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horses were introduced, there were no traces among these islands of any native mammalia, except a species of bat. The natives are well-formed (especially the males), ingenious, and affectionati. The women, who superintend the indoor work and manufacture mats. are held in higlrespect. There are English and American mission-stations on tho islands, as well as several Roman Catholic establishments. The government is in the hands of the hereditary chiefs. The U. S., Germany, and Gt. Britain bave obtained coaling stations at the islands, and subjects of the three powers own large tracts of land. In 1884 Germany and Gt. Britain agreed to respect the independence of the islands, but Germany has siuce intrigued to gain control..
NAVY, BRITISH. Owing to the insular position of Great Britain her navy has long been considered a matter of vital importance, and is the service in which every inhabitant takes a peculiar pride. In considering the history of the British navy it is convenient to divide the subject into matériel and personnel. The latter had no distinct organi zation till the time of Henry VIII. ; but of the former, we recognize in the earliest times the germ of subsequent glories. Carausius, a Roman general, who had thrown off his dependence on the empire, maintained himself in England for several years by his fleet, with which he prevented the imperial forces from reaching the island. The Saxons brought maritime prowess with them to the British shores, but appear soon to have lost it amid the rich provinces in which they settled. Some organization for the defense of the coast was, however, maintained; and Alfred the great availed himself of it to repulse the Danes; he at the same time raised the efficiency of his navy by increasing the size of his galleys, some being built which were capable of being rowed by thirty pair of oars. Under his successors the number of vessels increased, and both Edward and Athelstan fought many naval battles with the Danes. Edgar aspired to be lord of all the northern seas, and had from three to five thousand galleys, divided into three fleets on the western, southern, and eastern coasts respectively; but the size of most of these ships was very insignificant, and the greater part were probably mere row-boats. Ethelred II. formed a sort of naval militia, enacting that every owner of 310 hides of land should build and furnish one vessel for the service of his country.
William the conqueror established the Cinque ports, with important privileges, in return for which they were bound to have at the service of the crown for 15 days in any emergency 52 ships carrying 24 men each. Richard I, took 100 large ships and 50 gaileys to Palestine. John claimed the sovereignty of the seas, and required all foreigners to strike to the English flag; a pretension which has been the cause of some bloody battles, but which England proudly upheld in all dangers. (This honor was formally yielded by the Dutch in 1673, and the French in 1704; and, although not now exacted in, its fullness, the remembrance of the right survives in requiring foreign vessels to salute first). In the same king's reign a great naval engagement with the French took place (1293) in mid-channel, when 250 French vessels were captured. The Edwards and the Henries maintained the glory of the British flag; Edward III., in person, with the Black Prince, at the battle of Sluys, in 1340, defeated a greatly superior French fleet, with 40,000 men on board. Henry V. had “grete shippes, carrakes, barges, and ballyngers;" and at one time collected vessels enough to transport 25,000 men into Normandy. Henry VII. was the first monarch who maintained a fleet during peace; he built the Great Harry, which was the earliest war-vessel of any size, and which was burned at Woolwich in 1553.
To Henry VIII., however, belongs the honor of having laid the foundation of the British navy as a distinct service. Besides building several large vessels, of which the Henry Grace de Dieu, of 72 guns, 700 men, and probably about 1000 tons, was the most considerable, he constructed a permanent personnel, defining the pay of admirals, viceadmirals, captains, and seamen. He also established royal dockyards at Deptford, Wool. wich, and Portsryouth; and for the government of the whole service instituted an admiralty and navy-board, the latter being the forerunner of the present Trinity board. When this king died he left 50 ships of various sizes manned by about 8,000 hands.
Under Edward VI. the navy fell off, but was sufficiently important in the succeeding reign for the English admiral to exact the salute to his flag from Philip II. with a larger Spanish fleet when the latter was on his way to espouse queen Mary. Elizabeth had ihe struggle with the Spanish armada to try her navy, and left 42 ships, of 17,000 tons in all, and 8,346 men-15 of her ships being upwards of 600 tons. From this period the tonnage of the ships steadily increased. Under James I. and Charles I. Mr. Phineas Pett, M.A., the first scientific naval architect, remodeled the navy, abolishing the lofty forecastles and poops, which had made earlier ships resemble Chinese junks. In 1610 he laid down the Prince: Royal, a two-decker, carrying 64 large guns; and in 1637 from Woolwich he launched the celebrated Sovereign of the Seas, the first three-decker, and certainly the largest ship hitherto constructed on modern principles. She was 232 feet in length, of 1637 tons, and carried at first 130 pieces of cannon; but being found unwieldy, was cut down, and then proved an excellent ship. She was burned in 1696.
