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THE INTERNATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA.
TINNESO'TA, & n. western state, and the 19th in order of admission ; between lat. 43° I 30' and 49° n. ; long. 89° 29' and 97° 5' w. ; bounded on the n. by Canada (Manitoba and Ontario); on the e. by lake Superior and Wisconsin, the Mississippi and St. Croix rivers separating the two states ; on the s. by Iowa ; on the w. by North and South Dakota, the Red river of the north intervening for 250 m. ; extreme length, 380 m. ; breadth from e. to w., 262 m. ; land area, 79,205 sq.m. ; gross area, 83,365 sq.m., or 53,353,600 acres.
History. The name Minnesota, meaning bluish or tinged water, was given by the Dacotas or Sioux to the river called St. Peter's on old maps, and now known as the M., because it was always clouded by the clay from its main tributary, the Blue Earth. The first European to visit the region was Duluth, in 1678. In 1680 French fur-traders ascended to the falls of St. Anthony, which were so named by Louis Hennepin, a Franciscan priest in the party, and there established a trading-post. M. formed a part of extensive territory ceded by France to Great Britain in 1763, and in 1766 it was explored by capt. Jonathan Carver, of Connecticut. In 1783 it became a possession of the U. S., being transferred with the rest of the northwest territory. In 1805 a tract of land at the mouth of the St. Croix and another at the mouth of the Minnesota were purchased of the Indians, but immigration was tardy. Fort St. Anthony (Snelling) was built in 1819-21 ; in 1822 a clearing was made at the falls of St. Anthony, and a mill was built ; and in 1823 the first steamboat ascended to the falls of St. Anthony. The next settlements made were near St. Paul, before 1830, by a small colony of Swiss, and at Stillwater, in 1843. The Indian title to lands e, of the Mississippi was not extinguished until the year 1838, and it was not until 1849, Mar. 3, that the territory of M. was organized, with the Missouri river as its western boundary. In 1851 tbe Indian title to the lands (except reservations) between the Mississippi and the Red river of the north was extinguished; immigration increased rapidly ; in 1857, Feb. 26, congress passed an enabling act, and in 1858, May 11, M. was admitted as a state. In 1862 the Sioux Indians attacked and destroyed the frontier settlements, killing nearly 1000 persons, but were conquered and eventually removed from the state. M. furnished 25,052 men to the union army during the civil war. In 1873-75 the crops in some cos. were destroyed by locusts, but since that time the prosperity of the state has been unchecked.
Topography.-M. forms the water-shed of 3 great basins : those of the Mississippi, St. Lawrence, and Hudson's bay. The surface is for the most part undulating, with no mountain ranges, but a low broad elevation in the northern part, about 280 m. long, constitutes the water-shed just mentioned. This divide, at its highest point of elevation, is not more than 100 ft. above the adjacent country, though it is 1680 ft. above the ocean and nearly 1000 ft. above the extreme southern part of the state, the descent toward which is very gradual. West of the Mississippi are several plateaus, the most remarkable of which are the coteau des Prairies and the coteau du Grand Bois. The highest elevation is about 2100 ft. Three fourths of M. consists of rolling prairie, interspersed with oak openings, belts of timber, and innumerable small lakes, and drained by streams of clear water. The remaining fourth includes the divide already spoken of, the mineral tract near lake Superior, and the heavily-wooded region around the sources of the Mississippi and the Red river of the north. The state is mostly drained by these rivers, the St. Louis, and their tributaries. The Mississippi is navigable for 300 m. above the falls of St. Anthony and for 200 m. below them, within the boundaries of the state. The chief affluents of the Mississippi are the Minnesota, navigable for 300 m. at high water, the Root, Zumbrota, Cannon, Sauk, Crow Wing, Willow, St. Croix, and Rum, the outlet of Mille Lacs lake. Among the branches of the Red river are the Buffalo, Wild Rice, and Red lake. The Ushkabwaka, Big White Face, Stone, Floodwood, and Savannah are tributary to the St. Louis ; many small streams flow into lake Superior, while the Vermilion, Little Fork, Big Fork, and others discharge into Rainy lake river, and the chain of lakes which lie along the northern boundary. The St. Croix is navigable for 53 m., and the St. Louis for 21 m. One thirty fifth of the entire area of the state is covered with lakes, which number over 8000, and vary in size from 340,000 acres to 60 acres. Some of them are 100 ft. deep, and the clearness of the water everywhere is remarkable. The largest of these are Leech, Red, Mille Lacs, Vermilion, Winnebegoshish, Big Stone, Traverse, Cass, Otter Tail, and Itasca. Lakes Pepin and St. Croix are simply enlargements of the Mississippi and St. Croix rivers. Lake Minnetonka near Minneapolis, and lakes Como and White Bear near St. Paul, are fashionable resorts. The navigable waters of the state have a shore line of 2700 m. The varied scenery includes among its special features the high palisades of greenstone and porphyry on the lake shore p. of Duluth, the picturesque dalles of the St. Croix, the castellated bluffs on lake Pepin, the beautiful waterfalls along the Mississippi, among which is the cascade of Minnehaha (q.v.), and the caves near St. Paul.
