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promised an annual dividend of 200 livres per share, which, as the shares were paid for in the depreciated billets d'état, amounted to an annual return of 120 per cent. The public enthusiasm now rose to absolute frenzy, and Law's house, and the street in front of it, were daily crowded with applicants of both sexes and of all ranks, who were content to wait for hours, nay, for days together, in order to obtain an interview with the modern Plutus. While contidence lasted, a factitious impulse was given to trade in Paris; the value of manufactures was increased fourfold, and the demand far exceeded the supply. The population is said to have been increased by hundreds of thousands, many of whom were glad to take shelter in garrets, kitchens, and stables. But the regent had mean. while caused the paper circulation of the national bank to be increased as the Mississippi scheme stock rose in value, and many wary speculators, foreseeing a crisis, bad secretly converted their paper and shares into gold, which they transmitted to England or Belgium for security. The increasing scarcity of gold and silver becoming felt, a general run was made on the bank. The Mississippi scheme stock now fell considerably, and despite sundry desperate efforts, which were attended with momentary success, to keep up its credit, it continued to fall steadily and rapidly. In Feb., 1720, the national bank and the Company of the Indies were amalgamated, but though this gave an upward turn to the share market, it failed to put the public credit on a sound basis. Several useless attempts were made to mend matters; and those suspected of having more than a limited amount (fixed by a law passed at the time) of gold and silver in their possession, or of having removed it from the country, were punished with the utmost rigor. The crisis came at last. In July, 1720, the bank stopped payment, and Law was compelled to flee the country. A share in the Mississippi scheme now with difficulty brought 24 livres. An examination into the state of the accounts of the company was ordered by government; much of the paper in circulation was canceled; and the rest was converted into “rentes" at an enormous sacrifice.

MISSISSIPPI SOUND, a narrow strait washing the coasts of Alabama and Mississippi from Mobile bay to Pearl river-about 90 miles. It is formed and separated from the gulf of Mexico by several islands: Dauphin, Petit Bois, Horn, Ship. Cat, and the isle au Pied, the fifth of which is fortified. It is moderately deep, generally tranquil, and is navigated chiefly by the steamers and coasting vessels running between Mobile and New Orleans by the way of lake Pontchartrain.

MISSISSIPPI, UNIVERSITY OF, at Oxford, Lafayette co., was organized in 1848. By the liberality of the congress of 1819, two years after Mississippi had been admitted into the union, an entire township of the public domain within the state—23,040 acres-was granted to the state for the purpose of establishing a seminary of learning. The title to this land was, by act of congress, vested in the state legislature, in trust, for the support of the institution. The trust was accepted by the legislature, and, in pursuance of the spirit and intent of the act, “lands of great value” were selected by the state, and, in due time, 357 of the 36 sections were sold. Upon this foundation the university was established, and, when it was located at Oxford, the citizens of Lafayette co. gave it a section of land as a site for its buildings. The endowment amounts to the sum of $540,000, and the annual income to more than $32,000. It has 10 buildings, which, with their contents, are valued at $300,000. The libraries contain over 6,000 volumes, which have been carefully selected with the view of supplying all the needs of classical, scientific, and law students. With physical, chemical, and electrical apparatus, and with cabinets of minerals, rocks, and shells, and other fossils, the university is well supplied. The geological department has a fine collection of accurate maps and charts, and geological reports of the various state surveys. The herbarium contains specimens of all the forms of vegetable life indigenous to Mississippi and some of the adjoining states. Zoology is rendered more interesting and intelligible by maps showing the geographical distribution of animals, and by a collection of vertebrates which is increased every year. This department also possesses maps showing the geographical distribution of plants. The university comprehends three general departments: 1. That of preparatory education; 2. That of science, literature, and the arts; 3. That of professional education, embracing for the present only a school of law, with 1 professor and 5 lecturers. The number of professors, 1884, was 10 ; tutors, 1 ; 1 principal of high school and 2 assistants ; students in all the departments, including the preparatory and post-graduate courses, 276. Alexander P. Stewart, chancellor.

