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ble of the school, is Mme. de Scudéri, whose principal romances are Ibrahim, ou (Nlustre Bassa; Clelie; Histoire Romaine; Artamenes, ou le Grand Cyrus; and Almahide. The pompous dignity, the hyper-polite address, the dreadful dullness, and the bollow ceremonialism of these ridiculous performances, admirably (if unintentionally) mirror the features of French court-life during the time of the Grand Monarque. The heroic romances did not long retain their meretricious reputation. Molière, and still more, Boileau, in his satire Les Héros de Roman, Dialogue, ridiculed them to death, and in consequence, Mme. de Scudéri had no successor.
NOVELS AND ROMANCES OF THE 18TH CENTURY.-The two European nations that most brilliantly distinguished themselves in the department of fiction during this century were England and France, and to these we shall chiefly confine our attention.
1. English Prose Fiction.—During the age of Elizabeth and her immediate successors, the imaginative genius of England, from various causes, had taken an almost exclusively poetical direction, and with the exception of Sidney's pastoral of Arcadia, and Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, we meet with nothing in the shape of a novel or a romance for a hundred years. The 17th c. has nothing to show till it approaches its close. This is doubtless owing, in part at least, to the intensity of the great political struggle that agitated and rent England during the first half of that century, and gave an austere theological bias to society. The Puritans, in their day of triumph, would not tolerate either comic or heroic romances. They set their faces “ like flint" against all imaginative fiction, which they considered as sittle better than lying; and even to this day that class of people commonly described as “the religious portion of the community," in some sense the representatives of the Puritans, betray the legitimacy of their spiritual descent by their aversion to all sorts of secular tales. After the restoration, however, an extraordinary change came over the English nation, or at least over the upper and wealthier classes. These rioted in the excess of a coarse and licentious reaction against the rigorcus piety and fanaticism of the commonwealth. This turbid viciousness by and by calmed down, but it left a certain taint of sensualism and materialism in the habits and life of the people, which, in the opinion of some competent critics, marks them to this day. It is certain that at the beginning of the 18th c. England was entering on the most prosaic, unimaginative, and unheroical period of her history. Its characteristics are faithfully reflected in most of her novels, hic as pictures of the gross dull life, the paltry thoughts, the low sentiments, the modish manrfers, and the loose morality that prevailed, possess a great historical value apart altogether from their literary merits. The first name ihat occurs is that of the notorious Aphra Behn (q.v.), the greater number of whose novels, of which Oronoko is the best known, appeared towards the close of the reign of Charles II., but are included here in the literature of the 18th c., as they belong to it by the nature of their contents, and not to the 17th c. types of fiction. She was imitated by Mrs. Heywood (born 1696, died 1758), of whose Love in Excess, The British Recluse, and The Injured Husband, it has been remarked that “the male characters are in the highest degree licentious, and the females as impassioned as the Saracen princesses in the Spanish romances of chivalry.” A later work, however, The History of Miss Betsy Thoughtless, is of a higher stamp, and is supposed to have suggested the plan of Miss Burney's Evelina. But the first novelist of great genius belonging to the new era is Daniel De Foe (q.v.), the father of modern English prose fiction, in whose writingsThe Adventures of Captain Singleton, The Fortunes of Moll Flanders, The History of Colonel Jack, etc.—the coarse, homely, unpoetical, but vigorous realism of the time is strikingly apparent. Perhaps the Spanish ragamuffin romances may have furnished him with some hints. Robinson Crusoe is the finest and the most famous of all that class of fiction which was extensively cultivated both in France and England during the earlier part of the 18th c., and which received, in the former country, the name of Voyages Imaginaires. To the same class (outwardly at least) belong Swift's Gulliver's Tracels, though at bottom this is a satirical romance, like the works of Rabelais, and the Gaudentio di Lucca, a sort of politico-geographical fiction, generally attributed to Bishop Berkeley. After De Foe comes Richardson (q.v.), very unlike any of the novelists of his age-to appearance! His muse is a most decorous prude, and never utters anything rude, or vulgar, or licentious; but though she was inspired with the best intentions, her notions of how virtue should be rewarded indicate the coarseness of the time, hardly less than the debaucheries and seductions of Fielding and Smollett. The principal novels of Richardson are, Pamela; Sir Charles Grandison; and Clarissa Harloroe. Fielding (q.v.) thought Richardson untrue to nature, and wrote his first novel of Joseph Andreus as a burlesque on the style of his predecessor. Like his subsequent performances, Tom Jones and Amelia, it represents society as Fielding's sharper eyes saw it, on the whole, gross, vulgar, and impure. Smollett (q.v.), with a different style of genius, continues to paint in the same spirit. His chief works are, Roderick Random; Peregrine Pickle; The Adventures of Ferdinand Count Fathom; and Humphry Clinker. Sterne (q.v.), belonging to the same period, exhibits a genius so whimsical, peculiar, and original, that it is almost impossible to class him with any of his contemporaries. His Tristram Shandy is a work sui generis, but nowhere is the coarse impurity and indelicacy of the age more conspicu. ous. Four years later appeared Goldsmith's Vicar of Wakefield, in which a change for the better, in a moral point of view, is first noticeable. With the exception of Richard
