« 上一頁繼續 »
penal servitude for not less than four years, or such other punishment as a general court martial shall award. As the crime of mutiny has a tendency to immediately destroy al} authority and all cohesion in the naval or military body, commanding officers have strong powers to stop it summarily. A drum-head court-martial may sentence an offender, and if the case be urgent, and the spread of the mutiny apprehended, the immediate execution of the mutineer may follow within a few minutes of the detection of his crime. It, however, behooves commanding officers to exercise this extraordinary power with great caution, as the use of so absolute an authority is narrowly and jealously watched. To prevent mutiny among men the officers should be strict without harshness, kind without familiarity, attentive to all the just rights of their subordinates, and, above all things, most particular in the carrying out to the very letter of any promise they may have made.
MUTINY ACT was an act of the British parliament passed from year to year, investing the crown with powers to regulate the government of the army and navy, and to frame the articles of war. By the bill of rights, the maintenance of a standing army in time of peace, unless by consent of parliament, was declared illegal, and from that time the number of troops to be maintained, and the cost of the different branches of the service, have been regulated by an annual vote of the house of commons. But parliament possesses a further and very important source of control over the army. Soldiers, in time of war or rebellion, being subject to martial law, may be punished for mutiny or desertion; but the occurrence of a mutiny in certain Scotch regiments soon after the revolution, raised the question whether military discipline could be maintained in time of peace; and it was decided by the courts of law, ihat, in the absence of any statute to enforce discipline and punish military offenses, a soldier was only amenable to the common law of the country: if he deserted, he was only liable for breach of contract, or if he struck bis officer, to an indictment for assault. The authority of the legislature thus became indispensable to the maintenance of military discipline, and parliament has, since 1689, at the beginning of every session, conferred this and other powers in an act called the mutiny act, limited in its duration to a year. Although it is greatly changed froin the form in which it first passed, 175 years ago, the annual alterations in this act are now very slight, and substantially it has a fixed form. The preamble starts with the above quoted declaration from the bill o* rights, and adds that it is judged necessary by the sovereign and parliament that a force of such a number should be continued, for the safety of the United Kingdom, the defense of the possessions of the crown;" wbile it gives authority to the sovereign to enact articles of war for the control and goverument of the force granted. The act comprises 107 clauses, of which the first tive specify the persons liable to its provisions-viz., all enlisted soldiers or commissioned officers on full pay, and to those of the regular army, militia, or yeomanry, when employed on active service, and to recruits for the militia wbile under training. Clauses 6 to 14 treat of courtsmartial, their procedure and powers. Clauses 15 to 28 relate to crimes and their punishment, the leading offenses being mutiny, desertion, cowardice, treason, insubordination, for each of which death may be the penalty; frauds, embezzlement, etc., for which penal servitude is awarded. Clauses 29 to 33 provide for the government of military prisons, and for the reception of soldiers in civil jails, under the sentences of courts-martial. Clauses 34 to 37 enact rules to guide civil magistrates in apprehending deserters or persons suspected of desertion. Clause 38 refers to furlough; 39 to 41, on the privileges of soldiers, enact that officers may not be sheriffs or mayors; that no person acquitted or convicted by a civil magistrate or jury be tried by court-martial for the same offense; and that soldiers can only be taken out of the service for debts above £30, and for felony or misdemeanor. Člauses 42 to 59 have reference to enlistment (q.v.); 60 to 74 to stoppages, billets, carriages, and ferries, providing for the compulsory conveyance and entertainment of troops by innkeepers. Clause 75 relates to the discharge of soldiers; and the remaining 23 clauses advert to miscellaneous matters, and the penalties under the act on civil functionaries who neglect to comply with its requirements. By clauses 105 and 106 the militia, yeomanry, and volunteers, may, on emergency, be attached to the regular forces... Clause 107 renders a soldier liable to maintain his wife and children, and his bastard children.
MUTIUS SCÆVOLA. See MUCIUS SCAVOLA.