Geology and Mineralogy.- Lower silurian rocks cover extensive portions of the n. and s.e. Along the Mississippi and M. river valleys many of the bluffs are underlaid by magnesian limestone. On the shores of lake Superior metamorphic schists alternate with sandstones, shales, and porphyries, intersected by basaltic and greenstone dikes, with occasional deposits of marl and drift. Iron and copper ore of superior quality and plumbago are found in the section bordering on lake Superior. Iron ore occurs also in the s. and s.w. parts of the state. Coal abounds in the n.w. and red pipe-clay in the s.w. Gold and silver are obtained in moderate quantities near Vermilion lake. Among other minerals are lime, slate, granite, building stone, salt, glass sand, kaolin, jasper, and peat. Agates are numerous on the shores of the lakes.
Zoology.-The principal wild animals are the elk, deer, gray wolf, prairie wolf, bear, wild-cat, fox, raccoon, otter, mink, beaver, muskrat, rabbit, gopher, woodchuck, and squirrel. Feathered game is abundant, including wild turkeys, geese, ducks, brant, pigeons, woodcock, prairie chicken, and 3 species of grouse. The birds number over 280 species. The lakes and rivers furnish among native or introduced species of fish, the pickerel, sunfish, whitefish, bass, pike, and the speckled, river, and brook trout.
Botany.-About one third of the state is covered with forest. In the n. and n.w. oak, beech, elm, and maple abound ; the n.e. or mineral region is largely covered with spruce, pine, and other coniferous trees. In other parts, especially along the streams and lakes, grow the elm, ash, birch, maple, linden, basswood, butternut, oak, wild plum, and crab-apple. A tract lying on both sides of the M. river, 100 m. long and about 40 m. wide, called the Big woods, contains almost every species of deciduous tree found in the northern states. The flora of M. includes many species belonging properly to Canada.
Climate and Soil. - The climate is less rigorous than might be expected from the high northern latitude. The winters are long, but the air is dry, the temperature even, and the snowfall comparatively light ; for these reasons the state is much resorted to by invalids, especially those with pulmonary complaints. The mean temperature in spring is 46° ; in summer about 70.50° ; in autumn, 38° ; in winter, 16.10°, giving a yearly aver. age of 44.60°. The yearly mean temperature at St. Paul is 42.32° The eastern part of the state is subject to the heaviest rainfall. The average for the whole state is about 30 ins., and the variation is from 24 to 36 ins, annually.
The soil in the n., especially in the Red river valley, is an alluvial deposit of great richness, and is one of the best wheat-producing regions in the world. The mineral region yields fair crops, but much of it is comparatively sterile. The greater part of the state, the prairies particularly, is exceedingly fertile, consisting of a rich brown or black sandy loam.
Agriculture. The number of farms in 1880 was 92,386 ; acres in farms, 13,403,019 ; acres improved, 7,246,693 ; total value of farms, $193,724, 260 ; of farm products, $49,468,951. Number of farms in 1888, 141,227 ; acres included, 20,654,449 ; acres im. proved, 14,458,114 ; value of farms, $362, 743,758. Among products were 36,299,000 bush, wheat ; 18,081,000 bush. corn ; 40,636,000 bush. oats ; 8,405,000 bush. barley ; 72,000 bush, buckwheat ; 462,000 bush. rye ; 5,306,000 bush. Irish potatoes ; 3600 bush. sweet potatoes ; 106,700 lbs. tobacco. In 1886 M. was the seventh wheat-producing state, the yield from 3,067,851 acres being 42,856,000 bush. Other products, in 1886, were 600,000 tons hay and 3664 lbs. sugar. The production of sorghum syrup and of Catawba wine is large. The total value of soil products in 1888 was $52,966,270. The wool and dairy products included 1,844,213 lbs. wool, 36,207,790 lbs. butter, 2,669,830 lbs. cheese, and the total value was $6,715,431. The farm animals, Jan. 1, 1888, comprised 379,489 horses, 10,969 mules, 433,966 milch cows, 489,866 oxen and other cattle, 283,725 sheep, 549,793 hogs ; total value, $56,689,956.
