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produccd. Some of the valleys which intersect the mountain-ranges, as those of Roncesvalles, Lescon, Bastan, and Roncal, have a fruitful soil, and yield good crops; but in the mountain districts, husbandry is impracticable, and the inhabitants nearly all follow the chase, as much from necessity as inclination; and while a large number of the Navarrese are soldiers, a still larger proportion are sinugglers—the proximity of the province to France, and the dangerous character of the almost inaccessible mountainpasses which alone connect the two countries, holding out many inducements and facilities in the way of smuggling. The mountain forests still harbor bears, wolves, wildcats, goats, deer, and an abundance of game of every other kind. Iron and salt are the chief mineral products of the district, but these are obtained in sufficient quantities to be exported. The people of Navarre are a hardy, brave, and hospitable race, loyal to the sovereign, attentive observers of the forms of their religion, and, except in the matter of smuggling, honest and moral; but they are passionate and distrustful, prone to anger, and keen in avenging an insult, real or imaginary. Although not industrious, the people follow a few branches of industry, and manufacture glass, leather, soap, choc.

The Navarrese, with few exceptions, are members of the church of Rome, to whose tenets they cling with superstitious devotion. They have always intermarried chiefly among their own compatriots, and are a nearly pure Basque race. In the mountainous districts, Basque is still spoken, but in the plains, the modern Castilian form of Spanish is rapidly supplanting the ancient language of the country. The chief town is Pamplona (q.v.).

The territory known from an early period of Spanish history under the name of Navarre, was occupied in ancient times by the Vascones, who were subdued by the Goths in the 5th century. After having become gradually amalgamated with their conquerors, the people continued to enjoy a species of turbulent independence under military leaders until the 8th c., when they were almost annihilated by the hordes of Arabs who were rapidly spreading their dominion to all parts of the peninsula. The Gothic Vascones of Navarre, who had been converted to Christianity, offered a gallant resistance to their infidel in vaders, and although repeatedly beaten, they were not wholly subdued. The remnant which escaped the sword of their Moslem enemies took refuge in the fastnesses of the mountains, and choosing a knight of their number, Garcia Ximenes, as their leader or king, they sallied forth, and by their gallant resistance, compelled the Arabs to leave them in the enjoyment of an independence greater than that of the neighboring states. On the extinction of the race of Ximenes, in the middle of the 9th c., the Navarrese elected as their king Inigo Sanchez, count of Bigorre, in whose family the succession remained till the marriage of Philip the fair with queen Joanna I. of Navarre; and the accession of the former to the throne of France in 1285, rendered Navarre an appanage of the crown of France. It continued a part of that kingdom during the successive reigns of Louis X., Philip V., and Charles the fair, but on the death of this last in 1328, France fell to the family of Valois, and the daughter of Louis X., the rightful heir, succeeded to Navarre as Joanna II. The events of the kingdom present no features of interest during the next bundred years. The marriage of Blanche, daughter of Charles III. of Navarre, with John II. of Aragon, in 1442, did not produce an annexation of Navarre to Aragon, as John suffered his wife to rule her own kingdom as she pleased, and even after her death and his subsequent re-marriage, he resigned the government entirely to his son by Blanche. This son, known as Charles prince of Viano, having attempted to remain neutral in his father's quarrels with Castile, John expelled him and his elder sister Blanche, who sided with him, from Navarre, and conferred the kingdom on Leonora countess de Foix, bis younger daughter, by Blanche, whose misrule completed the disorganization which these family quarrels had commenced. Her son, Francis, called Phæbus, from his beauty, succeeded in 1479, and his sister Catharine in 1483. Ferdinand and Isabella sought to marry the young queen to their son and heir, the prince of Asturias, but her mother, a French princess, married her to Jean d'Albret. Ferdinand, however, was not willing to 'et the prize escape him, and on some slight pretext he seized Navarre in 1512. After this act of spoliation, there remained nothing of ancient Navarre beyond a small territory on the northern side of the Pyrenees, which was subsequently united to the crown of France by Henri IV. of Bourbon, king of Navarre, whose mother, Jeanne d'Albret, was granddaughter of queen Catharine; and hence the history of Navarre ends with his accession to the French throne in 1589. The Navarrese were, however, permitted to retain many of their ancient privileges, after their incorporation with the other domains of the Spanish crown, until the reign of queen Isabella II., when the active aid which they furnished to the pretender, Don Carlos, in the rebellion of 183439, led to the abrogation of their fueros, or national assemblies, and to the amalgamation of their nationality with that of the kingdom at large. In the later Carlist struggle of 1872–76, Navarre was again a principal seat of the war, the inhabitants being stimulated in their assistance of the repre. sentative of the claims and title of Don Carlos by his promise of restoring their fueros.

