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later was made attorney-general. In 1676 he was made keeper of the great seal, in succession to lord Shaftesbury, and in 1675 he became lord chancellor. In 1680 he sat as lord steward, on the trial of viscount Stafford, against whom he delivered judgment with great eloquence. He was made earl of Nottingham in 1681. He published a number of legal arguments and a volume of Reports of Cases decreed in the High Court of Chancery.

NOTTOWAY, co. in s.e. Virginia, bounded on the s. by the Nottoway river; on the Atlantic, Mississippi, and Richmond and Danville railroads; 300 sq.m.; pop. '80, 11,156—11,110 of American birth, 8,143 colored. The surface is uneven, and portions are heavily wooded. The principal productions are tobacco, of which great quantities are raised, Indian corn, wheat, and oats. Co. seat, Nottoway Court House.

NOTTOWAYS, a tribe of Indians, who lived about the Nottoway river, in Virginia. They belonged to the Huron Iroquois family and spoke a language of that family, of which they formed one of the most southern divisions. They gave themselves the name of Cherohakah. They were at one time a powerful tribe, and survived the famous Powhatans. In 1700 they still numbered 130 warriors, and in 1729 they had increased to 200. They were then living in cabins surrounded by a palisade, on the w. bank of the Nottoway. Attempts were made by governor Spottswood and others to civilize and educate ihem, but unsuccessfully. In 1781 they had a reservation of 27,000 acres, of which only a very small part was under cultivation; and, according to Jefferson, not a single male of the tribe was then left alive.

NOU KHA, a town of Asiatic Russia, in 'Trans-Caucasia, is built on the southern slope of the Caucasus mountains, 80 m. s.w. of Derbend, in lat. 41° 12' n., long. 47° 13' e. Pop. (1880) 25,000, consisting of native Tartars belonging to the Mohammedan creed, of Armenians, and a few Russians, chiefly officials. Breeding the silk-worm is the staple branch of industry. The native breed of silk-worms is somewhat coarse, and is now being supplanted by the Italian breed.

NOUN (Lat. nomen, a name), in grammar, is the term applied to that class of words that "name" or designate the persons and things spoken about. In a wide sense, such words as rich, tall, are nouns, as well as John, man, tree; for they are names applicable to all objects possessing these attributes. But as words like John, man, tree, suffice of themselves to mark out or designate an object or a definite class of objects, while words expressive of a single attribute, like rich, tall, can be used only in conjunction with such a word as man or tree, the one class are called adjective nouns, or simply adjectives (4.v.), while the others are called substantive nouns, or simply substantives or nouns. Nouns or names, in this narrower sense, may be divided into classes in a variety of ways, according to the ground we take for our division. One of the distinctions commonly made by grammarians is into proper nouns and common nouns. A proper noun is usually detined to be “the name of any individual person, or place," as John, London; while a common noun is applicable to every individual of a class of objects, as prince, city. But this definition fails to point out the real difference; for there are several Londons, and there are more Johns than princes; other things also have proper names, besides persons and places, as ships (the Minotaur), and bells (Big Ben). Providence again, although applicable to only one being in the universe, is not a proper noun. Wherein, then, lies the difference? In order to answer this question, we must advert to an important distinction made by logicians with regard to the import of names. A word is said to denote all the objects to which it is applicable as a name; thus, the word man is a name for all the objects known individually, as James, John, Adam, Cæsar, etc., and therefore denotes the whole human race; but while thus denoting or naming them, it also implies something concerning them; in the language of logic, it connotes that they possess certain attributes, namely (1) a certain corporeal form, known as the human form; (2) animal life; (3) rationality. All this, at least, is included in the meaning or connotation of the word “man. Now, if we consider any noun of the class called common, we find that while it denotes, or names, or points out a certain object, or class of objects, it also conveys or implies some qualities or facts concerning them; in other words, all such names are connotative, or have a meaning. Not so with proper nouns. To say that a man is called John Butler, informs us of no quality he possesses, or of any fact except that such is his name. The name itself conveys no meaning; it is nonconnotatice. And this is what really constitutes a proper name; it is affixed to an object, not to convey any fact concerning it, but merely to enable you to speak about it. Proper names, indeed, are often given at first on account of the object possessing certain attributes; but once given, they do not continue to connote those attributes. The first John Baker was probably so called because he exercised the trade of baking; but his ceasing to bake would not have made him lose the name; and his descendants were called Baker, regardless of their occupation.

Proper names are thus meaningless marks, to distinguish one individual from another; and the A, B, C, etc., which a geometrician affixes to the several angles of a figure, are as much proper names as Tom, Lawrie, etc., applied to the individual bells of a chime. The proper contrast then, to a proper noun is not a con on noun-meaning by that a name common to a class of objects—but a significant noun.