son, all the novelists above mentioned are usually, and we may add correctly, described as humorists. Other qualities they have besides, but this is the most common and predominant. When this school was passing away about 1760–70, another was on the eve of being born. The publication of Percy's Reliques had reawakened an interest in the age of chivalry and romance. Readers had become tired of the long prevalence of prosaic fiction, in spite of the splendid genius devoted to its illustration. It had done its work, and could create no more. The first of the modern romantic school was Horace Walpole, whose Castle of Otranto appeared in 1769. It was followed by Clara Reeve, the authoress of the Old English Baron, a romance that every school-boy, we hope, remembers with the deepest gratitude; but the greatest genius in this line was undoubtedly Mrs. Radcliffe (q.v.), whose Mysteries of Udolpho and other works, though now almost forgotten, were once greedily devoured and abundantly imitated. The ablest of her successors were Matthew Gregory Lewis, author of The Monk (1796), and Maturin, author of Montorio (1803). In all the romances of this school, the incidents are of the most startling, terrible, and often supernatural character, and the scenery is in keeping with the incidents. Fierce barons, mysterious bandits, persecuted maidens, gloomy castles, secret passages, deep forests, murders, ghosts, haunted chambers, etc.;
every thing that could charm, by way of contrast, and pleasantly horrify the languid, matter-of. fact, skeptical 18th c., is to be found in their exaggerated pages.
A few novelists remain to be mentioned who are incapable of particular classification. These are Dr. John Moore (q.v.), author of Zeluco, etc., Godwin (q.v.), author of Caleb Williams, St. Leon, etc., in whom the free-thinking and revolutionary spirit that seized many minds after 1789 is conspicuous; Mrs. Inchbald (Nature and Art, A Simple Story, etc.), Charlotte Smith (Old Manor House, etc.); Miss Austen (Pride and Prejudice, Emma, Persuasion); and Maria Edgeworth, whose sketches of Irish character first suggested to Walter Scott—the idea of attempting for Scotland a series of like illustrations.
2. French prose fiction in the 18th century. It is not easy—perhaps not possible—to trace the causes that led to the cultivation of the different kinds of fiction which flourished in France during this century, and particularly during the first half of it. The natural love of change-of noveliy; the accidental influences of foreign literature; the disposition, so peculiarly French, to satirize prevalent follies and vices; the wish, on the other hand, to amuse the leisure moments of a luxurious, superstitious, and profligate society: all these and many other causes unquestionably assisted in determining its diverse development. Four kinds have been distinguished: 1. Pseudo-historical Romance, the literature in which department, although copious enough, neither deserves nor requires special notice. 2. Romance in which the incidents, though natural, are purely imaginary. 3. Satirico-moral Romance. 4. Fairy Tales, to which may be associated the imitations of Oriental Tales, and the Voyages Imaginaires.
2. Romance in which the incidents, though natural, are purely imaginary.—This class more nearly corresponds with the modern conception of the novel than any of its predecessors, and probably had its prototype in La Princesse de Clèves and Zaïde, by the comtesse de Lafayette, who flourished in the latter half of the 17 c.; but the first great name that adorns it is that of Marivaux (1688—1763), whose Vie de Mariamne and Payan Parrenu were long in high favor. They have this in common with the contemporary English fiction, that everything in them is produced by ordinary means, and the interest of the reader is sought to be awakened by the vivid and powerful portraiture of natural feelings, while the incidents, if often highly romantic, are always sufficiently probable to insure the credence of the imagination. Next to Marivaux comes the Abbé Prevot, q.v. (1693—1763), who first “carried the terrors of tragedy into the novel.” He was a most voluminous writer, but the work by which he is now chiefly remembered is Manon L'Escaut, recounting the adventures of a kept-mistress and swindler, the purpose of which appears to be similar to that of La Dame aux Camelias of Dumas fils-viz., to show how noble, true-hearted, and self-sacrificing a prostitute may be! Other writers belonging more or less strictly to the same division are Madame Riccoboni (flor. 1750) and Rousseau (q.v.) in whose Heloise we begin to see the dawn of that fierce natural impure passion, and that extravagant scorn of conventional life, that culminated in the sanguinary paroxysms of the revolution.
