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not pitch, but is prepared from frankincense and comes from Hamburg; catgut is the gut of sheep, instead of cats; china, applied to porcelain, whether English, French, or of other countries; cuttle-bone, which is not bone, but a chalky deposit contained in a sac occurring in the body of the cuttle-fish; Cleopatra's needle, which was erected by Rameses the great, and had no reference to Cleopatra; Dutch clocks, made in Germany instead of Holland; galvanized iron is not galvanized, but coated with zinc in a bath of muriatic acid; Gothic architecture was not the architecture of the Goths, but originated in England and France at a period prior to the renaissance; Indians (North American), applied to the aborigines of America by the early voyagers, who supposed that country to be a part of India; Irish stew, a dish unknown in Ireland; lacquer, which is made pot from lac, but from a resin obtained from a nut-tree (anacardiacea); kid gloves, which are made of lamb, sheep, or rat skins; lunar caustic (nitrate of silver), so called because silver is the astrological symbol of the moon; meerschaum (foam of the sea), which is a compound of silica, magnesia, and water; pen, from the Latin penna, a wing, referring to the quill, becomes inappropriate when applied to a fabrication of steel or gold; Pompey's pillar was not erected by or in honor of Pompey; rice-paper, which is made not from rice, but from the pith of a Chinese plant of totally different character; salt, which is not chemically a salt; scuttle, applied to opening a hole in a ship, really means to close or bar; sealing-wax, which is not wax, but is composed of shellac, turpentine, and cinnabar; slave, which originated in a word (slavi) meaning illustrious, noble; tube rose, which is not a rose; turkeys, which did not originate in Turkey, but in North America; whalebone, which is not a bone.
MISPICK'EL, a mineral that occurs in trimetric crystals and which is composed of 33.54 per cent of iron, 33.42 per cent of arsenic, and 21.08 per cent of sulphur. Its color is silver-white, inclining to steel-gray; its hardness, 5.5 to 6; and its specific gravity, 6 to 6.4. Heated in a tube, it first yields a red or brown sublimate of sulphide of arsenic, then a black sublimate of metallic arsenic. Nitric acid decomposes it, with separation of sulphur and arsenious acid; nitro-muriatic acid, with separation of sulphur alone, which may be completely dissolved by prolonged digestion. It is found principally in crystalline rocks, especially associated with silver, tin, lead, and zinc ores; and is used chiefly in the manufacture of white arsenic.
MISPRIS'ION is, in English law, a clerical error made in drawing up a record of a court of law.
* MISREPRESENTA'TION, in point of law, or, as it is most frequently termed, fraudulent misrepresentation, is that kind of lie for which courts of law will give redress. It consists in a willful falsehood as to some material thing connected or not with some coutract: the object being that the party deceived should act upon it as true. The legal result is, that if the party so relying on its truth and acting on it suffer damage, he can sue the deceiver for such damage. It has sometimes been supposed that the deceit or misrepresentation must have reference to some contract, or arise out of some confidential relation between the parties, and that the party making it should have some private interest to serve; but this is mistake; and recent cases have established, that if a person willfully--i.e., either not knowing anything at all one way or the other about the matter, or knowing the real truth, misrepresent something with the intention that a stranger should act on such misrepresen
tation, and such stranger does so act on it, and suffer damage, then the right of action • accrues to the deceived party. One remarkable exception to this doctrine, however, occurs
in the case of the contract of marriage, where either party has in general no remedy whatever against the other for misrepresentations as to his or her property, connections, etc. It is not necessary that the misrepresentation should be made in writing, in order to give rise to the action, except in cases where the party gives representations as to the conduct, credit, ability, trade, or dealings of a third party, in order that such third party shall obtain credit, money, or goods therehy. The doctrine of misrepresentation has acquired great consequence of late, owing to the extension of the system of joint-stock companies, and the practice of the directors and officers publishing or being parties to fraudulent reports, accounts, and circulars as to the credit and stability of such undertakings. It is now settled, that not only every director, but every clerk in the service of the directors, who knowingly and willfully concurs and takes a part in publishing or circulating such false reports, whereby strangers are led to believe and act on them, and thereby suffer pecuniary loss, is liable to an action of damages at the suit of such strangers. It is also a general rule affecting contracts (other than marriage), that misrepresentation in some material point bearing on the contract, and likely to induce the party to enter into such contract, will render the contract void; but in order to make a trifling misrepresen. tation have the same effect, the party must warrant such representation to be true; in which case, whether trilling or not, or whether willful or not, a misrepresentation avoids the contract; and this is generally the case in contracts of life and fire insurance. Against such a practice lord St. Leonards lately remonstrated, as one involving great hardship to the class of insurers, who, after paying premiums for years, find at last their security gone. Another class of fraudulent misrepresentations, of great consequence, and now brought within the criminal law to a large extent, is that of counterfeiting trademarks, as to which, see TRADE-MARKS. See Supp., page 881.
