature throughout the year, 43° 45' F. Pop. (before cession of Alaska to the U.S.) 1,000, mostly servants of the company
NOVO GEORG'IEVSKI, a t. in Russian Poland, at the junction of the Bug and Vistula rivers, 19 m. n.w. of Warsaw; pop. 10,225. It was founded in 1809, by Napoleon, who gave the name of Modlin, which was changed to the present name by the Russians, when they gained possession of it after the fall of Warsaw in 1831. It had also been in the hands of the Russians, 1813–30, when the Polish revolutionists seized it. It is a strongly fortified post, with an arsenal and citadel.
NOVOMOSKOVSK', an important market-t. of s. Russia, in the government of Ekaterinoslav, and 20 m. n.p.e. of the town of that name, on the Samara, an affluent of the Dnieper. Three extensive fairs, chiefly for the sale of cattle and horses, are held here annually. The “remounting” officers attend these fairs for the purpose of supplying their regiments with horses. Tanning and tallow-melting are carried on. Pop. '80, 10,515.
NOVOTCHERKASK', a t. of s. Russia, capital of the territory of the Cossacks of the Don, on the Aksaï, a tributary of the Don, at a distance of 12 m. from its right bank, and about 70 m. e.n.e. of Taganrog. The central administration of the territory was transferred hither from Tcherkask in 1804 by count Platoff, commander-in-chief of the Cossacks. The choice was not a happy one, the distance of the town from the Don, the great commercial artery, being much felt. In 1855, a statue was erected in memory of count Platoff, who achieved an illustrious name by his military exploits from 1770 till 1816, and especially during the French invasion in 1812. Pop. '80, 37,091, who carry on trade and manufactures, agriculture, cattle-breeding, fishing, and wine-growing.
NOVUM ORGANUM, or The New Instrument, lord Bacon's treatise sketching the inductive method of studying nature, which before his time had been pursued only cccasionally and blindly-a method whose introduction divides philosophy into the old and the new. I. Bacon in the first part of his work surveys the imperfections of human knowledge. 1. He notes the vagueness and uncertainty of all speculation, and the want of connection between the sciences and the arts, due to "the perverseness and insufficiency of the methods pursued.” “If men had consulted experience and observation, they would have had facts, and not opinions, to reason about.” The method then in vogue be describes as “ill-suited to discovery, but wonderfully accommodated to debate.” 2. He enumerates the causes of error, naming them in the figurative language so commonly employed by him-idols, things to which the mind had long been accustomed to bow down; of these he shows four classes: (1.) Idols of the tribe or of the race: causes of error found in human nature in general; such as man's propensity to find in nature a greater degree of order and regularity than actually exists. Thus, as soon as men perceived that the orbits of the planets were returning curves, they assumed them to be perfect circles, and the motion in them to be uniform; and to these false suppositions the ancient astronomers labored to reconcile the facts which they observed. (2.) Idols of the den : causes of error springing from individual character, as if each person had his own cavern or den, into which light imperfectly enters; some minds being best fitted to mark differences, others resemblances, etc. (3.) Idols of the forum: causes of error arising out of public and social intercourse, and especially out of its implement-language. Men believe that their thoughts govern words; while often their words govern their thoughts, and few abstract terms convey precise and well-defined ideas. (4). Idols of the theater : causes of error arising from the systems or doctrines of particular schools, which are like imaginary worlds brought upon the stage, yet influencing the mind as if they were real. 3. Bacon, pointing out the circumstances which had favored these perverse methods, (1) notes three periods of pursuit of science—the Grecian, Roman, and European-after the revival of letters: the first, short; the second, disturbed in its earlier part by politics and war, and, after the rise of Christianity, by religious interests and theological pursuits; the third, overshadowed by royal and hierarchical power enslaving the mind. In his opinion no part of knowledge could make much progress if its start was not made from facts in nature. (2.) He shows that the end and object of knowledge had been misunderstood; that some had pursued the knowledge of words rather than of things; some, of objects imaginary and unattainable, promising to prolong life indefinitely, to extinguish disease, and to rule the spiritual world by magical charms. "All this is the mere boasting of ignorance; for, when the knowledge of nature shall be rightly pursued, it will lead to discoveries that will as far excel the pretended powers of magic, as the real exploits of Cæsar and Alexander exceed the fabulous adventures of Arthur of Britain or Amadis of Gaul.” (3.) Reverence for antiquity and the authority of great names had greatly retarded the progress of knowledge: the "older times” were really the young and inexperienced times; the latest age is the oldest; having gathered the most of facts and experiences. (4.) Knowledge has been greatly hindered by the fact that in general men have inquired only into the causes of rare and great phenomena, without troubling themselves about the explanation of such as are common, and make a part of the general course of nature; while the laws always in action are those which it is most important to understand. It was an error of the same sort which had led men to delight in mere contemplation and to regard manual experiment as beneath the dignity of science.