NAVARRE'TE, DOMINGO FERNANDEZ DE, 1610-89; b. Spain; was educated at Val. ladolid as a Dominican, and in 1647 went on a mission to the Philippine islands, where he

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he went to China and busied himself in the interior of the country, studying the people and their language until he was persecuted and thrown into prison in Canton. As soon as he escaped and arrived in Europe he visited Rome, and complained to the pope of the work of the Jesuits in China, accusing them of accommodating their religion to the superstition of the natives. He then returned to Spain and published a large work on the History, Politics, Ethics, and Religion of the Chinese Monarchy, shortly after which he received the appointment of archbishop of San Domingo in the West Indies, where he passed the remainder of his life.

NAVARRETE, MARTINO FERNANDEZ DE, 1765–1844; b. Spain; entered the Spanish navy in 1780, was present at the attack on Gibraltar in 1782, and afterwards served against the Moors and Algerines. Ill health, however, forced him to retire from the ser. vice for some years which he spent in collecting documents respecting the history of Spanish maritime discovery, labors that resulted in 1825 in the publication of the first and second volumes of a work by him entitled Colleccion de los Viages y Descubrimientos que hicieron por mar los Españoles desde fines del Siglo XV., which was pronounced by Humboldt to be “ one of the most important historical monuments of modern times." In 1829 the third volume appeared; and eight years later, the fourth and fifth volumes. But before the sixth and seventh were completed the author died. He was the author of several other lesser works, and a distinguished member of the Spanish academy.

NAVAR'RO, a co. in n.e. Texas, on the Trinity river; 1040 sq.m.; pop. '80, 21,705 -5,304 colored. The surface is undulating with a large proportion of prairie. The chief productions are corn, cotton, and sweet potatoes. Cattle and pork are raised. It is drained by Chambers and Richland creeks, and is on the Houston and Texas Cen. tral railroad. Co. seat, Corsicana.


NAÏVESINK (or NEVERSINK) HIGIILANDS, a chain of hills that form a bold headland along the coast of New Jersey on the border of Monmouth county. To ships approaching New York, they are important landmarks and located on them are two firstclass light-houses 53 ft. high, both of which show fixed white lights. Though the neighboring region is a beautiful one and only 20 m. from New York, it remains primitive and sparsely inhabited. It is now, however, coming into notice and drawing visitors.

NA'VEW (Fr. narette), a garden vegetable much cultivated in France and other parts of the continent of Europe, although little used in Britain. It is by some botanists regarded as a cultivated variety of Brassica napus, or rape (q.v.), whilst others refer it to B. campestris, sometimes called wild navew, the species which is also supposed to be the original of the Swedish turnip (9.v.). The part used is the swollen root, which is rather like a carrot in shape. Its color is white. Its flavor is much stronger than that of the turnip. It succeeds best in a dry light soil. The seed is sown in spring, and the plants thinned out to 5 in. apart.

NAVEZ, François JOSEPH, 1787–1869; b. Belgium; studied art in Brussels and Ghent; and in Paris was a pupil of the great painter David. After finishing his studies he resided in Brussels till his death, and became director of the fine arts academy. His works almost all represent biblical scenes such as: “The Prophet Samuel,” “ The Ascension of the Virgin," “ Hagar in the Desert,” and “ Meeting of Isaac and Rebecca."

NAVIC'ULA (Lat. a little ship), a genus of Diatomaceæ (q.v.), receiving its name from the resemblance of its form to that of a boat. Some of the species are very common.

NAVIC'ULAR DISEASE, in the horse, consists in strain of the strong flexor tendon of the foot, at ihe point within the hollow of the fetlock, where it passes over the navicular bone. It is most common amongst the lighter sorts of horses, and especially where they have upright pasterns, out-turned toes, and early severe work on hard roads. It soon gives rise to a short tripping yet cautious gait, undue wear of the toe of the shoe, wasting of the muscles of the shoulder, and projecting or “pointing” of the affected limb whilst standing. When early noticed, and in horses with well-formed legs, it is often curable; but when of several weeks standing, it leads to so much inflammation and destruction of the tendon and adjoining parts, that soundness and fitness for fast work are again impossible. Rest should at once be given, the shoe removed, the toe shortened, and the foot placed in a large, soft, hot poultice, changed every few hours. Laxative medicine and bran mashies should be ordered, and a soft bed made with old short litter. After a few days, and when the heat and tenderness abate, cold applications should supersede the hot; and, after another week, a blister may be applied round the coronet, and the animal placed for two months in a good yard or in a grass field, if the ground be soft and moist; or, if sufficiently strong, at slow farm-work on soft land. Division of the nerve going to the foot removes sensation, and consequently lameness; and hence is useful in relieving animals intended for breeding purposes or for slow work. The operation, however, is not to be recommended where fast work is required; for the animal, insen. sible to pain, uses the limb as if nothing were amiss, and the disease rapidly becomes worse.