The hardier fruits, such as apples, pears, cherries, plums, grapes, of the northern varieties, strawberries, raspberries, black berries, currants, etc., yield abundantly. For peaches and the more tender kinds of grapes, the seasons are too short. Of the wild fruits, the crab-apple and plum are excellent, and the native cranberry is a source of great profit. The forage grasses number 160 species.
Manufactures, Commerce, etc.—The water-power of M. is so abundant and so thoroughly diffused as to afford in every part of the state all the manufacturing facilities that could be desired. In 1880 the number of manufacturing establishments was 3493 ; hands employed, 21,247 ; capital invested, $31.004,811 ; wages paid, $8,613,094 ; cost of material, $55,660,681 ; value of products, $76,065, 198. In 1888 the number of manufactories was 5124 ; hands, 46,116 ; capital, $53,089, 200 ; wages paid, $18,999,792 ; cost of material, $96,620,192 ; value of products, $158,743,981. Leading products are flour, lumber, sashes, doors and blinds, carriages, wagons, etc., machinery, locomotives, agricultural implements, brick, stoneware, hydraulic cement, etc. The flour manufactured in the state maintains the first rank. In 1886, 6,209,980 bbls. were produced at Minneapolis, and 3,500,000 bbls. elsewhere. The manufacture of iron and steel and the building of iron and steel vessels are among the important industries of Duluth. The output of iron ore in 1888 was estimated at nearly 500,000 tons; the total lumber cut in 1886 was 540,000,000 ft. The fisheries of the state, in 1880, employed a capital of $10,160, 35 persons, one vessel, and 10 boats, and the value of products was $5200. The yearly product of the quarries is estimated at $800,000 in value, the value of the fisheries products at $200,000, and the value of the logging business at $2,000,000.
Foreign commerce is carried on through the port of Duluth, and by steamers on the Red river to Pembina, which is the port of entry for the “Minnesota district.” The imports at Duluth in 1886–87 were valued at $89,518 ; domestic exports (flour, grain, lumber, bullion, etc.), $3,293,595 ; imports at Pembina, $1,831,967 ; domestic exports, $788,996 ; foreign, $12,435. The arrivals and clearances at Duluth in 1887 aggregated 2474, with aggregate ton. of 2,030,767. The shipments by river from St. Paul are important. In 1888 the shipments of flour, live stock, etc., from St. Paul and Minneapolis together amounted to 1,308,670 tons. At the railway transfer yards between St. Paul and Minneapolis, 1,250.000 tons of freight were transferred in 1888. The commerce of the two great cities in that year attained a value of $351,771,575. The shipping of the state, 1885-86, comprised 1 sailing vessel, 64 steam-vessels, and 13 barges ; aggregate ton., 8369.
Banks and Insurance. –The national banks, Oct. 7, 1886, numbered 53 ; loans and discounts, $31,791,553.84 ; aggregate resources and liabilities, $45,801,138.40 ; capital stock, $12,290,060 ; individual deposits, $22,088,907.30. There were, 1888, 57 national banks, with aggregate capital of $13,693,537 ; circulation, $1,615,505 ; 63 state banks and trust cos., with aggregate capital of $6,553,000 ; 140 private banks and 7 savings banks. The fire and marine insurance risks written in 1887 amounted to $230,250,485 ; premiums collected, $3,194,694.
Transportation.-Among the principal railroads are the Northern Pacific ; St. Paul and Duluth ; Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis and Omaha ; St. Paul, Minneapolis and Manitoba ; Minneapolis, Sault Ste Marie and Atlantic ; Chicago, St. Paul and Kansas City ; Minneapolis and St. Louis ; Chicago, Burlington and Northern ; Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul ; Chicago and Northwestern. The total mileage in 1886 was 6703 m. ; capital stock, $180,496,249 ; funded debt, $158,798,413; total investment, $356,391,464 ; cost, $345,725,142 ; gross earnings, $29,685,733. Passenger travel by the Mississippi is large.