3. Humorous and satirical romance. --By far the most celebrated specimens of this kind of fiction produced in France during the 18th c. are the Gil Blas, the Diable Boiteuz and Le Bachelier de Salamanque of Le Sage, q.v. (1668–1746), all of which were suggested by the prolific comic romancists of Spain, Juan de Luna, Quevedo, Cervantes, Espinel, from some of whom he has borrowed, with hardly any variation, whole scenes and stories, as well as from more ancient sources. The best parts, however, are his own, and the spirit of the work is thoroughly French in the gay and lightsome vivacity of its humor. It is with some hesitation that we place the younger Crebillon (q.v.) in the same category, for the licentiousness of his Egarements du Cœur et de l'Esprit, and other novels, is far more apparent than their satire or humor. Bastide and Diderot (q.v.) hold an equally doubtful position as satirists or humorists; but Voltaire (q.v.) may fairly claim to rank among the former, in virtue of his Candide, Zadig, L'Ingénu, La Princesse (le Babylone, etc., most of which contain covert attacks on superstition and despotism, under the forms in which Voltaire best knew them. Voltaire, however, had noi a rich
Imagination, and, in consequence, has been obliged to help himself liberally in the matter of incident from older writers.
4. Fairy tales, etc.—A very careful inquiry might probably succeed in tracing back this kind of literature to the early intercourse of Christian and Moorish nations, but the first work in which we find definite examples of fairy tales is the Nights of the Italian novelist Straparola, translated into French in 1585. In this collection are found at least the outlines of some of the best-known stories of the sort, such as Le Chat Botté (Puss in Boots), Prince Marcassin, Blanchebelle, and Fortunatus. The immediate forerunner and prototype, however, of the French fairy tales was the Pentamerone of Signor Basile, written in the Neapolitan patois, and published in 1672. This work attracted and stimu. lated the fancy of M. Charles Perrault (q.v.), whose Histoires ou Contes du Temps passé appeared in 1697, and is incomparably the most naive and charming of all the collections of fairy tales. The titles of some of his contes will
recall many a literary feast of our childhood-La Barbe Bleue (Bluebeard), La Belle au Bois Dormant (The Sleeping Beauty, to which, by the by, Tennysou has given a poetic immortality), Le Chat Botté (Puss in Boots), Riquet à la Houppe (Riquet with the Tuft), and Le Petit Chaperon Rouge (Little Red Riding Hood). The principal successors of Perrault were the comtesse d’Aunoy (see AuxOY), Madame Murat, and Mademosielle de la Force; but their stories are much more extravagant and forced than those of the illustrious academician. The same censure, however, is not applicable to Les Contes Marines (1740), by Madame Villeneuve, among which occurs the tale entitled La Belle et la Bête (Beauty and the Beast), perhaps the most beautiful creation in the wħole circle of this fantastic form of fiction.
Meanwhile, the translation of the Arabian Nights' Entertainments (q.v.) by Galland, 1704–17, and of numerous other Arabic and Persian works, the great encouragement extended to the literature of the East in the 17th and 18th centuries, the publication of the Bibliothèque Orientale of D’Herbelot, etc., created a taste for the brilliant exaggerations of oriental fiction, and a variety of works were soon in the field, swarming with necromancers, dervishes, caliphıs, bashaws, viziers, cadis, eunuchs, slaves. The most notable of these are - Les Mille et un Quart d'Heure, Contes Tartares; Les Contes Chinois, ou les Aventures Merveilleuses du Mandarin Fum-hoam; and Les Sultanes de Guzaratte, Contes Mongols, of M. Gueulette.-Of the class of fictions known as Voyages Imaginaires, the principal are the Histoire Comique des Estats et Empires de la Lune, and the Estats et Empires du Soleil of Cyrano Bergerac, which materially influenced the genius of Swift, who has, in fact, borrowed not a little from the first of these in his Gulliver's Travels, and which were themselves partly suggested by the Spanish romance of Dominico Gonzales, entitled The Man in the Moon. Such novels as the Paul et Virginie of Bernardin St. Pierre, which appeared towards the end of the 18th c., do not come under any of the four heads, but may most conveniently be mentioned here.