NAVIES, ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL. The ancient method of naval warfare consisted in great part, in the driving of beaked vessels against each other: and therefore skill and celerity in maneuvering, so as to strike the enemy at the greatest disadvantage, were of the utmost importance. The victory thus usually remained with the best sailor. This mode of conflict has been attempted to be revived at the present time, and vessels called “steamrams” are specially constructed for this species of conflict. The earliest powers having efficient fleets appear to have been the Phenicians, Carthaginians, Persians, and Greeks; the Greeks had fleets as early as the beginning of the 7th c. B.C. -the first sea-fight on record being that between the Corinthians and their colonists of Corcyra, 664 B.c. The earliest great battle in which tactics appear to have distinctly been opposed to superior force, and with success, was that of Salamis (480 B.C.), where Themistocles taking advantage of the narrows, forced the Persian fleet of Xerxes to combat in such a manner, that their line of battle but little exceeded in length the line of the much inferior Athenian fleet. The Peloponnesian war, where “Greek met Greek,” tended much to develop the art of naval warfare. But the destruction of the Athenian marine power in the Syracusan expedition of 414 B.C., left Carthage mistress of the Mediterranean. The Roman power, however, gradually asserted itself, and after two centuries, became omnipotent by the destruction of Carthage. For several following centuries, the only sea-fights were occasioned by the civil wars of the Romans. Towards the close of the empire, the system of fighting with pointed prows had been discontinued in favor of that which had always co-existed—viz., the running alongside, and boarding by armed men, with whom each vessel was overloaded. Onagers, balistæ, etc., were ultimately carried in the ships, and used as artillery; but they were little relied on, and it was usual, after a discharge of arrows and javelins, to come to close quarters. A sea fight was therefore a hand-tohand struggle on a floating base, in which the vanquished were almost certainly drowned or slain. See illus., Rome, vol. XII., p. 724, figs. 6, 8–10. .

The northern invaders of the empire, and subsequently the Moors, seem to have introduced swift-sailing galleys, warring in small squadrons and singly, and ravaging all civil. ized coasts for plunder and slaves. This, the break-up of the empire-was the era of piracy, when every nation, which had more to win than lose by freebooting, sent out its cruisers. Foremost for daring and seamanship were the Norsemen, who penetrated in every direction from the Bosporus to Newfoundland. Combination being the only security against these marauders, the mediæval navies gradually sprang up; the most conspicuous being-in the Mediterranean, those of Venice, Genoa, Pisa, Aragon; on the Atlantic sea-board, England and France. In the Mediterranean, Venice, after a long struggle with the Genoese, and subsequently with the Turks, became the great naval power. The Aragonese fleet gradually developed into the Spanish navy, which, by the epoch of Columbus, had a rival in that of Portugal. Many struggles left, in the 16th and 17th centuries, the principal naval power in the hands of the English, French, Dutch, Spaniards, and Portuguese. The present state of these and other existing navies will be briefly given under NAVIES, MODERN.

NAVIES, MODERN. Dating the modern navies of the world from the 16th century, we find the British navy rising from insignificance by the destruction of the Spanish armada in 1588; a blow from which Spain never recovered, and which the Dutch, whose naval force had acquired tremendous strength in their struggle for independence, increased the weight of, by their triumph in 1607, in the bay of Gibraltar. At this time there was no decisive superiority of the fleet of England over that of France; but each was inferior to the Dutch navy. The commonwealth and reign of Charles II. were signalized by the struggle for mastery between the English and Dutch; when victory, after many alternations, finally sided with the former. Through the 18th century, the English and French were the principal fleets; but Louis XVI. gave a decided superiority to the navy of France; and at the period of the American war, the naval power of England was seriously threatened. Spain, Holland, and Russia (now for the first time a naval power) had meanwhile acquired considerable fleets; and the “armed neutrality,” to which the northern powers gave their adherence rendered the British position most critical. However, the slowly roused energy of her government, the invincible courage of her seamen, and the genius of her admirals brought Britain through all her trials. Camperdown broke the Dutch power; many battles weakened the French navy; and at Trafalgar in 1805, it, with the Spanish power, was swept from the ocean. The United States had in the meantime augmented their fleet, and in the war of 1812–14 maintained a glorious struggle. During the American war of secession many gun-boats, “monitors," and iron-clads of all classes were created; but chiefly adapted for river and coast service. The growth, in recent times, of the British navy will be found under Navy, BRITISH. The emperor Napoleon III. greatly enlarged and improved the French navy, yet in the war of 1870-71 it had no opportunity of proving its effectiveness.