MISSIVE, in Scotch law, is a memorandum. See MINUTE; LETTERS.

MISSOLONGHI, also MESOLONGHI, a small t. of Greece, in the government of Ætolia, on the northern shore of the gulf of Patras, 24 m. w. of Lepanto. It is chiefly memorable for the two sieges which it underwent during the war of independence in the early part of the present century. In 1822 it was invested by land and sea by the Turks, who, after a siege of two months, were compelled to withdraw. In 1826 it was again besieged by an overwhelming Ottoman force, and after ten months of resistance and suffering, its garrison, reduced from 5,000 to 3,000 fighting-men, cut their way through the ranks of the enemy, carrying with them a great number of the women and children. The Turks then entered the town, which was all but totally destroyed. Here lord Byron died in 1824. Pop. about 6,000.

MISSOU'LA, a co. in n.w. Montana, having the British possessions on the n. and the state line of Idaho for its w. and s. boundary ; 20,091 sq.m. ; pop. 1880, 2533—1843 of American birth, 610 colored. It has the Rocky mountains on the e, and the Bitter Root mountains on its w. border. It is drained by the head waters of Clarke's fork of the Columbia river, the Kootenay, the Maple, and the Bitter Root or St. Mary's rivers, and by Flathead lake, the largest body of water within the state-10 m. wide and 25 m. long. A large proportion is covered with timber, but the soil of the valleys, especially the Bitter Root, is remarkably fertile, producing wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, dairy products, and fruits. Live stock is raised in large numbers. Gold is abundant. The Northern Pacific railroad passes through. Co. seat, Missoula.

MISSOURI, a central state of the Mississippi valley, and the 11th in order of admission, lies between lat. 36° and 40° 30' n. ; long. 89° 2' and 95° 44' w. ; bounded on the n. by Iowa, on the e. by Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee, the Mississippi separating; on the s. by Arkansas, and on the w. by Indian territory, Kansas, and Nebraska ; greatest length, from n. to s., about 309 m. ; greatest breadth, 318 m. ; land area, 68,735 sq.m. ; gross area, 69,415 sq.m., or 44,425,600 acres. For map, see article MINNESOTA.

History.-M. was a part of the vast territory claimed by the French as original discoverers and settlers, which, in the grant of Louis XIV. in 1712, was called Louisiana. The states of Arkansas, Iowa, Kansas, and Nebraska also were a part of this great region, the northern part of which was called upper Louisiana. As early as 1720 the lead mines of M. attracted attention, but it was not until 1763 (some say 1735) that the first settlements in the territory were made at St. Genevieve and New Bourbon. In 1762 France ceded all that portion of the territory w. of the Mississippi to Spain, and that on the e. to England, In 1800 the region w. of the Mississippi was retroceded by Spain to France, and in 1803 it was sold by the latter to the U. S. In 1764 St. Louis was known as a fur-trade station, with less than 1000 inhabitants, while St. Genevieve had about half that number. The growth of the settlements was very slow until Louisiana and upper Louisiana came into possession of the U. S. in 1805, under the name of M. territory, with St. Louis as its seat of government.

In 1812, when a part of the territory of Orleans was admitted as a state to the union under the name of Louisiana, the name of the territory of Louisiana was changed to M. The limits on the w. were enlarged from time to time by treaties with the Indian tribes. In 1810 the population numbered 20,845, of whom all but 1500 were within the present limits of M. In 1817 the total population having increased to 60,000, while St. Louis was a town of 5000 inhabitants, ihe territorial legislature asked leave of congress to frame a constitution with a view to the admission of the territory into the union as a state. This application led to a fierce excitement, not only in congress, but throughout the country. A very large number of the people of the free states were earnestly opposed to the admission of any more slave states to the union, and this subject was debated in congress with such heat that many were alarmed lest it should lead to a dissolution of the union. The northern representatives finally yielded to southern demands, and M. was admitted to the union under the conditions of the famous “ Missouri compromise" (q.v.), repealed in 1854. The admission was consummated by a presidential proclamation dated Aug. 10, 1821. The growth of the state was thenceforth rapid. In 1861 the people were about equally divided in sentiment. The friends of secession controlled the state senate, and induced that body to call a state convention on Feb. 28, 1861, but the body so called proved favorable to the maintenance of the union, showing 80,000 majority. Union troops having entered the state in considerable numbers, gov. Jackson, June 12, 1861, called out 50,000 of the state militia “ for the purpose of repelling invasion."

