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contrast with their own mandarins. In one such district the people were led by this means to consecrate their temple to the Christians' God, and after destroying the idols, to present to the missionaries a deed transferring the temple legally and perpetually as a place of Christian worship. In July, 1837, Mr. King, of the house of Oliphant & Co., American merchants in Canton, accompanied by his wife and by Dr. Parker and Mr. Williams of the American mission, and taking with him 7 shipwrecked Japanese sai whom he wished to restore to their country, sailed for Yeddo. Approaching the town they were fired upon by the Japanese and obliged to retreat. The same reception met them at another port, and they relinquished for that time the attempt to open intercourse with Japan. The commercial treaties of 1854 and 1858 between Japan and England and America having prepared the way, and other societies of America, England, and Scotland having already entered some parts of Japan, the American board sent missionaries in 1869 to that field, and has now in and around Osaka, Kioto, Kobe, and Okoyama, “122 principal and out-stations, 93 churches, many of them self-supporting, with 4,987 communicants; twenty missionaries, 3 physicians, 30 female missionaries, and 94 native pastors, evangelists, teachers, and bible-women at work.” A native missionary society is formed, and is very useful, and the native Bible-women do much good among the native women. The American board in 1884 had 21 missions, 79 stations, 747 out-stations, 151 American ordained missionaries, 10 physicians unordained, 259 American assistants, male and female, 142 native pastors, 362 native preachers and catechists, 1,010 school teachers 307 native helpers, 292 churches, 21,076 church members, 2,007 pupils in 50 colleges and high schools, 1,711 girls in boarding schools, 32,364 pupils in common schools. The whole number of pupils is 36,537.
In 1858 the Reformed church, which till that time had co-operated with the American board, organized for itself the board of foreign missions of the Reformed church in America. It has very successful missions in China, India, and Japan; and in 1884 had 14 stations, 101 out-stations, 20 ordained American missionaries, 42 assistant American missionaries ; 18 natives ordaincd, 2,340 pupils in day schools, 12 theological students, 2,952 communicants.
The American Baptist missionary union was formed in 1814, and at once assumed the support of Dr. Judson,
who had been laboring in Rangoon, Burmah, since July, 1813. The early work in Burmah was greatly hindered by war, and the missionaries were inhumanly treated ; but Dr. Judson was spared to do a great work among the Burmese and Karens, and Mr. and Mrs. Wade and many other earnest laborers have continued the mission with great success. The mission to the Telugus, begun in 1836, for many years alternated between success and failure, and again and again its relinquish. ment was proposed. In 1867 a remarkable work of prosperity commenced. The first church of Christ was organized by rev. Mr. Clough with 8 members, and in 8 years the number increased to 3,300. In 1876 came famine and afterwards cholera, and again famine, terrible, widespread and long continued. The missionaries were made almoners' of the government, and thus gained access to many hundreds of persons, to whom they spoke of Christ. In 1878, within a few months, 9,147 were baptized.—The mission to Siam was begun in Bangkok in 1833. In 1877 there were 6 churches, 418 members (mostly Chinese), 7 chapels, 2 ordained and 6 unordained native preachers. The Siamese government has not only proclaimed toleration, but decreed that no master or relative shall compel any Christian to do acts contrary to his religion, as worshiping spirits, feasting spirits, laboring on Sundays, only excepting the case of war and public business of importance. The Baptist union has missions in Greece, Africa, Arracan, Assam, China, and Japan, besides some countries of Europe. It had in 1884 41 stations, 194 American missionaries, 1,682 native preachers, 1,127 churches, 112,122 church members. Income, $328,527.
The Methodist Episcopal missionary society was formed in 1819. It has successful missions in India, China, Japan, Africa, Bulgaria, Mexico, South America, and some countries of Europe. It had in 1884 119 American ordained missionaries, 120 female American missionaries, 97 native ordained preachers, 1,657 other native helpers, 16,727 day scholars, and 10,277 church members.