Prose fiction of Germany during the 18th and 19th centuries. -The limits of our space will not permit us to do more than superficially indicate the development of this branch of literature in Germany, which, however, is the less to be regretted, as, during the greater part of the 18th c., it did not attain much distinction. Toward the close of the century, however, writers became more numerous, and as the literary activity of many of them continued on till the first or second quarter of the 19th c., it will be most convenient and natural to treat both centuries together, as they, properly speaking, form only one era in the literary history of that nation.
The first eminent German novelist of this period was Wieland (q.v.), whose Greek romances, Agathon, Aristippus, Socrates, etc., are of that didactic and skeptical character which was beginning to mark the reflective genius of the continent, and which has since produced such immense changes in all departments of thought. Wieland was followed by a crowd of writers, in whose productions is more or less distinctly apparent the influence of the English novelists, particularly of Richardson and Fielding, who had been translated and carefully studied in Germany, where, however, the “novel of manners,” whether serious or comic, dealt more largely in the representation of “family life. The principal names are August la Fontaine, Wetzel, Müller (whose Siegfried von Lindenberg is still remembered and read), Schulz, and Hippel. Almost contemporary with these quiet and somewhat prosaic novelists, there flourished for a brief period (1780– 1800) a school of an entirely opposite character, whose works, fiercely and outrageously romantic, had their poetic counterpart in Schiller's Robbers. They resemble, in their style of handling the feudal ages, the English romances of Mrs. Radcliffe and others, which probably suggested them. The chief writers of this “ turbulent school of fiction, as it has been called, are Cramer, Spiers, Schlenkert, and Veit Weber.
Alone, and far above all others in redundancy and originality of fancy, humor, and pathos, towers Jean Paul Richter (q.v.), who is incapable of classification, and to whom, therefore, his countrymen have affixed the epithet of Der Einzige (The Unique). Apart from all schools—in this respect, but in this only, like Richter-stands Johann Wolfgang Goethe (q.v.), whose novels, as well as his poems, are poetico-philosophic efforts to represent, perhaps to solve, the great facts and problems of human life and destiny.
The reaction from the materialism and irreligious levity of French thought, first showed itself in Germany toward the close of the 18th c., in a certain earnest love and study of the old, simple, superstitious, and poetical beliefs of the middle ages. Hence
originated the exquisite class of fictions called Volksmährchen (popular legends or tales), in which the Germans have never been equaled. The most illustrious cultivator of this species of fiction is Ludwig Tieck (q.v.), for Musæus (q.v.), though gifted with admirable powers of narration, is marked by a skeptical humor and irony, not altogether compatible with an imaginative conception of his subject. Other distinguished Dames are those of De la Motté Fouqué (q.v.), Chamisso (q.v.), Heinrich Steffens, Achim von Arnim (q.v.), Clemens Brentano (q.v.), Zschokke, and Hoffman (q.v.). More recent novelists of note are Auerbach, Freytag, and Paul Heyse. The tales of Fritz Reuter, written in the Platt or Low German, are original and delightful.
NOVELS AND ROMANCES OF THE 19TH CENTURY.—These have been produced in such overwhelming quantity that volumes would be required merely to classify and characterize them. The vast and rapid increase in the material facilities of intercourse among European nations which has taken place during the last 40 years has, among other results, tended to diffuse through each country the literary products of all the other especially those of an entertaining kind; and these have in turn more or less stimulated the imagination of native genius, so that at present there is hardly a people in Europe, not even excluding Turkey, which has not contributed something to the enormous stock of fiction belonging to the 19th century. It would be altogether out of the question to attempt, in a compendious work like the present, a notice, however brief, of the principal novels and romances of every European nation; we can only refer to the historical surveys of literature, to be found under such beads as BELGIUM, BOHEMIA, HUNGARY, NETHERLANDS, Norway, POLAND, SWEDEN, TURKEY, etc., and to individual biographies of eminent continental novelists. Even in regard to England and France, we can do little more than catalogue a few prominent names.