Of significant nouns, by far the greater number are general or class names; that is, they can be applied to any individual of a class of objects, implying that all these indivi. duals have certain attributes in common-as quadruped, book. The quadruped spoken of may perhaps be a horse, and here we have another class-name, applicable to the same object

, but of less generality than “quadruped.” Animal, again, is more general than quadruped; being applicable to a far wider class. But it is important to observe, that as the number of objects that the terms are applied to, or denote, increases, the number of attributes they imply-in other words, the amount of their meaning-diminishes. To call an object an “animal,” merely implies that it is organized and is alive (with that kind of life called animal life); to call it a “quadruped,” implies all this and a number of attributes in addition; and to call it a “horse” implies a still further addition.

It is to this class of words that the term common nouns is properly applicable; and the contrast to them is not proper nouns, but what might be called singular nouns, such as “God," “Providence," universe.”

Collective names are such as regiment, fleet, senate, shoal. They form a subdivision of class names or common nouns; for regiment is applicable to all collections of men organ. ized in a particular way.

Names of materials are such as iron, water, sugar, wheat. These two classes appear in many cases to merge into each other. In both the objects named consist of an aggregation; but in collective names the parts forming the collection are thought of as individual objects; as the soldiers of a regiment, the fishes composing a shoal. Substances, again, like iron, gold, water, are not made up of definite individual parts (at least to our senses); and in such as wheat, sand, the name of the individual visible part (grain of wheat, grain of sand) is derived from the name of the mass, showing that the idea of the individual is swallowed up in that of the mass.

A convenient term for names of materials or substances is that used by German grammarians-stuff-nouns. Sometimes the same word is used as a stuff-noun, and also as a class-noun. Thus: The cow eats grass(stuff-noun); “the botanist studies the grasses and has found a new grass(class-noun); “they had fish (stuff-noun) for dinner, and consumed four large fishes" (class-noun).

Names of materials are not, like collective nouns, a subdivision of common nouns; they belong to the coutrasted class of singular nouns; and, when the substance is simple or invariable in composition, cannot be used in the plural; as gold, water, beef.

Abstract Nouns. - In the expression “hard steel,” or “the steel is hard,” the word hard implies a certain quality or attribute as belonging to the steel. This quality has no existence apart from steel or some other substance; but I can withdraw (abstract) my thoughts from the steel in other respects, and think of this quality as if it had an independent existence. The name of this imaginary existence or abstraction is hardness. All words expressive of the qualities, actions, or states of objects, have abstract nouns corresponding to them; as bravebravery; strikestroke; well-health. In opposition to abstract nouns, all others are concrete nouns—that is, the attributes implied in them are considered as embodied in (concrete, Lat. growing together, the actual existences named.

NOUREDDIN-MAHMOUD, MALEK-AL-ADEL, one of the most illustrious men of his time, and the scourge of the Christians who had settled in Syria and Palestine, was born at Damascus, Feb. 21, 1116. His father, Omad-ed-din Zengui, originally governor of Mosul and Diarbekir on behalf of the Seljuk sultans, had established his independence, and extended his authority over Northern Syria, including Hems, Edessa, Hamah, and Aleppo. Noureddin-Mahmoud succeeded him in 1145, and the better to carry out his ambitious designs, changed the seat of government from Mosul to Aleppo. Count Joscelin of Edessa, thinking the accession of a young and inexperienced sovereign afforded him a favorable opportunity of regaining his territories, made an inroad at the head of a large force, but was signally discomfited under the walls of Edessa, his army, with the exception of 10,000 men, being completely annihilated. The report of NoureddinMahmoud's success being conveyed to western Europe, gave rise to the second crusade. The crusaders were, however, foiled by Noureddin-Mahmoud before Damascus, and being defeated in a number of partial conflicts, abandoned their enterprise in despair. Noureddin-Mahmoud next conquered Tripolis and Antioch, the prince of the latter territory being defeated and slain in a bloody conflict near Rugia (June 29, 1149), and before 1151 all the Christian strongholds in Syria were in his possession. He next cast his eyes on Egypt, which was in a state of almost complete anarchy under the feeble sway of the now effeminate Fatimites, and, as a preliminary step, he took possession of Damascus (which till this time had been ruled by an independent Seljuk prince) in 1156; but a ter: rible earthquake which at this time devastated Syria, leveling large portions of Antioch, Tripolis, Hamah, Hems, and other towns, put a stop to his scheme for the present, and compelled him to devote all his energies to the removal of the traces of this destructive visitation. An illness which prostrated him in 1159, enabled the Christians to recover some of their lost territories, and Noureddin-Mahmoud, in attempting their re-subjugation was totally defeated near the lake of Gennesaret by Baldwin III., king of Jerusalem; but undismayed by this reverse, he resumed the offensive, defeated the Christian princes of Tripolis and Antioch, making prisoners of both, and again invaded Palestine. Meanwhile, he had obtained the sanction of the caliph of Bagdad to his projects concerning Egypt, and the true believers flocking to his standard from all quarters, a large army was soon raised, which, under his lieut. Shirkoh, speedily overran Egypt. Shirkoh