Prince Rupert's devotion to the crown was bad for the navy, for he carried off 25 large ships; and Cromwell, on acceding to power, had but 14 two-deckers. His energy, however, soon wrought a change, and in five years he had 150 ships, of which a third wore of the line; his crews amounted to 20,000 men. During the protectorate, Peter Pett, son of Phineas, built the Constant Warwick, the earliest British frigate, from a French design and pattern. Cromwell first laid navy estimates before parliament, and obtained £400,000 a year for the service. The duke of York, afterwards James II., assisted by the indefatigable Mr. Samuel Pepys, did much for the navy, establishing the system of admiralty government much on its present footing. In his time, sir Anthony Deane improved the model of ships of war, again after a French design. James left, in 1688, 108 ships of the line, and 65 other vessels; the total tonnage of the navy, 101,892 tons; the armament, 6,930 guns; and the personnel, 42,000 men. William III. sedulously augmented the force, foreseeing its importance to his adopted country. When he died, there were 272 ships of 159,020 tons, when the annual charge for the navy had risen to £1,056,915. George II. paid much attention to his fleets, and greatly augmented the size of the ships; he left, in 1760, 412 ships of 321, 104 tons. By 1782 the navy had risen to 617 sail of 500,000 tons; and by 1802 to 700 sail, of which 148 were of the line. In 1813 there were 1000 ships (256 of the line), measuring about 900,000 tons, and carrying 146,000 seamen and marines, at an annual charge of about £18,000,000. Since the peace in 1815 the number of vessels has been greatly diminished, although their power has vastly increased.
The progressive augmentation of size in vessels may be judged from the increase in first-rates. In 1677 the largest vessel was from 1500 io 1600 tons; by 1720, 1800 had been reached; by 1745, 2,000 tons; 1780, 2,200 tons; 1795, 2,350 tons; 1800, 2,500 tons; 1808, 2,616 tons; 1853, 4,000 tons. From 1841 a gradual substitution of steam for sailing vessels began, which was not completed, however, till 1859. Since 1860 another reconstruction has taken effect, armor-plated frigates, impervious to ordinary shot, armed either as broadside vessels or in turrets, being substituted for timber vessels. At the same time three and two deckers have ceased to be employed, enormous frigates and turret-ships replacing them of a tonnage far exceeding the largest three-deckers of former times; they mount fewer guns, but those they carry are of stupendous caliber, and of rifled bore. The Northumberland, one of the largest frigates of this new class, is of 6,621 tons, 1350 horse-power, and 38 large guns, while the Derastation carries 4 great guns in turrets of the most massive armor. The Inferible (turret-ship) carries four 81-ton guns, and is supposed to be the most powerful war-ship in the world. See ARMOR-PLATES.
In 1884 the navy contained 62 iron-clads (6 building) ; 40 composite gun vessels 3 building); 18 iron and steel wood cased corvettes ; 6 despatch boats ; 36 composite gun boats (2 building): 20 composite sloops ; 8 yachts ; 3 composite vessels ; 53 ships ; 9 steam-cruisers (4 building); 9 frigates ; 51 gun boats ; 9 gun vessels ; 23 corvettes (1 building); 5 sloops ; 12 vessels ; 4 schooners ; 5 brigs; 1 torpedo ram ; 1 floating battery. Of the iron-clads 22 were turret ships. In addition there were 38 tugs and small vessels employed in the harbor service, and 123 vessels of various classes used as train. ing ships, depots, hospitals, etc. The number of ships in commission was 182, carrying 1211 guns, number of men, 57,250. The annual charge for 1884–85 was estimated at £11,595, 711, which may be thus broadly subdivided (excluding medical establishments, medicines, and medical stores, marine divisions, new works, machinery, etc., martial law and law charges) : Wages, victuals, and clothing of officers and men ..
£3,957,029 Admiralty office ..........
192,970 Coast-guard and naval reserve..................
196,900 Scientific branch (surveying, hydrography, etc.).
131,600 Dockyards and victualing yards ...