Religious Denominations, Education, etc.-The leading denominations, numerically, are the Lutheran, Methodist Episcopal, Roman Catholic, Baptist, Congregational, Presbyterian, and Protestant Episcopal. * In 1880 the number of persons, 10 years of age and upward, unable to read was 20,551. The school population, 1886–87, was 402,187.32 ; enrolled, 249,812 ; whole number under instruction in state, 314,288 ; public schools, 5361 ; male teachers, 1981 ; female, 5303 ; average monthly pay, men, $41.00; women,
$30.20 ; receipts for public schools, $3,659,930.09 ; expenditures, $3,549,120.31 ; estimated value of public school property, $8,427,681. The permanent school fund of $5,295,101 will eventually, by the sale of lands, be increased to $10,000,000. The normal schools are at Mankato, St. Cloud, Winona, and Moorhead. The higher institutions include the university of Minnesota (non-sectarian) and Augsburg sem. (ev. Luth.), Minneapolis ; Carleton coll. (non-sectarian), Northfield ; Hamline univ. (M. E.), Hamline ; Macalester coll. (Presb.), Macalester ; St. John's univ. (R. C.), Collegeville. There are 3 institutions for superior instruction of women, 4 schools of theology, 3“ regular" schools of medicine, 2 dental schools, 1 pharmaceutical and 1 veterinary school, and a training school for nurses. The state schools for the blind, deaf, and feeble-minded are at Faribault. Women may vote at elections for school officers and in matters pertaining to schools, and are eligible to hold any office pertaining solely to their management. The number of public libraries having 10,000 vols. and upward in 1880 was 2. Of 346 newspapers and periodicals published, 1887, 19 were dailies, 321 weeklies, and 6 monthlies. Those published in German numbered 17; in Swedish, 6; in Norwegian, 5.
Government, etc.—The capital is St. Paul. The governor (salary $5000), lieutenantgovernor, secretary of state, and treasurer serve for 2 years. The legislature, composed of 43 senators, serving 4 years, and 107 representatives serving 2 years, meets biennially on the Tuesday after the first Monday in Jan., and is limited to a session of 90 days. State elections occur on the Tuesday after the first Monday in Nov. The qualifications for voting at general elections are a previous residence of 4 months in the state, 10 days in the county, and 10 days in the precinct, The number of voters in any election district must not exceed 400. Separate ballots and boxes are required for different classes of officers. Registration is required in all cities of and over 1200 inhabitants. The supreme court consists of a chief-justice, with salary of $4500, and 4 associates with salary of $4000 each. All are elected by the people, and serve 6 years. Married women retain the same legal existence and personality as before marriage, may sue or be sued, and, with the exception of voting, receive equal protection of all their rights. The legal rate of interest is 7 per cent. ; 10 is allowed by contract; the penalty for usury is forfeiture of
debt, if over 12 per cent. A local-option liquor law is in force, and high license obtains in places that do not prohibit. The charitable and reformatory institutions are the prison at Stillwater, the hospitals for the insane at St. Peter's, Rochester, and Fergus Falls, the reformatory at St. Cloud, the reform school at Red Wing, the soldiers' home at Minne. apolis, the soldiers' orphans' home at Winona, and the school for neglected children at Owatonna. The militia, 1888, aggregated 1747 officers and men ; unorganized, but available for military duty, 150,000.
The electoral votes have been cast as follows: 1860, Lincoln and Hamliu, 4; 1864, Lincoln and Johnson, 4; 1868, Grant and Colfax, 4 ; 1872, Grant and Wilson, 5; 1876, Hayes and Wheeler, 5 ; 1880, Garfield and Arthur, 5 ; 1884, Blaine and Logan, 7, 1888, Harrison and, Morton, 7.
Finances, etc.--The amount of state debt, July 31, 1888, was $3,965,000 ; state receipts for fiscal year just ended, $1,710,456 ; expenditures, $1,570,465 ; amount raised by taxation, $758,820 ; rate tax on $100, 15 cents ; value real estate assessed, year ending Aug. 1, 1887, $382,337,464 ; personal property, $87,494,000.