his son,

dying soon after, was succeeded by his nephew, the celebrated Salah-ed-dir (q.v.), who completed the conquest of the country. Noureddin Mahmoud, becoming jealous of his able young lieut., was preparing to march into Egypt in person, when he died at Damascus, May 15, 1174. Noureddin-Mahmoud is one of the great heroes of Moslem history. Brought up among warriors who were sworn to shed their blood for the cause of the prophet, he retained in his exalted station all the austere simplicity of the tirst caliphs. He was not, like the majority of his co-religionists, a mere conqueror, but zealously promoted the cultivation of the sciences, arts, and literature, and established a strict administration of justice throughout his extensive dominions. He was revered by his subjects, both Moslem and Christian, for his moderation and clemency, and even his most bitter enemies among the Christian princes extolled his chivalrous heroism and good faith. He possessed in an eminent degree the faculty of impressing his own fiery zeal for the supremacy of Islam upon his subjects, and their descendants at the present day have faithfully preserved both his name and principles.

NOVAC'ULITE, a silicious slate derived from the argillaceous schists of the paleozoic period. Novaculite is the compact and homogeneous portions of the rock. See HoNEs.


NOVARA, a province in n.w. Italy, adjoining Switzerland; bounded on the e. by the lake Maggiore and the Ticino, on the s. by the Po, and on the w. by Turin; drained by the Toce and its affluents; 2,526 sq.m.; pop. '72, 624,985. The surface is mountainous, intersected by the Alps, among whose ridges are fertile valleys. The principal productions are silk, hemp, grain, and rice. Capital, Novara.

NOVARA, a t. of Northern Italy, and capital of the province of the same name, is situated in a fertile district about 60 m. n.e. of Turin. Pop. '80, 33,077. It commands fine Alpine views from its ancient dismantled fortifications, and contains several notable churches, especially the cathedral, with its fiue frescos and sculptures, and grand highaltar. On March 23, 1849, Novara was the scene of a grand battle between the Sardinian forces and an Austrian army coinmanded by Radetzky, which resulted in the complete defeat of the Italians, and ultimately led to the abdication of Charles Albert in favor of

, Victor Emmanuel. NOVA SCOTIA, a province of the Dominion of Canada, is bounded on the n.w. by New Brunswick and the bay of Fundy, on the n. by the straits of Northumberland and the gulf of St. Lawrence, and on the other sides by the Atlantic ocean. It consists of two portions, Nova Scotia proper, a large peninsula connected with New Brunswick by an isthmus about 15 m. in width, and the island of Cape Breton (q.v.). The peninsula, about 280 m. in length, and from 50 to 100 m. broad, extends in an e.n.e. and w.s.w. direction. Cape Breton lies n.e. of Nova Scotia proper, separated from it by a narrow strait called the gut of Canso, 16 m. long, and from half a m. to 2 m. wide. Sable island, which is 25 m. in length by 17 in breadth, and is surrounded by a dangerous, widely-extended sand-bank, is situated about 90 m. from the nearest coast of Nova Scotia, in lat. 44° n. and long. 60° west. It is formed of sand-hills thrown up by the sea, some of them being about 80 ft. in height. The island is covered with wild grasses, which support herds of wild horses, known as Sable island ponies. It is in the track of vessels trading between America and Britain, and owing to the number of wrecks that take place on its shores, a superintendent and several men are stationed here for the purpose of rescuing and aiding shipwrecked mariners. The area of the province is 18,600 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 440,572. The coast-line is about 1000 m. in length, and the shores, which are much indented, abound in excellent bays and harbors, of which the chief are Chedabucto bay, Halifax harbor, St. Margaret's, Mahone, and St. Mary's bays, Annapolis, Minas, and Chignecto basins, and Pictou harbor. There are numerous rivers, but few of them are over 50 m. in length; the most important are the Avon, the Annapolis, and the Shubenacadie. Nova Scotia contains about 400 lakes, of which the Bras d'Or, in Cape Breton, covers an area of 500 sq.m., or about one-sixth of the entire area of the island. The surface is irregular and undulating, but not elevated. Ranges of hills traverse the center of Nova Scotia in the direction of its length. The Cobequid mountains, 60 m. from the Atlantic and 1100 ft. high, traverse the peninsula from the bay of Fundy to the straits of Canso. The soil in the valleys is rich and fertile, producing all the fruits of temperate climates; and, especially in the n., the uplands also are fertile. The climate is remarkably healthy, its rigor being modified by the insular character of the province, and by the influence of the gulf stream. The mean temperature for the year is 42.09° at Piciou, and 43.6° at Windsor. The extreme limits of the thermometer may be stated at 15° Fah. in winter, and 95° in the shade in summer. The province abounds in mineral riches, including gold, coal, and iron. Gold was first discovered in the colony in March, 1861, on Tangier river, about 40 m. e. of Halifax. The chief diggings are along the Atlantic coast, and gold has been found in nearly 100 differ. ent localities. An act of the legislature regulating the disposal of claims and the col. lection of revenue from the gold-fields was passed in March, 1862. The gold mines have been worked steadily, and in many cases profitably. In 1871 the yield of gold was 19,227 oz., in value aboui $355, 700; in 1875 the yield was 11,208 oz., valued at $201, 756.

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