1,645,170 Stores for building and repairing ships .......
2,382,000 Miscellaneous services.....
123,846 Half-pay and pensions. .....................
2,072,521 Conveyance of troops .....
£10,928,336 Information on the various points of detail connected with the navy, will be found under the respective heads, as ADMIRAL, CAPTAIN, HALF-PAY, SHIP-BUILDING, SIGNALS, etc.
NAX'OS, the largest, most beautiful, and most fertile of the Cyclades, is situated in the Ægean, midway between the coasts of Greece and Asia Minor. Extreme length, about 20 m.; breadth, 15 miles. Pop. about 19,000. The shores are steep, and the island is traversed by a ridge of mountains, which rise in the highest summit, Dia, upwards of 3,000 feet. The plains and valleys are well watered; the principal products and articles of export are wine, corn, oil, cotton, fruits, and emery. The wine of Naxos (the best variety of which is still called in the islands of the Ægean, Bacchus-wine) was famous 1B ancient as it is in modern times, and on this account the island was celebrated in the legends of Dionysius, and especially in those relating to Ariadne. Among its antiquities are a curious Hellenic tower, and an unfinished colossal figure, 34 ft. long, still lying in an ancient marble quarry in the north of the island, and always called by the natives a figure of Apollo. It was ravaged by the Persians, 490 B.C., and after the conquest of Constantinople by the Latins, became the seat of a dukedom, founded by the Venetians. It now forms a portion of the kingdom of Greece (q.v.). Naxos, the capital, with a popu
lation of about 5,000, is situated on the n.w. coast, contains 16 Greek and 4 Catholic cburches, and 3 convents, and is the seat of a Greek and a Latin bishop.
NAYLOR, JAMES, about 1616-60; b. in Yorkshire, England, of humble parentage. In 1641 he became an adherent of the parliament, and served for about 8 years under Fairfax and Lambert, rising to the rank of quartermaster. The fanatical religious movements of the time seem to have completely overthrown his judgment; he was first a Presbyterian, then an Independent, and in 1651 was led by George Fox to become a Quaker. His ignorant exhortations and frenzied ravings soon caused the main body of Quakers to disown him, but he found a few deluded people who regarded him as an inspired prophet, and followed him from place to place. He suffered and perhaps encouraged these disciples to regard him as a forerunner of Christ, and when he was released from impris. onment at Exeter in 1656, they spread their garments in his path in imitation of the Savior's entrance into Jerusalem. Naylor was at once arrested on charges of blasphemy, tried before parliament, and sentenced to stand in the pillory for two hours, to be whipped at the cart's-tail from Palace-yard to the exchange, the letter B was to be branded on his forehead, and his tongue to be bored by a red-hot iron. After this he was to be taken to Bristol, whipped through that town, and then to be imprisoned for two years. The whole punishment was inflicted. Naylor recanted his errors, and was again received by the society of Quakers. A collection of his writings was published in 1716, and his Memoirs in 1719 and reprinted in 1800.
NAZAREANS. See CHRISTIANS OF ST. JOHN.
NAZARENE' (Gr. Nazarenos and Nazarnios, an "inhabitant of Nazareth "), was used by the Jews as one of the designations of our Lord, and afterward became a common appellation of the early Christians in Judæa. Although, originally, it is but a local appellation, there can be no doubt that as Nazareth was but a second-rate city of the despised province of Galilee, it was eventually applied to our Lord and his followers as a name of contempt (John xviii. 5, 7; Acts xxiv. 5). For the Judaizing sect called Nazarenes, see EBIONITES.
NAZ'ARETH, a small t. or v. of Palestine, anciently in the district of Galilee, and in the territory of the tribe of Zebulon, 21 m. s.e. of Acre. It lies in a hilly tract of country, and is built partly on the sides of some rocky ridges, partly in some of the ravines by which they are seamed. It is celebrated as the scene of the Annunciation, and the place where the Savior spent the greater part of his life in obscure labor. Pop., according to Dr. Robinson, 3,120, of whom 1040 are Greeks, 520 Greek Catholics, 480 Latins, 400 Maronites, and 680 Mohammedans. Porter thinks 4,000 a moderate estimate. In the earliest ages of Christianity, Nazareth was quite overlooked by the church. It did not contain a single Christian resident before the time of Constantine, and the first Christian pilgrimage to it took place in the 6th century. The principal building is the Latin convent, reared, according to pious tradition, on the spot where the angel announced to the Virgin the birth of her Savior-son; but the Greeks have also erected, in another part of Nazareth, a church on the scene of the Annunciation. Besides these rival edifices, the traveler is shown a Latin chapel, affirmed to be built over the “workshop of Joseph;” also the chapel of “the Table of Christ" (Mensa Christi), a vaulted chamber containing the veritable table at which our Lord and his disciples used to eat; the synagogue out of which he was thrust by his townsmen; and “the Mount of Precipitation,” down which he narrowly escaped being cast headlong. The women of the village bave been long famous for their beauty.