MUTSUHITO or Muts-HITO. The present reigning emperor of Japan, and the 123d mikado of the line. His name means the “man of peace,” or “weak man." He has no family name. He is the second son of the mikado Komei Tenno (1847–67); his mother Fujiwara Asako. He was born Nov. 3, 1852, and grew up in the palace at Kioto, never seeing a foreigner until his nineteenth year. On the death of his father Jan. 30, 1867, he was declared emperor under the care of a regent. Upon the coup d'etat of Iwakura and others, Jan. 3, 1868, the regent was dismissed. Mutsuhito became the active mikado, and the new government was proclaimed; the decree abolishing forever the office of “ tycoon” being dated Feb. 4. On March 23 he gave the first audience ever granted by an emperor of Japan to representatives of Christian nations, the envoys of France and Holland being admitted. The British minister (see PARKER. SIR H. S.) who on the 27th attempted a similar audience, had his cortege attacked by assassins. On March 28 the imperial decree was issued by which treaty relations with foreign
nations were for the first time acknowledged by the mikado, and all fanatics who should attack foreigners were outlawed. On April 6, in the great hall of the castle of Nijo in Kioto, occurred the most momentous act of his life, and thence dates the real beginning of modern Japan. In presence of the court nobles and feudal princes (daimios) the mikado took the oath which is now the basis of the new government. The first clause of this oath is as follows: • The practice of discussion and debate shall be universally adopted, and all measures shall be adopted by public argument." Besides this he promised that the “uncivilized customs of former times” should be broken through, and intellect and learning sought for throughout the world, to assist in leading Japan into the path of modern civilization. From this oath the reforms of the past twelve years have proceeded, and the drift of Japanese politics toward constitutional government has begun. On Feb. 7, 1869, he removed the national capital to Tokio, and soon after married Ichijo Tadaka, a noble lady of the 20 degree of the 1st rank. In 1872 he adopted European dress and habits of life, and has since made many tours throughout the empire, compietely revolutionizing the old traditional court and governmental etiquette.
MUTTRA, or Mathurá, a t. of British India, capital of a district in the n.w. pro. vinces, 97 m. s.s.e. of Delhi, is situated on the right bank of the Jumna. The fort was built by the celebrated astronomer, Jey Singh (who became prince of Amber in 1693); and on the roof of one of the apartments is a ruinous observatory, containing a great number of astronomical instruments. Access is had to the river—which, along with the town, is considered sacred by the Hindus-by numerous ghàts, ornamented with little temples; and its banks are, every morning and evening, crowded by devotees of all ages and both sexes, to perform their religious exercises. In Hindu mythology, it is regarded as the birthplace of the divinity Krishna. In honor of the monkey.god Hanuman, monkeys are here protected and fed, being allowed to swarm everywhere. There are also great numbers of paroquets, peacocks, and sacred bulls at large, without own
There is a very extensive military cantonment about a mile s. of the town. Muttra appears at an early period to have been of much more importance than it is at present; and its enormous wealth and splendor made it an object of attack to the first Afghan invaders. Mahmud of Ghuznee, in 1017, gave it up to plunder, breaking down and brurning all the idols, and amassing a vast quantity of gold and silver, of which the idols were made. After this calamity, it sank into comparative obscurity. In Oct., 1803, it was, without resistance, occupied by the British troops. Pop. '72, 59,281.
MU'TUAL INSTRUCTION. See MONITORIAL SYSTEM.
MUTULE, a plain block under the corona of the cornice of the Doric style, similar in position to the modallio of the Corinthian order, and having a number of guttæ or drops worked on the under side. See ENTABLATURE.
MU'TUUM is a term used in Scotch law, borrowed from the Roman law, to denote a contract of loan of a certain kind of things, as corn, wine, money, which are consumed in the use, and as to which the borrower is bound to restore as much of the same kind at some future time.
MUYSCAS, or CHIBELAS, a nation of Indians w. of the Andes, in New Granada, as far as the vicinity of Santa Fé de Bogota. They seem to have been the nearest in civilization to the Quichuans. They were quickly Christianized, and, like all these tribes, on the expulsion of the Jesuits, decreased rapidly in numbers and intelligence. It secms uncertain whether the language is really extinct, but it was simple, and is usually considered unconnected with any neighboring group.