The Protestant Episcopal missionary society was organized in 1821. For some reason no mission was established till 1830, when the revs, J. J. Robertson and J. W. Hill, and Mr. Bingham, a printer, were sent to Greece. It has now missions in Greece, Western Africa, China, Japan, Hayti, and Mexico. In 1884 it had 141 stations, 1 American and 3 native bishops, 53 American and native priests and deacons, 3 physicians, 190 lay workers, bible-readers and helpers, 2,217 pupils in boarding and day schools, 2,799 communicants.
The Presbyterians had since 1741 done missionary work, mostly among Indians, under different organizations, which in 1831 were merged in the board of foreign missions of the Presbyterian church. Its first mission was to Liberia, where unusual obstacles presented themselves in climate and the character of the peeple. It is still continued ; also the missions at Gaboon and Corisco. In 1833 the rev. Messrs. Reid and Lowrie were sent to Lodiana in the far interior of India. Sickness and death weakened the mission, but it was reinforced, and useful native laborers have been raised up. That mission has now 10 stations, Their mission to Furruckabad, where Freeman and Campbell, with their wives, were murdered in the Sepoy rebellion, was commenced in 1838, and has 7 stations. The Kolapore mission, which was begun as independent by the rev. R. G. Wilder, and has passed into their hands, has 3 stations. The converts Mohammedans, Sikhs, and Hindus-have in some instances suffered great privations and persecutions. On occasion of the reuniting of the Old School and New School general assemblies, the Presbyterian board received an accession to its membership of the New School members of the American board (thus left entirely to the Congregational churches), and at the same time, in amicable transfers, the missions of that board in Syria, Persia, West Africa, and among the Seneca Indians of New York. Those missions have since been reinforced by the Presbyterian board. It has missions also in Siam, China, Japan, Brazil, Chili, the United States of Colombia, among the Indian tribes, and the Chinese of this country. In 1884 it had : ordained American missionaries, 163 ; ordained native missionaries, 108 ; licensed native missionaries, 143 ; American lay missionaries, male and female, 312; native lay missionaries, 746 ; communicants, 19,897; pupils in boarding and day schools, 25,914.
The Evangelical Lutherans began foreign missions in 1841. They had in 1884 in ndia and Africa 9 ordained European missionaries, 4 ordained native missionaries, 935 native assistants, 3,096 communicants, 8,089 baptized converts, and 3,906 scholars. The Seventh-day Baptists began in 1842, and have small missions in West Africa and China. The Baptist church South began mission work in 1845, and has missions among the American Indians, and in Italy, Africa, and China. The United Presbyterian church, from its organization in America in 1858, has had missions in Syria, Egypt, India, and China. The Presbyterian church South was organized separately in 1861, during the rebellion ; and in 1884 had 23 missionaries, 56 native laborers, 1,750 communicants, 545 pupils, and an income of $70,167.
At the period when the subject of slavery was kindling intense feeling and heated discussion throughout the United States, some of the missionary societies sought to avoid being involved in those controversies as foreign to their objects, while some friends of the cause thought it impossible to maintain neutral ground. This led to separate organization.— The Free Baptist missionary society was formed in 1843, sending a mission to Hayti ; and the American missionary association in 1845. The Union missionary, the committee for the West India mission, and the Western Evangelical missionary association, joined the American missionary association, taking with them their missions in West Africa, in the West Indies, and among the North American Indians. This society, now mainly in the hands of the Congregational churches, has operated in Siam, the Hawaiian Islands, and also among the Chinese of California. The work in the Mendi mission and among the Chinese has been very successful. Since the slaves were emancipated, it has been chiefly occupied with a great work among the freedmen of the former slave and border states. It had in 1884 117 missionaries, 328 teachers, 95 churches, 6,691 church members, 71 schools, 12,819 pupils.