NAZ'ARITES (from Heb, nazar, to separate), denoted among the Jews those persons, male or female, who had consecrated themselves to God by certain acts of abstinence, which marked them off, or “separated them,” from the rest of the community. In particular, they were prohibited from using wine or strong drink of any kind, grapes, whether moist or dry, or from shaving their heads. The law in regard to Nazarites is laid down in the book of Numbers (vi. 1-21). The only examples of the class recorded in Scripture are Samson, Samuel, and John the Baptist, who were devoted from birth to that condition, though the law appears to contemplate temporary and voluntary, rather than perpetual Nazariteship.
NEASH, Lough, the largest lake of the British islands, je situated in the province of Ulster, Ireland, and is surrounded by the counties of Armagh, Tyrone, Londonderry, Antrim, and Down. It is 18 m. (English) in length, and 11 m. in breadth, contains 98,255 acres, is 120 ft. in greatest depth, and is 48 ft. above sea level at low water. It receives the waters of numerous streams, of which the principal are the Upper Bann, the Blackwater, the Moyola, and the Main; and its surplus waters are carried off northward to the north channel by the Lower Bann. Communication by means of canals subsists between the lough and Belfast, Newry, and the Tyrone coal-field. In some portions of the lough the waters show remarkable petrifying qualities, and petrified wood found in its waters is manufactured into hones. The southern shores of the lough are low and marshy, and dreary in appearance. It is well stocked with fish, and its shores are frequented by the swan, heron, bittern, teal, and other water-fowl.
NEAGLE, JOHN, 1799–1863; b. Mass. ; began the study of painting as a coachmaker's apprentice, residing in Philadelphia, and at the age of 19 took his first sketches from
life. In 1820 he married the daughter of the painter, Thomas Sully. In 1826 his picture “Patrick Lyon, the Blacksmith" brought him some distinction. He painted the portraits, among other celebrities, of Washington, now in Independence hail, Philadelphia; Gilbert Siuart, Mrs. Wood as Amina, Mathew Carey, Henry Clay, Dr. Chapman, and commodore Barron.
NEAL, ALICE BRADLEY. See HAVEN, ALICE BRADLEY,
NEAL, DANIEL, a dissenting minister and author, was b. in London, Dec. 14, 1678. He was educated first at Merchant Taylor's school, and afterwards at Utrecht and Leyden, in Holland, and in 1706 succeeded Dr. Singleton as pastor of a congregation in his native city. Neal's first work was a History of New England (1720), which met with a very favorable reception in America. Two years afterwards he published a tract entitled A Narrative of the Method and Success of Inoculating the Small-pox in New England by Mr. Benjamin Colman, which excited considerable attention; but the production on which his reputation rests is his History of the Puritans (4 vols. 1732–38), a work of great labor, and invaluable as a collection of facts and characteristics both to churchmen and dissenters, though, of course, written in the interest of the latter. It involved its author in several controversies, which failing health rendered it impossible for him to prosecute, Neal died at Bath, April 4, 1743.
NEAL, DAVID. See page 888.