MUZA IBN NOSEYR, the Arab conqueror of Spain, was born 640 A.D. He displayed great bravery and high military talents in the contests of that turbulent period, so much so that he was appointed by the caliph general of the army which was raised for the conquest of Africa in 698-99. After an insignificant expedition into the interior of Africa, he set out in 707 for Mauritania, conquering the kindred tribes of eastern Barbary, and enrolling their warriors under his standard; and by 709 the whole of northern Africa, including the Gothic strongholds on the coast, acknowledged the authority of the caliph. At this period the Gothic monarchy in Spain was in a state of com plete disorganization, and Muza Ibn Noseyr, seizing the favorable opportunity thus presented, sent his lieut., Tarik Ibn Zeiad, in April, 711, to make an incursion into Spain. Tarik landed at Gibraltar, marched inland to the banks of the Guadalete, where he was met bp Roderic the Gothic king. In the battle which ensued the Goths were decisively vanquished, their king perished in the waters of the Guadalete, and the whole of southern Spain lay at the mercy of the victor. Muza Ibn Noseyr, on hearing of these successes, sent orders to Tarik to halt for further instructions, but the lieutenant, flushed with success, pressed on to the very center of Spain, and seized Toledo, the capital of the Gothic kingdom. Muza Ibn Noseyr immediately set out for Spain at the head of 18,000 men (June, 712), took Seville, Carmona, Merida, and other towns, and then marched upon Toledo, where he joined Tarik, whom he caused to be bastinadoed and incarcerated, but afterwards reinstated in obedience to an order from the caliph. Muza Ibn Noseyr then marched first nw, and then e., subduing the country as he went; he then crossed the Pyrenees into France, but soon after returned to Spain, where he and Tarik received messages froin the caliph, commanding their immediate presence at Damascus; Tarik immediately obeyed, but Muza Ibn Noseyr delayed till a second mes sage was sent to him. On reaching Damascus he was treated with neglect, and, on the accession of the caliph Suleiman, was cast into prison, and mulcted in 200,000 pieces of gold; his two sons were deprived of their governments of Kairwan and Tangier; and the third son, who governed Spain in his father's absence, was beheaded, and his head sent to Muza. Muza Ibn Noseyr died soon after in the greatest poverty, at Hedjaz, 717 A.D.
MUZIANO, GIROLAMO, 1528-90; b. Aquafredda, near Brescia, Italy; hence his title, Bressano, or Brescianino. His first instructor was the painter Girolamo Romanino. He afterwards studied at Venice and Rome, and devoted himself to the painting of landscapes. His earliest important painting, “ The Resurrection of Lazarus,” attracted the attention of Michael Angelo, who was so struck by its bold and accurate design that he took Muziano under his protection and secured for him a large number of commissions. Muziano made a study of mosaics, and vastly improved that branch of art. He founded and richly endowed the famous academy of St. Luke. The most of his pictures are in the churches and palaces of Rome, where he spent the larger part of his life. Among them may be mentioned: “St. Jerome," and a “Descent from the Cross" (Borghese palace); “Sl. Jerome" (Doria palace); “St. Francis” (Mattei palace); “ Resurrection of Lazarus” (Vatican); “St. Matthew and St. Paul” (Ara Coeli); “ Annunciation” (St. Urban's); “Nativity of Jesus Christ” (Madonna de' Monti); “ St. Nicholas” (St. Louis-des-Français); “ Cristo Morto” (Santa Cattarina); "Jesus Christ giving the Keys to St. Peter," and a “Flagellation” (in the sacristy of St. Peter's). His frescos are to be seen in the Vatican, at Foligno, etc. The galleries of Bologna, Dresden, Reims, and the Louvre possess specimens of Muziano's work. His designs in India ink are highly prized. He is distinguished for his excellence in design and coloring; for the nobility of his conceptions, and the characteristic expression of his faces. His frescos are sometimes rather sharp and hard in outline and color. Died in Rome, honored as one of the greatest painters in the school of Michael Angelo.