Population, etc.— The first settlers were chietly from New England. In recent years immigration from northern Europe has been very large, and in 1885 it was estimated that one fourth of the population was Scandinavian, their political prominence being shown by the fact that Scandinavians were treasurers in 30 cos., registers of deeds in 25 cos., judges of probate in 17 cos., auditors in 14 cos., and sheriffs in 7 cos. The population of the state in 1849 was 5000; in 1860, 172,023 ; 1870, 439,706 ; 1880, 780,773–3889 colored, including 2309 Indians. Foreign born, 123,777—62,500 Norwegians, 39,176 Swedes, 6071 Danes ; male, 419,149 ; female, 361,624 ; families, 143,374 ; dwellings, 136,458 ; persons to sq.m., 79.205 ; engaged in agriculture, 131,535 ; in professional and personal services, 59,452 ; rank of state, 26 in population, 19 in value of agricultural products, and 16 in value of manufactures. Pop. 1885, 1,117,798—269,907 foreign born, including 112,926 Germans, 92,428 Norwegians, 80,735 Swedes ; pop. 1888, 1,586,300. There are 80 cos. ; for pop. 1880, see CENSUS TABLES, vol. XV. The largest cities, 1888, were Minneapolis, 247,000 ; St. Paul, 200,000 ; Duluth, 39,000 ; Winona, 23,000 ; Stillwater, 16,000 ; Mankato, 12,000.
The Indians in M., all of the Chippewa tribe, numbered 6000 in 1888. See histories by Neill and Kirk.
MINNESOTA, or St. PETER's river, rises in Big Stone lake, on the boundary between Minnesota and South Dakota, and takes a s.e. course, expanding into Lac-qui-parle lake after flowing a short distance. It makes a sharp angle near lat. 46o, and flows n.e., emptying into the Mississippi 5 m. above St. Paul. Its total length is 470 m., and it is navigable 300 m. in high water, but only 45 in low water,
MINNESOTA, UNIVERSITY OF at Minneapolis, founded in 1868 by the state, is a public and non-sectarian institution, governed by a board of 10 regents, 7 of whom are appointed for 3 years by the governor. It embraces colls. of science, literature, and the arts, with 3 courses of study ; of agriculture and of mechanic arts, a department of law, and a department of medicine, the latter consisting of 3 colls. The coll. of science, literature, and arts includes a school of mining and metallurgy. Also there is a graduate department. The buildings are large and well equipped, the museums are extensive, and the library contains over 23,000 vols. The agricultural department alone has a dorinitory system. The state geological survey is in charge of the faculty. The endowment consists of 202,083 acres of land ; the productive fund was $750,000 in 1886– 87, and the value of grounds, buildings, etc., $1,000,000. Tuition is free, and both sexes are admitted. Number of faculty and instructors, 1888–89, 107; students, 781 ; presi. dent, Cyrus Northrop, LL.D.
MINNETAREES, HIDATSA, or Gros Ventres of the Missouri, a tribe of Indians, orig. inally part of the Crow tribe, but since the end of the eighteenth century associated with the Mandans, whom they resemble in customs. In 1804 they lived in two villages on Knife river, and numbered 2500. In 1845 they settled with the Mandans at fort Berthold, where in 1870 a large reservation was set apart for these tribes and the Arickarees. Their wars with the Sioux, Flatheads, and Shoshones were frequent, but they were permanently friendly to the whites, and in 1825, 1851, and 1864 made treaties with the U. $. They numbered 540 in 1888. A Grammar and Dictionary of the Hidatsa was published in 1873, and a Hidatsa-English Dictionary in 1874.
MIN NOW (Fr. menu, small (?)), Leuciscus phoxinus, a small fish of the same genus with the roach, dace, chub, etc., of a more rounded form than most of its congeners, a common native of streams with gravelly bottoms in most parts of Britain. It seldom exceeds three inches in length, the head and back are of a dusky olive color, the sides lighter and mottled, the belly white, or, in summer, pink. Minnows swim in shoals, feed readily either on animal or vegetable substances, if sufficiently soft, and are said to be very destructive to the spawn of salmon and of trout. In the U. S. the same name is applied to phoxinus lavis, and many other small species.
MINO BIRD. See MIna BIRD.
MINOR, a term used in music. 1. In the nomenclature of intervals. The interval between any note and another is named according to the number of degrees between them