Gen. Lyon, with a force of 1500 men, having taken possession of Jefferson city, the capital, and gov. Jackson and the other secession state officers having fled, the state convention again assembled, and on July 30 filled with union men the vacancies thus created. On Aug. 1 the new governor (Gamble) was inaugurated, and on the 5th the deposed governor issued from New Madrid a proclamation that the state was out of the union. Confederate troops in large numbers having assembled in the s. w. part of the state, gen. Lyon advanced from Booneville to Springfield to resist them. A battle took place Aug. 10, in which gen. Lyon was killed. "The union forces, under gen. Sigel, retired to Rolla. On Aug, 1 gen. Fremont, commanding the department of the west, declared martial law throughout the state. Aug. 20 the confederate gen. Price compelled the federal forces, numbering 3000, to retire from Lexington. Fremont thereupon hast-. ened from St. Louis to Jefferson city, but the confederates, numbering 20,000, under gen. Price, retreated to Springfield and then still farther south, followed by Fremont. Nov. 2 Fremont was succeeded by gen. Hunter, and on the 18th gen. Halleck took command of the western department. Meanwhile a quorum of the legislature elected before the contest began, having assembled at Neosho, Newton co., passed an act declaring the state to be a part of the confederacy. Early, however, in 1862 a strong federal force under gen. Curtis drove the confederates into Kansas. During the rest of the year the state was disturbed by a guerilla war, kept up by secessionists wbo had not removed within the confederaie lines. In the summer of 1863 the state convention elected in 1861, which had been kept alive by successive adjournments, passed an ordinance providing for the emancipation of all the slaves of the state in 1870. In 1864 gen. Price again invaded M., threatening St. Louis, and traversing a large part of the state ; but he was soon driven back again to Arkansas. The first state election since the war was held Nov. 4, 1864, and on Jan. 6, 1865, a state convention assembled in St. Louis and framed a new constitution, which in the following June was ratified by the people by a vote of 43,670 to 41,808. During the war the state furnished to the federal armies more than 108,000 troops. In 1869 the legislature ratified, by a large majority, the fifteenth amendment to the constitution of the U. S.

Another constitution was adopted in 1875, Oct. 30.

Topography.-The M. river flowing across the state from w. to e. divides it into two parts, the largest part of which lies s. of that stream ; the northern part, from where the

Big Muddy” empties into the Mississippi near St. Charles to Kansas city, from whence the stream bends toward the e., is the best part of the state. Above the mouth of the Ohio, midway between it and St. Louis, a broken ridge of masses of limestone rock crosses the river in an oblique direction. From a point a little below cape Girardeau, noșthward to the mouth of the M. the Mississippi is bordered by highlands, which between cape Girardeau and the Meramec take the shape of limestone bluffs from 250 to 350 ft., high. From these highlands westward the land is high and broken, but grows less precipitous as the Osage river is approached. In the s.w. part of the state are the Osark mts., lying not in continuous ranges, but in isolated knobs, and peaks, and perpendicular cliffs of sandstone, sometimes 1500 ft. high. The region n. of the M. and bounded on the w. by the same stream, is generally level or undulating; the s. part presents a considerable variety of surface.