MUZZEY, ARTEMAS BOWERS, b. Mass., 1802; educated at Harvard college and the Harvard divinity school. He was settled over the Unitarian church in Framingham in 1830, and was afterwards minister of Unitarian churches in Cambridgeport, Cambridge, and Concord, N. H. His last charge was at Newburyport, Mass., where he remained till 1865, when he retired from the pulpit. Among his numerous works, aside from sermons and tracts, may be mentioned: The Young Man's Friend, 1836; The Young Maiden, 1840, which had a great success; Man a Soul, 1842; The Sabbath-School Hymn and Tune Book, 1855; The Blade and the Ear, 1864; and The lligher Education, 1871.
MYACITES, a genus of extinct lamellibranchiate mollusks, belonging to the family anatinidæ. They commenced their existence in the Silurian formation, and extended through the triassic and Jurassic into the cretaceous, where they became extinct. They had a gaping ventricose shell, with an external ligament.
MYCALE, the ancient name of a mountain now called Samsun, in the s. of Ionia in Asia Minor. It terminates in the promontory cape Santa Maria, opposite the island of Samos. The strait between the island and the promontory is where the great naval victory of the Greeks over the Persians took place 479 B.C.
MYCEʻLIUM, in botany, a development of vegetable life peculiar to fungi, but apparently common to al? the species of that order. The sparri of mushrooms is the mycelium. The mycelium appears to be a provision for the propagation of the plant where its spores may not reach, its extension in the soil or matrix in which it exists, and its preservation when circumstarces are unfavorable to its further development. It consists of elongated filaments, simple or jointed, situated either within the matrix or upon its surface. It is often membranous or pulpy.. The development of the fungus in its proper form seems to be ready to take place, in proper circumstances, from any part of the mycelium. Fungi often remain long in the state of mycelium, and many kinds of mycelium have been described as distinct species and formed into genera. Fries has rendered great service to botany in investigating these spurious species and genera, and determining their true nature. Liquors in which the flocculent mycelius of a fungus is spreading are said to be mothery.
MYCE'NÆ, a very ancient city in the north-eastern part of Argolis, in the Peloponnesus, built upon a craggy height, is said to have been founded by Perseus. It was the capital of Agamemnon's kingdom, and was at that time the principal city in Greece. About 468 B.C., it was destroyed by the inhabitants of Argos, and never rose again from its ruins to anything like its former prosperity. It Strabo's time its ruins only remained; these are still to be seen in the neighborhood of Kharveti, and are specimens of Cyclopean architecture. The most celebrated is the " Gate of Lions,” the chief entrance to the ancient Acropolis. Excavations prosecuted at Mycenæ by Dr. Henry Schliemann brought to light in 1876 several ancient tombs, containing a large quantity of gold and silver ornaments, etc. See illus., ARCHITECTURE, vol. I., p. 640, fig. 3.
MYCETES, a genus of South American monkeys. See HowlER.
MYELI'TIS (myelos, marrow), is the term employed to signify inflammation of the substance of the spinal cord. It may be either acute or chronic, but the latter is by far the
acat common affection. The chronic form begins with a little uneasiness in the spine, somewhat disordered sensations in the extremities, and unusual fatigue after any slight exertion. After a short time paralytic symptoms appear, and slowly increase. The gait becomes uncertain and tottering, and at length the limbs fail to support the body. The paralysis finally attacks the bladder and rectum, and the evacuations are discharged involuntarily; and death takes place as the result of exhaustion, or occasionally of asphyxia if the paralysis involves the chest. In the acute form there is much pain (especially in the spinal region), which usually ceases when paralysis supervenes. The other symptons are the same as those of the chronic form, but they occur more rapidly and with greater severity, and death sometimes takes place in a few days.
The most common causes of this disease are falls, blows, and strains from overexertion; but sexual abuses and intemperate habits occasionally induce it. It may also result from other diseases of the spine (as caries), or may be propagated from inflammation of the corresponding tissue of the brain.
The treatment, which is much the same as that of inflammation elsewhere, must be confided entirely to the medical practitioner; and it is therefore unnecessary to enter into any details regarding it. When confirmed paralysis has set in, there is little to hope for. but in the early stage the disease is often checked by judicious remedies.
MYENSK, a t. of European Russia, in the government of Orel, on the Zusho. It has thirteen churches, and a pop. of nearly 13,000. It has a lively trade chiefly in spirits, soap, hemp, and dried fruits.