1. English Fiction.-Almost the first novelist that we encounter in the 19th c., sir Walter Scott (q.v.), is probably the greatest that England, or even the world, has ever
Here, however, we have less to do with his personal rank in literature than with the kind of fiction that he cultivated. In a qualified sense, he may be regarded as a con. tinuation of the romantic school, but it must be observed that he is free from all their monstrosities, spasms, tricks, and horrible machinery. Possessed at once of far greater antiquarian learning, imaginative genius, sound sense, and instinctive taste than any of his romantic" predecessors, he knew precisely what to shun and what to choose; and though his feudal age, as depicted in Iranhoe, The Fair Maid of Perth, etc., is a considerably idealized portrait of the rugged facts, it is a portrait, and not like Horace Walpole's and Mrs. Radcliffe's performances, a furious caricature. The political reaction that took place in Britain, after the sanguinary excesses of the French revolution, assuming the form of a new and passionate attachment to venerable and time-honored traditions, showed itself in literature too, and sir Walter Scott was its grandest representative. He strove to delineate the past as it seemed in the eyes of men who were dubious of the present and afraid of the future-noble, stately, glittering, and gay, with the pulse of life ever beating to heroic measures. The overpowering genius of Scott necessarily but unhappily (for the comfort of readers) led to "endless imitation,” but the only one of his followers that held for a time a tolerably decent position in literature is G. P. R. James (q.v.). Galt (q.v.) and Wilson (q.v.), the former with vulgar but racy humor, the latter with a highly sentimental and overdone pathos, portrayed aspects of Scottish life which the author of Waverley has passed over. Other novelists, such as Lockhart (q.v.), Miss Ferrier (q.v.), and Mrs. Johnstone, do not call for special notice; neither does Hope (q.v.), though his Memoirs of Anastasius is a most brilliant and powerful book; nor Moore (q.v.), though his Epicurean has all the sparkling and superficial splendors of his verse.
After Scott, the next novelist who distinctly marks a new stage in the development of fiction is sir Edward Bulwer Lytton (q.v.), in whose earlier works at least we find something like a reflection of the cold, speering, selfish, and sensual spirit that marked the upper classes during the period of the regency; but the versatile genius of this author, and the different fields in which he has won renown, would make it quite unfair to define him as a merely “fashionable" novelist, though his first and least meritorious distinctions were acquired in that capacity, and students of Sartor Resartus are apt to 20 remember him. Of fashionable novelists, strictly so called, the best-known are Mrs. Gore (q.v.) and Theodore Hook (q.v.). This class was succeeded by another infinitely worse than itself—the Nerogate novelists, as they have been well termed, who sought for their heroes among highwaymen, thieves, desperadoes, and murderers, like Jack Shep pard, Blueskin, Dick Turpin, Claude Duval, etc., and, flagitiously indifferent alike to fact and morality, labored with pernicious success to invest the lives of these scoundrels with a halo of romantic interest and dignity. The chief of this school, “ by merit raised to that bad eminence,” is William Harrison Ainsworth (q.v.). During the last 30 years povels have been multiplied to a degree which is almost alarming, and literally incalculable. The greatest names are unquestionably those of Dickens (q.v.), Thack. eray (q.v.), and Miss Evans (q.v.); but besides these might be mentioned a host of others, who have attained either celebrity or popularity, or both. Every mode of life, and every kind of opinion, social, artistic, scientific, philosophical, and religious, has sought to recommend itself by adopting this fascinating garb. We have the nautical novels of Marryat (q.v.), redolent, like Dibdin's songs, of the briny dcep; the political novels of Disraeli (q.v.); the sporting and military novels of Lever (q.v.); the bril liant "muscular Christian” novels of Kingsley (9.v.); the "governess-novels,” as they have been aptly denominated, of Miss Bronté (q.v.); the "school" novels of Hughes and Farrar; and the "sensational” novels of Wilkie Collins, Miss Braddon, and others. Other authors not less eminent, but not so easily classified, are Mrs. Gaskell, Mrs. Norton, Miss Mulock (now Mrs. Craik), Mrs. Oliphant (q.v.), Charles Reade (q.v.), George Macdonald; Meredith, Whyte-Melville, M'Carthy, Blackmore, "Ouida,” are well known in various departments of fiction; and recently William Black has shown himself an artist of a high class. The extraordinary inerease of this potent and therefore perilous branch of literature cannot fail to excite much curious reflection in thoughtful minds.