Its chief rivers are the Mississippi, which borders the state for 470 m. ; the M., which forms a portion of the w. boundary for nearly 200 m. from the Iowa line to Kansas city, at which point it turns eastward, flowing across the state in a tortuous course for more than 250 m. to the Mississippi. These great streams are navigable at all times, except when obstructed by ice. The Osage, one of the s. affluents of the M., is navigablo for small steamboats half the year. The St. Francis, White, Black, Current, Gasconade, Grand, and Chariton are navigable for small boats at high water, usually in early summer. Among the principal streams of the class not navigable are the Fabius, Salt, South Grand, Nodaway, Platie, Spring, Sac, Niangua, Cuivre, Piney, Meramec, and Castor rivers.

Geology.-The n., n.w., and w. portions of the state are occupied by upper and lower carboniferous formations covering an area of 23,100 sq.m. These are bordered in the n.e. and s.w. and narrowly on the e. by Devonian rocks, which also extend in a southeasterly direction toward St. Louis. Upper and lower silurian formations extend from just above the mouth of the M. to the Arkansas line, and include sandstone, shales, limestones, and conglomerates. Eozoic or archaic rocks : granite, greenstone, and porphyry appear not infrequently in the s.w. and s.e. Caves are numerous, especially in the limestone of the coal measures.

Mineralogy.—The mineral productions are various and rich. Gold is found in the . drift sands of the n., and silver in combination with lead in the galena and other ores. Iron in some form is found in every co., and in some places the supply is inexhaustible and of the richest quality. There are extensive bog ores in the s.e. part of the state.

By far the richest portion in iron ores is that between the thirtieth and fortieth township lines. Within this iron zone ores abound in the greater part of the cos. situated between the Mississippi on the e. and the upper Osage river on the w. Limonite banks are scattered over the whole of this vast region. The specular ores are much more concentrated in certain parts of the state than either the limnonites or the carboniferous hematites, and also occur in much larger masses, as at Pilot Knob and Iron mountain, in Iron and St. François cos. Another rich district has its principal deposits in Crawford, Phelps, and Dent cos. Lead is obtained in immense quantities from two great fields, one in the s.e., the other in the s.w. part of the state. The lead production of M. is larger than that of all the other states of the union.

Galena and cerussite or carbonate of lead are widely distributed, and pyromorphite or phosphate of lead exists in some localities.

Copper (carbonates and sulphurets) is also found in abundance in many places, and was formerly mined to a considerable extent, but since the discoveries of this metal on lake Superior these mines have been neglected. Nickel and cobalt are found at mine La Motte and the St. Joseph mines, and zinc, in the form of blende, is abundant in s.e. and s.w. M., together with greenockite or sulphate of cadmium. The coal-fields embrace about one-third of the whole area of the state. The coal is various in kind and quality, from common bituminous to the best cannel. Much of it is adapted to smelting purposes and to the use of locomotives and stationary engines. Among other ores are millerite or sulphuret of nickel, manganese, and wolfram. Carbonate of lime, arragonite, gypsum, feldspar, fluor spar, pearl spar, mica, hornblende, asbestus, bitumen, fire-clays, potters' clays, kaolin, glass-sand, hydraulic lime and cement, polishing-stone, saltpeter, buildingstone, granite, sandstone, slate, marbles, etc., are abundant. Petroleum has been discovered. There are many sulphurous, chalybeate, saline, and other mineral springs. The salt springs of Howard co. contain om 800 to grains salt to the gallon.

Zoology.-The great forests of M. are filled with wild animals, but the principal ones whose fur is valuable are almost extinct. The bear, panther, wild cat, black wolf,

sea.

red fox, opossum, and raccoon are found, and the deer, hare, rabbit, squirrel, and gopher are abundant. The wild turkey, pigeon, quail, woodcock, grouse, dove, and prairie chicken and meadow lark are numerous, as are the eagle, vulture, kite, and hawk. There are also many birds of gay plumage and song-birds of great variety. In the swampy regions wild geese, ducks, herons, and swans abound ; also frogs, toads, turtles, lizards, and snakes.