The American and foreign Christian union resulted from the union in 1849 of the Foreign Evangelical, American Protestant, and Philo-Italian societies. It has labored in Italy, Belgium, Sweden, Canada, Hayti, South America, and Mexico, and five years after its organization numbered 140 missionaries, half of whom were ordained. Denominational societies having become interested in the work, the union has transferred much of its work to them, and turned its attention more to our own country. It is still aiding the work of foreign evangelization, especially in France and Spain. In 1815 a seminary for the training of missionaries was founded at Basel ; and in 1821 the evangelical missionary society was formed there, which employs in Africa, India, and China 98 European missionaries, 50 female missionaries, and 210 native laborers, and has 3,718 communicants. France, since 1822, has had a missionary society, with a mission among the Basutos of s. Africa, which has occupied 17 stations, has 69 native helpers, and 2,000 communicants.-In 1824 the Berlin missionary society was formed, and had in 1883 in southern Africa 59 missionaries, 8,060 communicants. — The Rhenish missionary society was founded in 1828.-In 1836 the evangelical Lutheran missionary association of Leipsic was founded, and in 1854 the Hermansberg society was organized, which has 172 preachers and helpers, 32 ch. mem.—There is also Gossner's mission union, founded in 1836 by Papa Gossner, as he was called, at 70 years of age, largely with his own resources. Its most interesting station is in and near Chota Nagpore, among the Kohls. The first convert was baptized in 1850, and in 1857 there were 800 converts. In the Sepoy rebellion they were hunted from their homes, their chapels were unroofed, and a price set on their heads. Those who survived gradually found their way back, rebuilt their huts and chapels, and in 1863 numbered 3,400. In 1883 there were 12,500 church members, 20 ordained preachers, 205 helpers.-- The Friends' missionary society began their work by sending Rachel Metcalfe to India in 1866. This mission has been reinforced, and has now 11 members and 4 native teachers and catechists. In 1867, in response to an appeal from Mr. Ellis of the London missionary society, they sent Mr. Sewell to Madagasgar, where they had assigned to them one of the 9 churches of the metropolis, with the work in a district 70 m. long, 35 m, wide. They had in 1883, 16 men, 19 women, 49 natives, 3,872 ch. mem. 8,095 pupils. When Mr. Sewell went there the majority in the district still trusted in their idols, but in two years had destroyed them all. In Syria also they are doing good work. These missions, though ascribed to English Friends, are largely aided in men and means from America. The American Friends have a mission in Mexico.
The first woman's missionary society in America, of which we find record, is the Boston female society for missionary purposes, organized Oct. 9, 1800, which was a union of Congregationalists and Baptists. After this they became common in many parts of the country. All of these societies simply earned, collected, and transmitted money for the use of the general societies. As in the progress of missions it became evident that the hostility of heathen women was a great obstacle to success, and as in many heathen countries, especially in India, they were unreached by the usual missionary agencies, it was felt that more direct efforts than had yet been made for their conversion, were necessary. Missionary women returning told to Christian women the dark and hopeless story of their sisters in India, and they longed to do more for them than had been done. It came to be believed by some that if women had the selection of their own agents, and the management of their own funds; if they originated their own methods, and arranged their own work, more would be accomplished than by the old methods. They at first desired to avail then lves the acquired wisdom and experience of the older societies by some kind of co-operation, but their plans did not at that time meet with favor from existing boards. They therefore organized independently the woman's union missionary society. It was incorporated in New York in 1861. From the first it has been undenominational. Its higher officers have thus far performed their duties without remuneration. The number of missionaries employed since the formation of the society is 101 ; the number now in the field, 45; the present number of schools is 80 : zenanas taught, 473; pupils in 1884 were 3,025. The largest annual collection was $54,207. Total receipts to May, 1885, 774,954. It has auxiliaries in 20 states. Various denominational woman's boards have since been formed, as the woman's board of missions, Congregational, in 1868 ; ladies' board of missions, Presbyterian, 1868 ; woman's board of mistions of the interior, Congregational, 1868 ; woman's foreign missionary society, Presbyserian, 1870 ; woman's foreign missionary society of the Methodist Episcopal church, 1869 ; woman's Presbyterian board of missions of the northwest, 1870 ; Baptist ladies' missionary society, 1871 ; and many others. The total receipts of all such societies, as reported from the formation to 1885, reached about $5,000,000._It is impossible in the nature of the case to furnish statistics of results of this work. There is evidence, however, that it is useful and successful beyond anticipation, and that through it many women in India are receiving that enlightenment and blessing which ever follow the knowledge of the Lord Jesus Christ.