NEAL, JOHN, an American autlior and poet, of Scottish descent, was b. at Falmouth, now Portland, Maine, Aug. 25, 1793. His parents belonged to the society of Friends, of which he was a member until disowned, at the age of 25, because he failed to live up to the rule of “living peaceably with all men." With the scanty education of a New England common school, he became a shop-boy at the age of 12; but learned and then taught penmanship and drawing. At the age of 21 he entered a haberdashery trade, first in Boston and then in New York; and a year after became a wholesale jobber in this business at Baltimore, in partnership with another American literary and pulpit celebrity, John Pierpont. They failed in 1816, and Neal turned his attention to the study of law. With the energy which acquired for him the sobriquet of “ Jehu O’Cataract," affixed to his poem The Battle of Nugara, he went through the usual seven years' law-course in one, besides studying several languages, and writing for a subsistence. In 1817 he published Keep Cool, a novel; the next year a volume of poems; in 1819 Otho, a five-act tragedy; and in 1823 four novels-Seventy-six, Logan, Randolph, and Errata. These impetuous works were each written in from 27 to 39 days. In 1824 he came to England, where he became a contributor to Blackwood's and other magazines and reviews, and enjoyed the friendship and hospitality of Jeremy Bentham. On his return to America he settled in his native town, practiced law, wrote, edited newspapers, gave lectures, and occupied his leisure hours in teaching boxing, fencing, and gymnastics. Among his numerous works are Brother Jonathan; Rachel Dyer; Bentham's Morals and Legislation; Authorship; Down-easters, etc. After a long silence, devoted to professional business, he published, in 1854, One Word More, and in 1859, True Womanhood. The latter work, though a novel, embodies the more serious religious convictions of his later years. In 1870 appeared his Wandering Recollections of a Somewhat Buty Life. Neal's voluminous writings, with all their glaring faults of laste and inexperience, are full of genius, fire, and nationality.
NEAL, JOSEPH CLAY, 1807-48; b. N. H. He settled in Philadelphia, where in 1831 he became editor of The Pennsylvanian, a democratic journal. In 1844 he founded the Saturday Gazette, which had a large circulation. His best-known book, Charcoal Sketches; or, Scenes in a Metropolis, enjoyed a considerable degree of popularity and was republished in London. He wrote also Peter Ploddy and Other Oddities, and a second series of Charcoal Sketches.
NEALE, JOHN MASON, 1818-66; b. London. After graduating from Trinity college, Cambridge, he took orders in the Church of England. In 1846 he became incumbent of Crawley and warden of Sackville college, East Grinstead. On nine occasions between 1845 and 1861 he gained the Seatonian prize for an English sacred poem. His published writings on theological and ecclesiastical subjects amount to no less than seventy vol. umes, of which the best known are: The History of the Holy Eastern Church; the Patriarchate of Alexandria; Mediaval Preachers; History of the so-called Jansenist Church of Holland; Essays on Liturgiology and Church History; Mediaral Hymns from the Latin, and Hymns of the Eastern Church. He issued, also, a revised edition of Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress for the use of children, which, on account of his notes, was the cause of considerable controversy. He was distinguished as a champion of the ritualistic party in the English church, and as the founder of the Anglican sisterhood of St. Margaret, East Grinstead.
NEALE, ROLLIN HEBER, D.D., 1808–79; b. Conn.; educated at Columbian college, and in 1838 called to the pastorate of the First Baptist church in Boston, of which he was pastor for over 50 years. He published The Incarnation; The Burning Bush; Religious Liberty, and Holding forth the IVord of Life.
NEANDER, JOHANN AUGUST WILHELM, by far the greatest of ecclesiastical historians, was born at Göttingen, Jan. 16, 1789, of Jewish parentage. His name prior to baptism was David Mendel. By the mother's side, he was related to the eminent phil
osopher and philanthropist Mendelssohn (q.v.). He received his early education at the Johanneum in Hamburg, and had for companions, Varnhagen von Ense, Chamisso the poet, Wilhelm Neumann, Noodt, and Sieveking. Already the abstract, lofty, and pure genius of Neander was beginning to show itself. Plato and Plutarch were his favorite classics as a boy; and he was profoundly stirred by Schleiermacher's famous Discourses on Religion (1799). Finally, in 1806, he publicly renounced Judaism, and was baptized, adopting, in allusion to the religious change which he had experienced, the name of Neander (Gr. neos, new; aner, a man), and taking his Christian names from several of his friends. His sisters and brothers, and later his mother also, followed his example. He now proceeded to Halle, where he studied theology with wonderful ardor and success under Schleiermacher, and concluded his academic course at his native town of