Botany.- The principal hard woods are found in belts e. of Howard co. and along the Mississippi. These consist of elm, ash, oaks of many species, including the burr oak and black jack, sugar maple, hackberry, sassafras, dogwood, etc. The principal trees of the s. are the sweet gum, black gum, cypress, catalpa, tupelo, oak, paw paw, and pecan. Yellow pine grows abundantly around the headwaters of the Big Black, White, Current, and other rivers, and extensive pine forests are to be seen along the Arkansas border. The prairies, which cover a large part of the state, like those of Illinois, are filled in spring with delicate and sweet-scented flowers, succeeded late in summer by coarser and more brilliant varieties, mixed with grasses sometimes tall enough to hide a man on horseback.

Climate and Soil.–With the exception of the river bottoms and swampy regions of the s.e. the state is generally healthful. The summers are long, with a mean temperature of about 76°, the mercury sometimes marking 95°. The winters are cold and raw, with sharp winds and a mean temperature of about 34o. The mean annual temperature at St. Louis is 55° ; at St. Joseph, 53.24°. The total annual rainfall at St. Louis is 13.32 ins.

The soils present a great variety. The alluvial deposits of the M. and Mississippi rivers are exceedingly fertile, but the soil on the hills is often thin or so mixed with iron oxides as to be unproductive. The swamps, when drained, yield enormous crops. The prairies of the n.w. are very fertile, having lost little of their productive qualities after 30 years of culture. The mixed prairie and rolling lands n. of the Missouri, on the e. side, produce wheat and tobacco of the best quality. They are also good for fruits. The lands in the s.w. part of the state are good for grapes, peaches, pears, and apples, and for most of the cereals. The least productive soil in the state is in the region lying between s.w. M. and the swampy lands on the Mississippi. This region is traversed by the Ozark mountains, and much of it lies at an elevation of from 1200 to 1500 ft. above the

Some of the valleys are rich, but the hills are only moderately productive. Near the Arkansas line is a narrow belt of fair cotton land. Only about one-third of the area of the state is cultivated, and much of the uncultivated portion is heavily timbered.

Agriculture. The general products are wheat, buckwheat, oats, Indian corn, rye, barley, peas, beans, Irish and sweet potatoes, clover, flax, hemp, hay, wool, butter, cheese, honey, hops, beeswax, wine, sorghum and maple molasses, and maple sugar. Apples, peaches, pears, nectarines, and grapes are cultivated. Among wild fruits are grapes, plums, persimmons, and paw paws, while strawberries and blackberries abound. A large part of the region n. of the M. river is covered with blue grass, and is finely adapted to stock raising. In 1880 there were in M. 215,575 farms, averaging 129 acres, a total of 27,879,276 acres. Of these, 16,745,031 were improved and 11,134,245 unimproved. The estimated value of farms was $375,633,307 ; of farming implements and machinery, $18,103,074 ; of farm products, $95,912,660 ; of orchard products, $1,812,873 ; of market garden products, $763,439 ; of forest products, $4,551,729.

Among the products in 1880 were : Maple molasses, 16,224 galls. ; maple sugar, 58,694 lbs. ; sorghum molasses, 4,129,595 galls. ; hemp, 209 tons ; milk, 3,173,017 galls. ; butter, 28,572,124 lbs. ; cheese, 283,484 lbs. ; in 1886 : 143,709,000 bush, corn, 21,986,000 bush. wheat, 571,000 bush. rye, 30,577,000 bush. oats, 180,000 bush. barley, 66,000 bush. buckwheat, 4,109,000 bush. potatoes, 1,464,750 tons hay, 11,959,000 lbs. tobacco. The live-stock on farms, Jan. 1, 1888, comprised 782,104 horses, 225,563 mules, 737,259 milch cows, 1,429,453 oxen and other cattle, 1,087,690 sheep, 3,798,799 hogs; total value, $95,785,282.