MYER, ALBERT J., 1828–80, b. N. Y.; son of a jeweler who established himself in that business in Buffalo, N. Y., while Albert was a child. He graduated at Hobart college, Geneva, N. Y., in 1847; and, returning to Buffalo, began the study of medicine with Dr. Frank H. Hamilton, and took his degree of M.D., at the university of Buffalo in 1851. In 1854 he was appointed assistant surgeon in the U. S. army, and assigned to Texas, where he first developed his now celebrated signal system, and which was adopted by the secretary of war for the use of the army. From 1858 to '60 Myer was a signal officer with the rank of major. On the outbreak of the war he was made signal otficer on the staff of gen. Butler, and afterwards on that of McClellan, and was succes. sively brevetted lieut.col., col., and brig.gen.; his last promotion being for“ distinguished services in organizing, instructing, and commanding the signal corps of the army, and for especial service on Oct. 5, 1864, at Allatoona, Ga.;" on July 28, 1866, he was made colonel in the regular army and chief signal officer. In 1870 he commenced his work of observing and giving notice by telegraph of the approach and force of storms on the northern lakes and sea-coast, at the military post in the interior, and at other points in the states and territories. He organized the meteorological division of the signal service, and in 1873, by special act of congress, was placed in charge of the telegraphic duties in this connection, and authorized to establish signal stations at lighthouses and live-saving stations. In the same year he was a delegate to the meteorological congress held in Vienna. Gen. Myer published A Manual of Signals for the United States Army. On the last day of the last session of Congress before his death he received his promotion to the full rank of brig.gen. of the U. S. army. On account of the publication in the leading newspapers, of the daily telegraphic prognostications of the weather-bureau, under the head of “probabilities”; gen. Myer was familiarly and playfully known by the name “old probabilities.”
MYERS, PETER HAMILTON, b. N. Y. 1812; made his first appearance as an author, in 1848, when he published The First of the Knickerbockers, a Taie of 1673. He has since written a number of novels, among which are The Young Patroon, 1848; The King of the Hurons, and The Prisoner of the Border, 1857. He has published also a book of poems called Ensenore, a Romance of Orasco Lake.
MY'GALE, a genus of spiders, the type of a family Mygalida. They have four pul. monary sacs and spiracles, four spinnerets, eight eyes, and hairy legs. They make silken nests in clefts of trees, rocks, etc., or in the ground, sometimes burrowing to a great depth, and very tortuously. To this genus belongs the bird-catching spider (q.v.) of Surinam; but it seems now to be ascertained that several of the larger species frequently prey on small vertebrate animals. They do not take their prey by means of webs, but hunt for it and pounce upon it by surprise. They construct a silken dwelling for themselves in some sheltered retreat. Some of them make a curious lid to their nest or burrow. They envelop their eggs, which are numerous, in a kind of cocoon.
MYLA'BRIS, a genus of coleopterous insects, nearly allied to Cantharis (9.v.), and deserving of notice because of the use made of some of the species as blistering flies. M. cichorii is thus used in China and India; and M. Fuesselini, a native of the south of Europe, is supposed to have been the blistering fly of the ancients.
MYLI'TTA (? corresponding to Heb. Meyaledeth, Genitrix, who causes to bear), a female deity, apparently first worshiped among the Babylonians, who gradually spread her worship through Åssyria and Persia. She is originally, like almost every other mythological deity, a cosmic symbol, and represents the female portion of the iwofold principles through which all creation burst into existence, and which alone, by its united active and passive powers, upholds it. Mylitta is to a certain degree the representative
of earth, the mother, who conceives from the sun, Bel or Baal. Mylitta and Bea! together are considered the type of the “Good.” Procreation thus being the basis of Mylitta's office in nature, the act itself became a kind of worship to Mylitta, and was hallowed through and for her. Thus it came to pass, that every Babylonian woman had once in her life to give herself up to a stranger, and thereby considered her person consecrated to the great goddess. The sacrifice itself seems, especially in the early stage of its introduction among the divine rites of the primitive Babylonians, to have had much less of the repulsiveness, whicb, in the eyes of highly cultivated nations, must be attached to it; and it was only in later days that it gave rise to the proverbial Babylonian lewd
Herodotus's account of this subject must, like almost all his other stories, be received with great caution.