II. The second book of the Novum Organum treats of the induction essential to the right interpretation of nature. 1. A history full and accurate of the phenomena concerned must be prepared--a “natural history. 2. There must be a comparison of the various facts to find out the cause of a phenomenon-its form or essence;" also, to discover the invisible processes and the invisible structure of the bodies concerned. 3. The facts being in hand, consideration is then to be had of them as to what things are by these facts excluded from the number of possible causes. After many such exclusions have left but a few principles common to every case, one of these is to be assumed as the cause, and the trial is to be made by synthetical reasoning whether it will account for the phenomenon. This process by exclusion-through successive negatives to the final affirmative-Bacon regarded as essential to success. 4. This method of induction he declared to be applicable to all investigations where experience is the guide, whether in the physical or moral world.
NOWANAGAR, or NowANUGGUR, a seaport of India, in the peninsula of Kattywar, Guzerat, at the mouth of the Nagna, a small river on the s. shore of the gulf of Cutch, 160 m. w.s.w. from Ahmedabad, and in n. lat. 22° 28', e. long. 70° 11'. It is the principal place of the district of Hallar, the greater part of which is held as a jaghire by the chief of Nowanagar, who bears the title of the jam of Nowanagar. His territory com. prises 540 villages, and a pop. of about 290,000. The town of Nowanagar is large and populous, nearly 4. m. in circuit. It is a place of very active trade, famous for the tine quality of the cloth which it produces, and for the brilliant colors of which its fabrics are dyed. In the adjacent sea are beds of pearl oysters. Copper ore has been discovered in a range of hills behind the town.
NOWELL, INCREASE, 1590–1655; b. England; having been chosen an assistant of the proposed colony of Massachusetts bay, upon the formation of the company he came to this country with Winthrop in 1630, and became an elder in the rev. John Wilson's church. He was commissioner of military affairs during the first Pequot war in 1634, and secretary of the colony, 1636–49.
NOX, in mythology, daughter of Chaos and mother, by her brother Erebus, of Æther (the air) and Hemera (day). She was also the mother of the Fates, of Death, Dreams, Nemesis, Fraud, the Hesperides, etc. The victims sacrificed to her were a black sheep and a cock. The poets called her mother of all things, and Homer represents Zeus as standing in fear of her. There was a famous statue of her by Rhoecus in the temple of Diana at Ephesus, and her attributes seem to have been blended with those of the moon goddess. She is represented as riding in a chariot with the constellations going before her, and wearing a starry veil, or with two children in her arms, one black representing death, one white representing sleep, or as riding in a chariot drawn by bats and owls, and dressed in mourning, with a crown of poppies on her head.
NOXUBEE, a co. in e. central Mississippi, bordering on Alabama; intersected by the Tombigbee and its branch the Noxubee, rivers, and by the Mobile and Ohio railroad; about 650 sq.m.; pop. '80, 29,874—29,784 of American birth, 24,574 colored. The surface is level, with extensive forests, including, besides many hard-wood trees, the cypress, magnolia, and tulip trees. The soil is very rich. Indian corn, cotton, and pork are staples. Co. seat, Macon.