2. French Fiction during the 19th Century.-A few words are all that we can devote to this part of our subject, though it is far from uninteresting either in a literary or a moral point of view. The effect of the revolution of 1789 on literature was not immediately beneficial, but the reverse, though it planted the germs of a multitude of new thoughts and aspirations in the mind of Christendom, which have since yielded, both in France and elsewhere, a prolific harvest of wheat and—tares. The iron despotism of Napoleon crushed nearly all literary expression whatever. His batred of “idealogues" is well known, but the novel was that species of idealogic composition that came least into collision with the principles of imperialism. Even it, however, could hardly be said to flourish; and the only tolerably gifted writer of fiction who figures during the first empire is Le Brun, and he was reduced to the necessity of caricaturing the bourgeoisie, to which Napoleon had no particular objection, as they were by no means his warmest admirers. Chateaubriand (q.v.) and Mme. de Stael (q.v.) are insignificant in this department, and Charles Nodier, though voluminous, was not an original novelist. After the return of the Bourbons, and especially after the revolution of 1830, France began to display a wonderful literary activity, and in particular, its long-repressed faculty of imagination burst into a sudden blossom of poetry and fiction. Even Napo. leon, now that he was dead, received a peculiar homage from the class to whom he had never shown favor or regard, of which the songs of Béranger and Les Misérables of Victor Hugo afford us specimens. Unhappily for the purity of its literature, the régime of the restoration, which followed the deliverance of France from a military despotism, was itself a base, corrupt, and profligate thing. The Bourbons came back only to re-enact the follies of their ancestors in the previous century, and the nation soon caine to despise, detest, and disbelieve them and the church which supported them. Hence a certain reckless levity and hollow mocking laughter, as of heartless skepticism, pervading those fictions which profess to delineate the realities of current life. Moreover, the sparkling wit, the sunny humor, the pathos, often exquisitely tender and refined, the delicate or deep delineation of character, the occasional fine Aush of sentimental enthusiasm, and the poetic witchery of a religious mysticism, cannot blind us to the fact that the substance of most of the recent French fictions is incurably immoral. Paul de Kock (q.v.), Balzac (q.v.), Dumas (q.v.), father and son, Sue (q.v.), Dudevant (q.v.), Daudet, Zola, though wholly dissimilar in the quality of their genius, are in this respect too wofully alike. Victor Hugo (q.v.) and Lamartine (q.v.) are indeed morally far above the rest of their contemporaries, but they are perhaps the only great exceptions that can be mentioned. The “second empire” did not improve the tone of the French novel, any more than it improved the tone of French society; but if it be true that when things have reached their worst they begin to mend, the country that has produced La Dame aux Camelias is perhaps, as regards the literature of fiction, in a hopeful condition. The Erckmann-Chatrian tales, graphic delineations of provincial life, are honorably distinguished by the absence of all indecency. Verne's tales of impossible semi-scientific voyages to the moon and elsewhere are unique.
The prose fiction of Spain and Italy during the 19th c. scarcely requires notice, as the former country has not produced a single work that has forced its way into the general European market, while the latter can boast of only one that has attained that dignity, the Promessi Sposi of Manzoni (q.v.); but in a comprehensive sketch like the present, it would be a blemish to omit at least the names of the more eminent transatlantic novelists, as they have contributed not a little of late years to the stock of English prose fiction. The most notable are Brockden Brown (q.v.), the American Godwin; Fenimore Cooper (q.v.), from whom Europe has been content, on the whole not unwisely, to take its notions of the forests, the prairies, and the red men of the west; Washington Irving (q.v.), Edgar Allan Poe (q.v.), Nathaniel Hawthorne (q.v.), Mrs. Beecher Stowe (q.v.), Oliver Wendell Holmes (q.v.), and Brete Harte, in all of whose writings, except in the tales of Poe, is visible the influence of the life, traditions, scenery, and other salient characteristics of the new world. See Dunlop's History of Fiction (Lon. 1814), and Wolff's Allgemeine Geschichte des Romans (Jena, 1841, 2d edit. 1850). See Supp., page 891.
NOVEMBER (Lat. novem, nine) was among the Romans the 9th month of the year, at the time when the year consisted of 10 months; and then contained 30 days. It subse. quently was made to contain only 29, but Julius Cæsar gave it 31; and in the reign of Augustus the number was restored to 30, which number it has since retained. November was one of the most important months in connection with the religious ritual of the Romans, and continues in the same position, though for other reasons, in the Roman Catholic ritual. It was known among the Saxons as Blot-monath, "blood-month," on