MYLIOBATIDÆ. See RaY.
MY'LODON (Gr. grinder-teeth), a genus of huge fossil sloths, whose remains are found in the Pleistocene deposits of South America, associated with the Megatherium and other allied genera. A complete skeleton, dug up at Buenos Ayres, measured 11 ft. from the fore part of the skull to the end of the tail. Although like the modern sloth in general structure and dentition, its immense size forbids us to suppose that it could have had the same arboreal habits, and the modifications of its structure seem to have fitted it for the uprooting and prostrating of the trees, the foliage of which supplied it with food.
MY'NIAS, more accurately MINYAs, was, in Greek mythology, the son of Chryses. He was king of Jolcos, and gave his name to the people called Minyc. He built the city of Orchomenus, where rites (named after him) were selected in his honor. His three daughters, Clymene, Iris, and Alcithoë, according to Ovid, but Leuconoë, Leucippe, and Alcithoë according to other authors, were changed into bats for having contemned the mysteries of Bacchus.
MYNPURI, or MAINPURI, a t. of British India, capital of a district in the n.w. prov. inces, is situated on the banks of a small affluent of the Ganges, 160 m. 8.e. of Delhi. It lies at an elevation of 620 ft. above the sea, and is a favorite station for troops, as provisions and water are abundant and good. Mynpuri possesses a Jain temple. The rebels were driven from this place in 1857. Pop. 'ri, 21,179.
MYOSOʻTIS. See FORGET-ME-NOT.
MYOX'IDÆ, a family of rodents commonly known as dormice. From their resem. blance to many of the squirrels and marmots they have sometimes been placed in the family sciuride. The common dormouse, myaxus arillanarius, is a well-known hibernating British species. The family are confined to the old world, and contain about 12 species. They have 4 rooted molars on each side of the jaw, a rudimentary thumb, and are destitute of a cæcum. See RODENTIA.
MYRCIA, a genus of trees of the natural order Myrtaceæ, to which belongs the Wild Clove or Wild Cinnamon of the West Indies (myrtacea acris), a handsome tree of 20 or 30 feet high. Its timber is very hard, red and heavy. Its leaves have an aromatic cinnamor-like smell, and an agreeable astringency, and are used in sauces. Its berries are round, and as large as peas, have an aromatic smell and taste, and are used for culinary purposes.
MYR'IAGRAM. See METRIC SYSTEM.
MYRIA'PODA (Gr. myriad-footed), a class of Arthropoda, resembling Annelida in their lengthened form, and in the great number of equal, or nearly equal, segments of which the body is composed; but in most of their other characters more nearly agreeing with insects, ainong which they were ranked by the earlier naturalists, and still are by some. They have a distinct head, but there is no distinction of the other segments, as in insects, into thorax and abdomen. They have simple or compound eyes; a few are destitute of eyes. They have antenne like those of insects. The mouth is furnished with a complex masticating apparatus, in some resembling that of some insects in a larval state, in others, similar to that of crustaceans, Respiration is carried on through minute pores or spiracles, placed on each side along the entire length of the body, the air being distributed by innumerable ramifying air-tubes to all parts. In most parts of their internal organization the myriapoda resemble insects; although a decided inferiority is exhibited, particularly in the less perfect concentration of the nervous system. The resemblance is greater to insects in their larval than in their perfect state. The body of the myriapoda is protected by a bard chitinous covering. The number of seg. ments is various, seldom fewer than 24; although in some of the higher genera they are consolidated together in pairs, so that each pair, unless closely examined, might be considered as one segment bearing two pairs of feet. The legs of some of the lower kinds, as Julus (q.v.) are very numerous, and may be regarded as intermediate between the bristle-like appendages which serve many annelids as organs of locomotion, and the distinctly articulated legs of insects. In the higher myriapoda, as Scolopendra, the legs are much fewer, and articulated like those of insects. None of the myriapoda have wings. Some of them feed on decaying organic matter, chiefly vegetable; those of higher organization are carnivorous. The myriapoda do not undergo changes so great