NOYADES (i.e., "drownings,” from Fr. noyer, to drown), the execution of political offenders in great numbers at once by drowning them, one of the atrocities of the French revolution, practiced at Nantes by Carrier, the deputy of the convention. See CARRIER This mode of execution was also called, in cruel sport, vertical deportation.
NOYAU. See LIQUEUR.
NOYES, ELI, D.D., 1814-54, b. Me. He was self-educated, and began to preach in 1834 ; he embarked with his wife, Sept. 22, 1835, for Calcutta, and settled at Orissa, where he had great success in mission work. In 1841 he returned with impaired health, and for several years was pastor of a Free-will Baptist church, in Boston. He edited for 10 years the Morning Star, the Free will Baptist organ. He published Lectures on the Truths of the Bible; A Hebrew Grammar and Reader.
NOYES, GEORGE RAPALL, D.D., 1798-1868; b. Mass; graduated at Harvard college iu 1818, and afterwards at the Harvard divinity school. In 1827 he was settled over a Unitarian church in Brookfield, Mass., from which he removed to a church in Petersham. During this time he pursued the study of the biblical text in the original languages, and was recognized as one of the first Hebrew scholars in America. In 1840 he was appointed Hancock professor of the oriental languages in Harvard college, and Dexter lecturer on biblical literature. He published in 1827 An Amended Version of the Book of Job; A New Translation of the Hebrew Prophets, 1833–37; A New Translation of the Prophets, Ecclesiastes, and the Canticles, 1846; Theological Essays, 1856; and a Translation of the New Testament, issued by the American Unitarian association in 1869.
NOYES, JOHN HUMPHREY, b. Vt., 1811; graduated at Dartmouth college; studied theology at Andover and New Haven; was licensed to preach in 1833. In 1834, announcing himself a Perfectionist, his license to preach was recalled, and he began to propagate his new views in various periodicals. Noyes published several volumes, the most important of which are The Berean; The Second Coming of Christ; Salvation from Sin; Bible Communism; Male Continence and Scientific Propagation; History of American Socialisms. In 1838 he founded a community of Perfectionists at Putney, Vt.; removed in 1847 to Lenox, Madison co., N. Y., and established the ONEIDA COMMUNITY. He afterwards established another branch at Wallingford, Conn. The Perfectionists uphold the community of labor and its fruits, and maintain the full equality of the sexes in social and business life. They are profitably engaged in farming and manufactures, and have two printing-offices. In 1879 the public indignation against the sexual immorality of their system took such stern expression and such legal attitude that the practical abandonment of their indecent theories was soon announced. Noyes was a man of fascinating manners and fine literary taste. He d. 1886.
NOYES, WILLIAM CURTIS, LL.D., 1805–64; b. Schodack, N. Y.; began the practice of law in 1827 in Oneida co., where he quickly took high rank. He removed to New York in 1838, and immediately took a place among eminent lawyers, and was at one time engaged to codify the laws of the state. In politics he was an antislavery whig. And on the organization of the republican party became a member of it; but was drawn into the futile and temporizing peace convention of 1861. He was elected president of the New England society the day before his death, which took place in New York, Dec. 25, 1864. He bequeathed a valuable law library to Hamilton college.
NOYON, a t. of France in the department of Oise, 78 m. n.n.e. of Paris by the Northern railway. It has a fine cathedral of the 12th and 13th centuries, in the Romanesque style of architecture; an episcopal palace, and some linen and cotton manufactures; Pop. about 7000. Noyon was a residence of Charlemagne, and the place where Hugo Capet was crowned king of France in 987. It is also noted as the birthplace of John Calvin.
NUBAR PASHA. See page 892.