Manufactures, etc. The statistics of manufactures in the state in 1880 were as follows : Number of establishments, 8592 ; persons employed, 63,995 ; capital invested, $72,507,844 ; wages paid, $24, 309,716 ; products, $165,384,005. The principal branches of manufacture are : Blacksmithing, agricultural implements, bags other than paper, boots and shoes, brick, carpentering and building, railroad cars, carriages and wagons, clothing, flouring and grist-mill products, furniture, forged and rolled iron, pig iron, iron castings, distilled liquors, lumber, planed and sawed, refined sugar, animal oil, patent medicines and compounds, saddlery and harness, tobacco in all its forms. In the manufacture of flour St. Louis stands next to Minneapolis, and in that of chewing and smoking tobacco, leads American cities. There is a bureau of labor statistics, and an inspector of mines, factories, and workshops.

The statistics of cotton manufactures for 1881 were as follows: Number of looms, 341 ; number of spindles, 19,312 ; bales of cotton used, 6399; number of hands employed, 575. The best cotton is grown in Dunklin co. The bluffs of the Mississippi and Missouri rivers are extensively planted with vineyards.

The iron industry ranks next to flour in importance, and is steadily increasing. St. Louis, which is one of the great centres of iron and steel manufacture, produced in 1880 from 22 establishments 125,758 tons. The pig iron produced in the state from 12 fur

X.- 2a.

naces in 1887 was 74,523 tons. The output of coal for the year ending Oct. 31, 1887, was 1,865,996 tons; total average value at mine, $4,298,994 ; total amount paid for mining, $2,445, 796.50 ; miners employed, 7000.. The total value of the output from 112 lead, zinc, and iron mines was $6,418,027 ; miners employed, 5734. From Iron Mount, Pilot Knob, and neighboring iron ore mines, 379,776 long tons were produced in 1886. During the season 1886–87, St. Louis and Kansas city packed 1,139, 405 hogs.

Commerce, etc. - The commerce of M. is important. Under the act allowing foreign merchandise to be taken in bond direct to interior ports, a large trade has sprung up in St. Louis. St. Joseph and Kansas city are also ports of delivery belonging to the department of Louisiana. The value of merchandise imported into St. Louis in 1886–87 was $3,293,476 ; into Kansas city, $372,958 ; into St. Joseph, $115,178. A great portion of the produce not only of this state, but of other portions of the northwest, passes through St. Louis on its way to market, making that city the center of a vast domestic trade. In 1887 14,510,315 bush. of wheat were received, 16,576,386 bush, of corn, 1,049,864 bbls. flour, 114,564,320 lbs. lead, 411,832 bales cotton, 675,144,047 ft. lumber and logs (by river) ; shipped : 6,238,268 bush. wheat, 13,841,172 bush. corn, 2,594,881 bbls. flour, 17,392,858 lbs. wool, 31,476,338 lbs. hides, 180,878 tons iron ore, 178,760 tons pig iron.

At Kansas city, 1887-88, 1,321,958 bush. wheat were received, 3,102,002 bush, corn, 2,572,401 bush. oats, 19,927,950 lbs. wool, 13,276,363 lbs. hides, 839,617 tons coal, 61,219,800 lbs. zinc, 38,197,500 lbs. pig lead, 85,450,447 lbs. bullion, 732,864 cattle, 2,353,193 hogs, 250,581 sheep ; shipped : wheat, 683.990 bush. ; corn, 1,209,631 bush. ; oats, 909,412 bush. ; wool, 1,359,755 lbs. ; 16,854,070 lbs. hides, 158,713 tons coal, 73,447,200 lbs. zinc, 26,573,640 lbs. pig lead, 46,613,030 lbs. bullion, 732,001 cattle, 2,354,337 hogs, 250,325 sheep. The shipping of the state, 1886–87, comprised 151 steam-vessels and 118 barges ; total ton. 155,740.39.