There are computed to be from three to three and a half million converts. The Protestant missionary societies of the world number 70. The missionaries in various fields supported by Protestants number about 5,000. With very little exception, all the Protestant societies have carefully avoided interfering with each other's work, or entering each other's fields, and in many instances where their fields were adjacent there has been a delightful spirit of concord and mutual helpfulness.
Some striking facts connected with the progress of the gospel in the world may be mentioned here. A Christian lady of Calcutta, the wife of an English officer, had long desired to benefit the native women It happened one day that a native of rank, a former pupil, visiting at the house, saw and greatly admired a pair of beautifully embroidered slippers which the lady had completed for her husband. The lady offered to teach his wife to do such work if she might go to her. She allowed him to take home the slipper and consult the mother-in-law. Permission was granted her to go and teach the wife not only to sew, but to read, and ultimately to read the Bible. This is the door through wbich has been introduced the whole system of zenana missions in India. The missionary ladies heretofore excluded are now admitted to the private apartments of thousands of the women, and their instructions are bearing cheering fruit in many hearts. Before the first Protestant missionary went to China in 1807 it was thought impossible for a foreigner thoroughly to acquire the Chinese language. Nevertheless, not only has the Bible been translated into three Chinese dialects, but a variety of useful books, as dictionaries, geographies, books on medicine, jurisprudence, etc., have been so translated as to be acceptable to intelligent Chinese, and some have been reprinted by them. At Shanghai alone the mission press issues 18,000,000 pages annually. The interior of Africa had for hundreds of years foiled the attempts of the very martyrs of science to penetrate it. Livingstone, fired with desire to open Africa to the gospel, and if possible to stop the fountains of the slave-trade, unlocked the regions so long closed. The results of his daring might have been partially or wholly lost had not Stanley fol. lowed him and brought report of a native king willing to listen to the gospel. Now all Christendom is combining for the conversion of the central portions of the dark contipent, and at least five societies have sent missionaries to different posts in that region. The formation of a society of intelligent Hindus, the Brahmo Somaj, who reject idolatry and assemble for the worship of a supreme being, indicates the working of the leaven of Christian truth. Its former leader, Keshub Chunder Sen, said of India,
Native society is being roused, enlightened, reformed under the influence of Chris. tianity.” Sir Bartle Frere, who spent 30 years in India, said, “ The teaching of Christianity among 160,000,000 of Hindus and Mohammedans is effecting extraordinary changes in India.” Missions have often been declared a hopeless toil ; but if the recent rate of advance be maintained, the time will be not so remote as one might think who gave the subject only hasty thought, when the last heathen nation shall have heard the gospel.
MISSISQUOI, a co. in 8. Quebec, having the state line of Vermont for its s. boundary, and the n. portion of lake Champlain, called Missisquoi bay, and the Richelieu river for its s.w. boundary ; 560 sq.m. ; pop. 17,784. It is traversed in the extreme e. by the Southeastern and Montreal railway, which in the extreme n. forms a junction with the Stanstead, Shefford and Chambly, and the Chambly and Sorel railroads. The Central Vermont railroad crosses the extreme s.w. section on the shore of the lake. Its county seat is a port of entry. It has saw and grist-mills, and beds of iron ore, brick-yards, and manufactories of various kinds. Co. seat, Frelighsburg.