NU'BIA, the modern appellation of a country subject to the khedive of Egypt, extending from Philae to the Sennaar, lat. 18° s., bounded on the e. by the Arabian gulf, n. by Egypt, s. by Abyssinia, and on the w. by the desert. It appears to have been anciently known as Etlsiopia. The ancients gave the name of Ethiopia to the w. bank of the Nile from Meroë to the bend of the river. The name seems to have been derived from the Egyptian and Coptic noub, or gold, a name still retained in Wady Nouba, which extends from the frontier of Dongola, n. of the Wady Seboua, above Derri. The tract between Seboua and Assouan is called the Wady Kenous. Diocletian removed hither a Libyan tribe, called Nobatæ, to the district above Syene, to oppose the Blemmyes, who inhabited the western desert, now held by the Ababde and Bisharein Arabs. The dominion of the Pharaohs, when most extended, reached to the isle of Argo, the last place where the monuments of the Egyptians have been found. Under these monarchs it was called Cush, and was governed by a royal scribe, entitled prince of Cush or Ethiopia, till the twentieth dynasty, when it appears to have been recovered by a series of native rulers, who ultimately conquered Egypt; and although driven back, finally extended their rule from Meroë to Syene, the most southern city held by the Egyptian monarchs, the Ptolemies, and the Romans. These Ethiopians adopted the civilization of the Egyptians, and the names of some of their monarchs have been preserved. The subsequent fortunes of this country will be seen under ETHIOPIA. The modern inhabitants consist principally of Arabs, who invaded the country after the rise of Mohammed, the priucipal tribes being the Djowabere and El Gharbye, who inhabit from Assouan to the Wady Halfa; the Kenous, Djaafere, and others, a branch of the Koreish, who occupied the land from Esne to Assouan. By the aid of Bosnian soldiers the Djowabere were driven into Dongola in the reign of Selim; and their descendants still flourish at Ibrim, Assouan and Sai. Lower down inhabit a race called the Berbers or Barabras; s. of Cossier are the Ababde. From Dongola and Sennaar, a negro state, the people are called Noubas, a hardy race, differing from the pure blacks; but the country throughout is inhabited by mixed races of Arabian and Nigritic blood. Another tribe, the Sheygya, e. of Dongola--a tine black race, addicted to horsemanship and war -are still more interesting. The Ababde Arabs are renowned as guides and camel drivers; the Bisharein are supposed by some to be the ancient Blemmyes, a tribe living on flesh and milk, but without the oriental jealousy of the Arabs; the Takas, supposed
to be the ancient Bojahs, dwell in the mountains. Three principal languages are spoken by these various tribes—the Nuba by the Berbers, who entered from the s.w.; the Kungara, a Nigritic dialect, by the negroes of Dafur; and the Bisharie, said to exhibit Aryan affinities. The inhabitants, estimated at about 1,000,000, although less in stature than the Egyptians, are a tine muscular race; the women are pleasing, but not beautiful; and the climate is remarkably healthy. In their political government they were gor. erned by their own chiefs, maks or malechs, till they were subdued by Ismael Pasha, in 1820, to the sway of Egypt, and the civil government is now administered by the Turks. The country is arid, in many places only cultivable at the sides of the Nile, and consists of granite and sandstone. The soil raises durra, cotton, and date palms. It is traversed by the Bahr-el-Azrek, or Blue Nile, and the Bahr-el-Abiad, or Wbite Nile. The products are numerous, comprising maize, dates, tamarinds, gums, aloes, civet, musk, wax, myrrh, frankincense, senna, black wool, hides both of the elephant and rhinoceros, and their ivory; ostrich feathers, ebony, gold dust, salt peter, salt, tobacco, coffee, cotton-which are carried by way of commerce to Egypt. The taxes are rated by the number of water wheels for the irrigation of the land. There being no native currency, the coins of Egypt and Europe, especially the Spanish dollar, are received, but glass beads, coral, cloth, tobs