Göttingen, where Planck was then in the zenith of his reputation as a church historian. In 1811 he took up his residence at Heidelberg university as a privat-docent; in 1812 he was appointed there extraordinary professor of theology; and in the following year was called to the newly established university of Berlin as professor of church history. Here he labored till his death, July 14, 1850. Neander enjoyed immense celebrity as a lecturer, Students flocked to him not only from all parts of Germany, but from the most distant Protestant countries. Many Roman Catholics, even, were among his auditors, and it is said that there is hardly a great preacher in Germany who is not more or less penetrated with his ideas. His character, religiously considered, is of so noble a Christian type that it calls for special notice. Ardently and profoundly devotional, sympathetic, glad-hearted, profusely benevolent, and without a shadow of selfishness resting on his soul, he inspired universal reverence, and was himself, by the mild and attractive sanctity of his life, a more powerful argument on behalf of Christianity than even bis writings themselves. Perhaps do professor was ever so much loved by his students as Neander. He used to give the poorer ones tickets to his lectures, and to supply them with clothes and money. The greater portion of what he made by his books, he bestowed upon missionary, Bible, and other societies, and upon hospitals. As a Christian scholar and thinker, he ranks among the first names in modern times, and is believed to have contributed more than any other single individual to the overthrow, on the one side, of that anti-historical rationalism, and on the other of that dead Lutheran formalism, from both of which the religious life of Germany had so long suffered. To the delineation of the development of historical Christianity, he brings one of the broadest, one of the most sagacious (in regard to religious matters), one of the most impartial yet generous and sympathetic intellects. His conception of church history as the record and portraiture of all forms of Christian thought and life, and the skill with which, by means of his sympathy with all of these, and his extraordinary erudition, he elicits, in his Kirchengeschichte, the varied phenomena of a strictly Christian nature, have placed him far above any of his predecessors. Neander's works, in the order of time, are: Ceber den Kaiser Julianus und sein Zeitalter (Leip. 1812); Der Heil. Bernhard, und sein Zeitalter (Berl. 1813); Genetische Entwickelung der vornehmsten Gnostischen Systeme (Berl. 1818); Der Heil. Crysostomus und die Kirche besonders des Orients, in dessen Zeitalter (2 vols. Berl. 1821-22; 3d ed. 1849); Denkwürdigkeiten aus der Geschichte des Christenthums und des Christlichen Lebens (3 vols. Berl. 1822; 3. ed. 1845-46); Antignosticus, Geist des Tertullianus und Einleitung in dessen Schriften (Berl. 1826); Algemeine Geschichte der Christlichen Religion und Kirche (6 vols. Hamb. 1825-52); Geschichte der Pflanzung und Leitung der Kirche durch die Apostel (2 vols. Hamb. 1832–33; 4th ed. 1847); Das Leben Jesu Christi ir seinem geschichtlichen Zusammenhange, written as a reply to Strauss's work (Hamb. 1837; 5th ed. 1853); Wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, published by Jacobi (Berl. 1851); Geschichte der Christlichen Dogmen, also published by Jacobi (1856). The majority of these works, including the most important, have been translated into English, and form more than a dozen volumes of Bohn's “ Standard Library.'
NEAP-TIDES. Sec TIDES.
NEAR'CHUS, the commander of the feet of Alexander the Great in his Indian expedition, 327-26 B.C., was the son of one Androtimus, and was born in Crete, but settled in Amphipolis. In 329 B.c. he joined Alexander in Bactria, with a body of Greek mercenaries, and when the latter ordered a fleet to be built on the Ilydaspes, Nearchus received the command of it. Hie conducted it from the mouth of the Indus to the Persian gulf, in spite of great obstacles, resulting partly from the weather and partly from the mutinous disposition of his crews. Nearchus left the Indus on Sept 21, 325, and arrived at Susa, in Persia, in February 324, shortly after Alexander himself, who had marched overland. Fragments of his own narrative of his voyage have been preserved in the Indica of Arrian. - See Dr. Vincent's Commerce and Navigation of the Ancients in the Indian Seas (vol. i. pp. 68–77, Lond. 1807), and Geier's Alexandri Magni Historiarum Seriptores (pp. 108–150).
NEATH, a parliamentary and municipal borough and river-port of the co. of Glamorgan, South Wales, on a navigable river of the same name, seven m. n.e. of Swansea. It is built on the site of the Roman station Nidum, and it contains the remains of an ancient castle, burned in 1231. In the immediate vicivity are the imposing ruins of Neath abbey, described by Leland as “the fairest abbey in all Wales," but Dow sadly decaved and begrimed by the smoke and coal-dust of the public works of the district. There are at Neath several extensive copper and tin works. Copper, spelter,