MISSISSA'GAS, a tribe of Indians belonging to the Algonquin nation, who, when first known by the whites, lived n. of lake Huron on a river since called by their name. After the defeat of the Hurons by the Iroquois, they moved to the region of lake Su. perior, but after a few years returned. Until the French and Indian war broke out they were constantly engaged in warfare with the Sioux, and were driven eastward to the Thousand islands. At first friendly to the French, they were in 1746 gained over by the Six Nations, and for a time sided with the English ; but in the second war, feeling themselves ill-treated by their white allies, again joined the French ; when the Pontiac war began they once more assisted the English, but in the Miami war (1792) and in the war of 1812 showed themselves hostile to the Americans. For a short time they lived near the present site of Erie, but have long been settled in Canada, occupying four villages in Ontario. Missions were established among them as early as the latter part of the seventeenth century, but only within the last 50 years has Christianity made much progress among them. They are now, however, well advanced in religion and civilization, till the land, live in houses, and have schools. They number between 500 and 1000.
MISSISSIPPI, one of the gulf states, and the 7th in the order of admission ; in lat. 30° 13' to 35° n. ; long. 88° 7' to 91° 41' w.; bounded on the n. by Tennessee, on the e. by Alabama, on the s. by the gulf of Mexico and e. Louisiana, and on the w. by Louis. iana, the rivers Mississippi and Pearl separating ; greatest length, 332 m. ; breadth from e. to w., from 78 m. to 189 m. ; land area, 46,340 sq.m.; gross area, 46,810 sq.m., or 29,958,400 acres.
History. -In 1539 Fernando de Soto, with a band of Spanish adventurers, penetrated into that part of the state now known as the Great Yazoo bottoms, and in 1541, Apr. or June, reached the Mississippi river. In 1673 the French explorers, Joliet and Marquette, passing down the Mississippi, landed at several places within the limits of the state. In 1682 De la Salle and the chevalier de Tonti made their appearance among the Natchez Indians, and taking formal possession for the king of France, named the country Louisiana after him. In 1699 the first attempt to found a colony was made by Iberville, who brought 200 immigrants from France to the eastern shore of the bay of Biloxi. The place was called Biloxi, and it was the germ of the subsequent settlement of New Orleans (1718), and of the dominance of the French in that quarter. Iberville, after returning to France, came back in 1716 with Bienville and the chevalier de Tonti, a large body of immigrants, and a military force, and ascended the Mississippi to the present site of Natchez, where they founded a settlement named Rosalie, in honor of the countess of Pontchartrain. Attempts to plant colonies were soon after made at St. Peter's (Haynes's Bluff), at Pascagoula, and elsewhere. In 1718 Rosalie fell with the whole region under the sway, for a time, of the Scotch speculator, John Law. Afterwards, when the “ Louisiana bubble'' had burst, the whole territory of Orleans came into the hands of the Company of the Indies, and the small colonies in M. grew but slowly, New Orleans attracting many of the settlers. Bienville, the governor of the province, was so fortunate as to keep on good terms with the Choctaw and Natchez Indians, but his successor, Perrier, incurred the hostility of the Choctaws, and a conspiracy was formed by that tribe with others to expel the French from the whole region. The attack was made first upon Rosalie, Nov. 29, 1729, but the other settlements were assaulted nearly at the same time. At fort Rosalie 200 persons were killed and more than 500 taken prisoners, while in the smaller settlements many were tortured and ruthlessly butchered. But a swift retribu. tion followed. The French commander at New Orleans pursued the Indians to their strongholds, killed many, destroyed much property, released the captives, and took 427 prisoners, among them several chiefs. These prisoners were sent to San Domingo and sold for slaves. The Company of the Indies, having abandoned the territory to the king of France, Bienville, in 1733, was again made governor. He found the colony at war with the Chickasaws, allies of the English, and the conflict continued several years. Then there was a peace, followed in 1752 by another Indian war, instigated, it was said, by English adventurers. The French commander sought to retaliate, but without much success. In 1763 East Louisiana was ceded by France to England, after which immi. grants flocked thither in considerable numbers from the English colonies on the Atlantic coast. In 1798, the U. S. having succeeded to all the rights of the English in this region, the territory of M., embracing all the region between the 31st and 35th parallels, was