or shirts, and cloth (samoor) also pass as money. In Kordofan value is reckoned by cows. The most primitive modes of measurement are in use, maize being sold by the handful (selga), 18 of which go to a moud; and cloth being measured from the elbow to the fingers. Polygamy is general, and á wife at Kenous is purchased of her parents for 30 piastres; ainongst the Arabs for 6 camels, 3 of which are returned to the bridegroom. Some of the tribes are jealous of their women, who are celebrated by travelers on account of their virtue. In their costume they use turbans, linen, and woolen garments, and are armed with lance and shield, the latter made of the hide of the hippopotamus. No looms exist, but they plait neatly. Their chief musical instrument is a guitar of five strings with sounding-board of a gazelle's hide. They are generally averse. to commerce, cat little animal food, and are Mohammedans. Their houses are low huts of mud or stone. The chief attraction of this country to travelers is the numerous temples and other ancient remains of the Egyptians, extending from Philae to the island of Argo. These consist of the temple of Isis, in the isle of Philae, founded by Nectanebo, I., and continued by the Ptolemies; the temple of Deboud, built in honor of Amen Ra, by Ataramen, and continued by the Romans: Tafa or Taphis, the modern Kalabshe, built •by Rameses II.; the rock temple of Beit e Welly, recording the conquests of the same monarch; Wady Halfa, built by Osertesen I.; the rock temple of Ib amboul, built by Rameses II. ; Gebel Addeh, built by Horus of the eighteenth dynasty; Ibrim, built by Amenophes II. ; Amada, founded by I'hothmes III. ; Ghersheh, Seboua, and Derri, built by Rameses II. ; Dakkeh, the ancient Pselcis, built by Ergamenes; and the colossus of the isle of Argo; the pyramids of Merod and Tanquassi. -Burckhardt, Travels; Champollion le Jeune, Lettres Ecrites, p. 107, and foll.; Lepsius, Reise, p. 107, and foll.
NUBLE, a small inland department of Chili on the w. slope of the Andes, bounded n. by the river Maule, e. by the Andes, s. by the Nuble river, which flows into the Itata, and w. by the department of Maule, which lies between it and the Pacific; 3,700 sq.m.; pop. 128,182. It is one of the most fertile and prolific parts of Chili. Its climate is suited to grain, to the fruits of the temperate zone, to the vine for wine-making, and to grazing and the rearing of horses. Capital, Chillau.
NU'CHA or NUKHA, a t. of Russia; after Tiflis and Shemacha, the most important town of Transcaucasia, and the only town of the former khanat of Nucha or Sheki, in the n.w. of Shirwan. It is 120 m. e.s.e. from Tiflis, and stands at the southern base of Caucasus in the valley of the Kish-Tshai, an affluent of the Alasan, which itself is a branch of the Kur. Pop. '80, 25,000. The town is surrounded by mulberry groves and fruit gardens, extending to a distance of several miles. It has long been famous for the rearing of silk worms, silk spinning, and the manufacture of silken goods.
NUCKOLLS, a co. in s. Nebraska, adjoining Kansas, drained by the Little Blue and Republican rivers; 576 sq.m.; pop. '80, 4, 235—3,779 of American birth. The surface is mostly prairie, with little timber. It produces good crops of grass, and is suitable for agriculture or grazing. Co. seat, Nelson.
NUCLEOBRANCHIATA, or HETEROPODA, an order of gasteropods having the sexes distinct; the locomotive organ fin-like, single, and ventral; the gills packed in small compass along with the heart. They are all marine, and usually swim with the back downwards and the fin-shaped foot upwards. They adhere to sea-weeds by a small sucker placed on the fin. Some of them, as Atlanta, have a shell large enough to protect the body; some, as Carinaria, have a small shell covering the gills and heart only; and some, as Firola, have no shell at all.
NUCLEUS. See CELLS.
NUDIBRANCHIA'TA (naked-gilled), an order of gasteropods, hermaphrodite, destitute of shell, and having the gills exposed on the surface of the body. The gills are differently situated in different genera. The genus Doris (q.v.) is an example of this order.