Railroads.--Among important roads traversing or entering the state are the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fé ; Burlington and Quincy ; Chicago and Alton ; Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul (Kansas City line); Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific ; Chicago, St. Paul and Kansas City ; Hannibal and St. Joseph ; Kansas City and Southern ; Kansas City, Fort Scott and Gulf ; Kansas City, St. Joseph and Council Bluffs ; Kansas City, Springfield and Memphis ; Kansas City and Pacific ; Missouri Pacific ; Missouri, Kansas and Texas ; St. Louis, Keokuk and Northwestern ; St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern ; St. Louis, Kansas City and Colorado ; Union Pacific and Wabash Western.

The total mileage, 1886, was 6806 m. ; operated 6313 m. ; capital stock, $207,311,505 ; funded debú, $189,096,593 ; total investment, $411,720,224 ; cost of railroad and equip. ment, $344,131,964 ; gross earnings, $37,363,491 ; dividends paid, $3,823,825.

Banks, etc.— The national banks, Oct. 7, 1886, numbered 44 ; United States bonds to secure circulation, $2,331,050 ; aggregate liabilities and resources, $38,351,412.77 ; capital stock, $8,831,000 ; individual deposits, $16,003,240.90 ; United States deposits, $546,854.55. In 1886–87 there were 212 state banks, with $11,626,403 capital and aggregate deposits of $49,173,704 ; 2 loan and trust cos., with capital of $1,200,000, and de. posits of $12,536 ; 85 private banks, with capital of $1,331,241, and deposits of $6,495,824. In 1881 there were 17 fire and marine ins. cos. and 2 life ins. cos.

Religious Denominations, Education, etc.—The leading denominations numerically are the Baptist, Christian, Methodist Episcopal (South), Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Methodist Episcopal, Protestant Episcopal, and Cumberland Presbyterian.

The school system of M. ranks among the best. Any city, town, or village may constitute a school district, and for the management of its educational interests elect a board of 6 directors for 3 years. In 1880 the aggregate population, 10 years of age and over, unable to read was 138,818. The population of school age (6–20), 1886–87, was 838,812—47,663 colored ; enrolled, 585,353—123,145 colored ; whole number of teachers, 13,296–468 colored ; total revenue for year, $4,699,762 ; expenditures, $4,357,636 ; value of all school property, $11,733,494.

There are 5 normal schools for white teachers : at the state univ. at Columbia, at the state coll. at Rolla, and at Kirksville, Warrensburg, and Cape Girardeau. There is a normal school at St. Louis, and there are normal courses or departments at 7 other colleges and universities. Colored teachers are trained at the Lincoln institute. Among institutions for higher education are the univ. of Missouri at Columbia, with collegiate, normal, agricultural, and mechanical, mining and metallurgical, legal, medical, and chemical departments ; Washington univ. (non-sectarian) at St. Louis, with an endowment of $200,000, and buildings and grounds valued at $500,000 ; William Jewell coll. (Bap.), Liberty ; Southwest Baptist coll., Bolivar ; La Grange coll. (Bap.), La Grange; Drury coll. (Čong.), Springfield ; Christian univ., Canton ; Westminster coll. (Pres.), Fulton ; Central coll. (M. E.), Fayette ; Lewis coll. (M. E.), Glasgow ; Central Wesleyan coll. (M. E.), Warrenton"; Morrisville coll. (M. È., South), Morrisville ; St. Vincent's coll. (R. C.), Cape Girardeau ; coll. of the Christian Brothers (R. C.), St. Louis ; St. Louis univ. (R. C.), St. Louis. There are 11 institutions for the superior instruction of women; theological schools belonging to the German Evangelical, German Methodist Episcopal, Lutheran, and Roman Catholic denominations ; schools of law at St. Louis and Columbia ; 10 business colleges : 9 schools of medicine, 7 of which are at St. Louis, including one homeopathic; a graduate school of medicine, a school of pharmacy, and one of dentistry. Washington univ. has an industrial training school with courses of

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