MISSA DI VO'CÉ, a term used in the art of singing, meaning the gradual swelling and again diminishing of the sound of the voice on a note of long duration.
MISSAL, the volume containing the prayers used in the celebration of the mass. Anciently, considerable variety in minor details prevailed among the books in use in differ. ent countries, and even in different churches of the same country. With the view of restoring uniformity, the pope, in virtue of a decree of the council of Trent, in 1570, ordered that all churches which had not, for a clearly ascertained period of 200 years, enjoyed an uninterrupted use of a peculiar service-book of their own, should henceforth adopt the Roman missal. Of this exemption, several churches in Germany, France, and even in Italy, availed themselves; but in later times the great majority have conformed to the Roman use. The Roman missal has twice since that date been subjected to revision and correctionin 1604 by Clement VIII., and in 1634 by Urban VIII. The latter recension still continues in use. The missals of the oriental rites differ from that of the Roman church, each having for the most part its own proper form. See LITURGY.
MISSAL (ante), Lat. missale plenarium or plenarium, the book which contains the ritual for the celebration of the various masses of the Roman church, was called in the early western church sacramentarium, but at that time it contained only parts of what is now included in the missal. Those copies which contained the gospels, the sacramen. tary, prayers, prefaces, benedictions, the canon, lectionary, epistles and the antiphon were called plenars; but commonly these parts of the missal were in separate volumes. The entire missal was required when the priests began to say low masses. The earliest Gothic or Gallican missals of the 6th c. contained only the canon, prayers, and prefaces, which were recited by the bishop or priest; afterwards, those of small churches had the introit, gradual, alleluia, offertory, sanctus and communion. To meet a general desire for an emendation of the missal it was decided by the council of Trent, after a protracted discussion, to recommend to the pope the reform of the breviary, missal, and rituals. He consented, and the work was begun in Rome under Pius IV., and finished under Pius V. in 1570. The new missal consists of an introduction, three parts, and an appendix, The introduction gives the calendar and the general rubrics; the three parts give the formularies for the successive services of the year, those for the celebration of the mass on special feasts of saints, etc.; the appendix gives the annual mass, masses for the dead, some benedictions, and masses for certain prescribed feasts.-In the English church before the reformation the missals were very different, and even after the compilation of the Roman missal, the English were generally used; but at the end of the 16th c. the Jesuits forced the Roman missal upon the Roman Catholic churches of England. Before the invention of printing, the missals were elegantly written, ornamented with beautiful initials, and superbly bound. In the 13th c. large letters were used in writing the missals.
MISSAU'KEE, a co. in central Michigan, drained by Clam lake, Muskrat lake, and the headwaters of the Muskegon, Manistce, and Clam rivers; 576 sq.m.; pop. '80, 1553 -994 of American birth. Its surface is considered fertile, is generally level, with a large proportion of timber land, and very thinly settled. Capital, Lake City.
MISSINNIPÄPI RIVER. See CHURCHILL RIVER.
MISSION, a term used by Roman Catholics and English and American ritualists in & sense similar to the word revival. Among Roman Catholics a mission consists of special religious services conducted generally by one who has no parish, and belongs to a monastic order. In this sense the word is modern. In the church of England and the Protestant Episcopal church in the United States the word denotes “a series of services in which prayer, praise, preaching, and personal exhortation are the main features, and is. intended to call souls to repentance and faith, and deepen the spiritual life in the faithful.” It is held in a parish or several parishes under the direction of the rector, or by some experienced priest whom he obtains to assist him. “Ils themes are heaven, hell, the judgment, sin, the atonement for sin, God's justice and God's mercy.” “The purpose is the proclamation of the old foundations of faith and repentance to souls steeped. in worldliness and forgetful of their destiny, whether they be the souls of the baptized or the unbaptized." The usual time for the mission” is Lent. In England it has been a custom for several years, and is approved by the bishops, who prescribe no rules for its observance, but leave it to the good judgment of the clergy. It is warmly favored by many in the Episcopal church in the United States. In these services the prayers are, or at least may be in part, extemporaneous; much preaching is allowed, and the preaching is earnest, personal, and practical; familiar hymns and tunes are used, and the singing is congregational.
MISSIONS, enterprises of the Christian church for the conversion of the nations to Christianity, by sending to them teachers called missionaries.