The contest between the attack and defense which has been going on for some time appears to have attained its limits in the 100-ton guns of the Italian navy, and the 24inch armor-plate of the British; and a new departure seems already to have been taken which points in the direction of steel plates and speed, and a more special adaptation of ships for particular services. The torpedo system has introduced a new element into naval warfare, particularly in harbors, rivers, and inland waters, which can hardly be

said to be yet fully developed (see TORPEDO); and the catastrophes of the Vanguard of the British navy, and the Grosser Kurfürst of the German, have pointed out dangers connected with the ram system that had not been calculated upon.

The following table gives a fair estimate of the comparative strength of the chief navies of the world. Comparison by the number of guns is of little account now; that of armored steamers is more to the point:


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Austria-Hungary ...


314 6,180 £871.000 Brazil .....


4.200 1.900.000 Denmark ....


1,125 290.000 France.

2,854 70,683 8,500.00 Germany.


14, 155 2.000.000 Great Britain


440* 76,000 10,613,000 Greece........


75,00 Italy ........

684 16,000 1,770,000 Netherlands.


10,000 1,090.000 Portugal..........


359,00 Russia.

836 30,194 3,900.00 Spain ..... 71

15,648 1.200.000 Sweden and Norway..


400.00 Turkey .... United States..

8,250 12,707,40 * Guns of armored steamers only are given. NAVIES, MODERN (ante). See UNITED STATES Navy.

NAVIGATION, ART OF. We shall give a few indications of the manner of con ducting the course of a ship at sea, referring to the various headings, such as SEXTANT, LATITUDE and LONGITUDE, GREAT-CIRCLE SAILING, etc., for the more scientific explanation of the operations in use for determining position.

A vessel having completed her lading, she is steered out of port by a pilot, who lays his course by the ranges with which long familiarity has made him acquainted. Arrived off soundings, or at a point where his local knowledge is no longer of value, he leaves the vessel to the captain, who then assumes all responsibility. While off the coast the captain steers by his chart and by the lead, assisted by landmarks and buoys by day, and by lights at night. It is his duty, without waiting for foggy weather, nor for any doubt of his situation, to keep the lead going, and a careful watch, while on soundings. When, finally, he is about to lose sight of the coast, he determines a last position, called the point of departure, which serves as the base of his reckoning. The problems involved in a long voyage are many, some intricate, but position is always ascertainable, either by observations or dead reckoning. Two things must be known, speed and direction. The first is found by the log, whose unit, the knot, predicates the number of nautical miles, 1851.85 meters, traversed per hour. The second is indicated by the com pasx, from which is read the angle, known as the course, between the magnetic meridian and the axis of the keel. But to reduce this to the true course with reference to the terrestrial meridian, the magnetic rariation must be known and applied. The log is not an accurate instrument, nor is it possible, in a sailing vessel, to throw it as often as slight changes in the rate of motion occur; besides, it seldom happens that the course of a vessel is exactly that read from the compass, for decomposing into two forces the normal line of action of the wind on the sails, there results a certain side-push, forming an angle with the keel, and resulting in a falling-off from the true course known as drift. Allowance must also be made for the influence of local, tidal, or ocean currents, the force of which, even where not known by experience nor laid down on the chart, must be carefully judged, and anxiously watched for. The amount of drift is ascertained from the wake, either by a back-sight of the compass, or by means of a quadrant and eye-pieces, and can be always combined with the magnetic variation to obtain the true course. Then make allowance for the set of the current, the effect on a course of given length and direction of the known speed and trend of the stream.

When, as is necessary every day, it is desired to follow a rhumb-line, the course is deduced by making allowance inversely for variation, drift, and set. This course the captain lays down, and the officer of the deck continually oversees the steersman, so that, granting this course continually kept, the path of the vessel successively intersects each meridian at the same angle, called the angle of rhumb, and this line, a curve of double flexure, is the lorodrome, or lorodromic line. But for a vessel to sail directly from point of departure to destination is almost impossible, whether from baffling winds, intervening coasts, or adverse currents, the best that can be done then is to substitute a series of loxodromic curves, as little removed from the true course as possible, to make as few and as advantageous stretches as possible, and to take advantage of known currents and

* The horse-power and guns of the armored steamers only are given. The number of men includes the royal naval reserve

favorable winds to substitute for a short but questionable passage a more circuitous but quicker route. The log must always be thrown whenever wind, sails, or course may change; the course and the speed are noted, say every half-hour, on a tally, and at the end of each watch the course is transferred to the log-book. Finally, every day at noon, or oftener as advisable, the reckoning is cast up, and the position of the vessel marked on the chart, taking as point of departure the last calculated position. The future course is deduced from this. All navigation by reckoning should be checked at least once a day, and as often and in as many different ways as can be accomplished by observations, repeated if possible, and the mean taken.

NAVIGATION, FREEDOM OF, in the open or high seas has been fully established for nearly a century, and such efforts as have been made in the past to claim exclusive jurisdiction were founded rather on national pride or arrogance than on reasonable principles or considerations of commercial value. The most pretentious claims which have been made were those of Spain and Portugal in the 15th c. based on bulls of popes Nicholas V. and Alexander VI., giving Portugal control over the African seas, and dividing between the two the sovereignty of the Pacific. Of course Protestant nations paid no attention to these claims. The true principles of sovereignty in regard to seas, bays, etc., were first laid down by Grotius in his Mare Liberum, 1608, but, notwithstanding, his countrymen the Dutch for a long time opposed the right of the Spaniards to trade with the Philippines via the cape of Good Hope. In 1635 Selden published Mare Clausum, an attempt to refute Grotius and defend the claims of the English to sovereignty over the seas about the United Kingdom as far as to the coasts of other nations. His argument was weak, being based entirely on alleged precedents. The latest serious claim of the kind was that of Russia, which formerly asserted dominion over the Pacific n. of 51° n. lat. on the ground that no other state possessed territory bordering thereon. This was withdrawn in treaties with the United States and Great Britain in 1824-25. But while the open sea is free to all, inland seas are subject to the jurisdiction of the country in which they are situated; and where, as in the Black sea, two nations border on an inland sea, and in the case of gulfs or straits, questions of some difficulty have arisen. It is conceded that marine jurisdiction extends a short way from the coast, a marine league being the generally accepted limit; so also, gulfs and bays belong to the countries owning the promontories between which they lie. But this doctrine must not be carried too far, and the idea suggested by chancellor Kent in the early part of this century, that sovereignty might be in future claimed over the waters inclosed by lines drawn from cape Cod to cape Ann, Nantucket to Montauk Point, thence to the Delaware capes and from the extremity of Florida to the Mississippi (before Texas was annexed), is now considered untenable, as is also the proposition that the line of the gulf stream should bound the sovereignty of the United States. For purposes connected with the laws of revenue and commerce, four leagues are allowed. As to narrow seas, gulfs, and straits, there has existed from time immemorial a claim on the part of England to sovereignty over the English and St. George's channels, the Irish sea and the North channel, and theoretically it may still exist; but long since the only exactions from other nations have been in requiring certain honors to be paid to the British flag, and even this custom has fallen into disuse. Over the Baltic sea Denmark long exercised a rather despotic rule, based partly on the natural position of the sea, partly on precedent, and partly on the cost of maintaining light-houses and signals. Heavy

century. In 1857 the powers agreed to pay Denmark a round sum as compensation for the renunciation of her alleged sovereignty, and the United States paid nearly $400,000 as its share. The questions in regard to the Black sea have had great prominence in the European and Turkish complications of this century. Previous to 1829 Turkey claimed the sole sovereignty. At that date Russia and her allies were admitted to the right of navigation. In 1841 it was agreed that vessels of war should not enter the Bosporus or Dardanelles; while by the treaty of 1856 the Black sea was made neutrai, ships of war still being prohibited from entrance, though Russia and Turkey were to allow each other a small naval force for protection of commerce, etc. The action of the Berlin congress of 1878 tends to confirm and strengthen the neutrality of this inland sea. Navigation of rivers has also given rise to questions of international interest, and there has been a constantly increasing freedom and enlargement of the privileges allowed by the country controlling the mouth and lower course to the countries lying above.

NAVIGA'TION, HISTORY OF. In its widest sense, this subject is divisible into three sections—the history of the progressive improvement in the construction of ships, the history of the growth of naval powers, and the history of the gradual spread and increase of the science of navigation. Although these three sections are to some extent interwoven, the present article will be limited to a consideration of the last, the first two being sufficiently described under SHIP-BUILDING and NAVIES.

The first use of ships, as distinguished from boats, appears to have been by the early Egyptians, who are believed to have reached the western coast of India, besides navigating the Mediterranean. Little, however, is known of their prowess on the waves; and, whatever it may have been, they were soon eclipsed by the citizens of Tyre, who, to

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