The first Christians displayed great zeal in preaching the gospel to the heathen. Christian teachers continued to go forth for this purpose into heathen countries until about the 9th c., and although other and less worthy means were too often employed, the labors of Palladius in Ireland, of Columba in Scotland, of Augustine in England, of Gallus and Emmeran in Alemannia, of Kilian in Bavaria, of Willibrod in Franconia, of Swidvirt in Friesland, of Siegfried in Sweden, of Boniface in Thuringia and Saxony, of
Adalbert in Prussia, of Cyril and Methodius amongst the Slavonians, and of many such early missionaries, were unquestionably very instrumental in the extension of Christianity in Europe. After the reformation, the Roman Catholic church, roused to activity by its losses and dangers, not only sent forth missionaries to confirm its adherents in Protestant countries, and to win back Protestants, but also sought to repair its losses by new acquisitions from the vast domain of heathenism. With this view, the Congregatio de Propaganda Fide was constituted by Gregory XV. in 1622, and the Collegium de Propaganda Fide (see PROPAGANDA) by Urban VIII. in 1627, and in a number of places insti. tutions called seminaries were established for the training of missionaries. Jesuit missionaries earnestly prosecuted their work amongst the Indians of South America, from the middle of the 16th c. to the middle of the 18th, when they were expelled by the Portuguese and Spanish governments, because their political power had become too formidable. They are accused of administering baptism with too great readiness; but they were certainly successful in extending civilization amongst the Indians, particularly of Paraguay, Jesuit missions to India and Japan were founded by Francis Xavier (q.v.) in the middle of the 16th century. In Japan, the missionaries made great progress at first; and in 1582 they boasted of 150,000 converts, 200 churches, and 59 religious houses of their order in that empire; but ere the middle of the 16th c, the whole work had been overtbrown, and every missionary expelled. In China similar rapid success was enjoyed, and was followed by a similar period of persecution, although the destruction effected was more partial than in Japan, and the church of Rome continued to subsist in China, its missionaries and members enduring great hardships, and many of them evincing their sincerity even by their death. There are not a few Roman Catholics in China at the present time. In Abyssinia, also, the Jesuits made great progress in the 17th c., and for a time attained great power in the country; but their interference in political matters led to their complete expulsion. In the 17th c. the Jesuits boasted of the vast success of their mission in Madura, a province of southern India; but it was found to be rather apparent than real, and to have been attained by a compromise of Christianity and the employment of unworthy means, so that, after long contests in the papal court, a decision was pronounced against the Jesuits, and their connection with Madura was dissolved in the middle of the 18th century.
For a long period after the reformation, the Protestant church seems to have been little sensible of the duty of laboring for the propagation of Christianity; nor 'was it until the present century that missionary zeal began to be largely developed. In the middle of the 17th c. (1647), indeed, an act of the English parliament established the Society for Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts, and at the close of the century (1698) the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge was established. A few missionaries labored with zeal and success among the North American Indians, in which field the names of Eliot and Mayhew are particularly distinguished in the 17th c., and that of Brainerd in the 18th; but the commencement of more systematic and continuous missionary enterprise may be reckoned from the establishment of the first Protestant mission to India, which did not take place till the beginning of the 18th c., when Bartholomew Ziegenbalg and another were sent thither by Frederick IV. of Denmark, and settled in a small territory then belonging to Denmark on the coast of Coromandel. The mission in the s. of India soon received the support of the English Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, and was maintained and extended chiefly by that society during the whole of the 18th century. Amongst the missionaries who labored in this field, the name of Swartz is particularly distinguished; and the success which attended his exertions, and the influ. ence which he acquired in the country, were equally remarkable. He died in 1798. Since that time, the missionary work in the s. of India has been carried on with continued success, and by the missionaries of a number of societies. Greater progress has been made there than in any other part of India, nor, indeed, was the work commenced in any other part of India till almost a century later.—The Moravian church early. entered upon missionary enterprise, and was the first Protestant church which did so in its united or corporate character; and very successful missions of the United Brethren were planted in the 18th c. at the cape of Good Hope, in the West Indies, and in Labrador. Greenland had previously been made the field of similar enterprise by missionaries from Norway. The mission to Greenland was founded by Hans Egede (q.v.) in 1721, and has been maintained to the present day. Its success has been such, that the greater portion of the Greenlanders have now been converted to Christianity, and much of the rudeness of their former manner of life has disappeared.- Towards the close of the 18th c., some of the great missionary societies still existing in England were formed—the Baptist Missionary Society in 1792, the London Missionary Society in 1795. About the same time the British and Foreign Bible Society and the Religious Tract Society were formed, which have co-operated with all the missionary societies as most important aux iliaries. The Baptist Missionary Society, immediately after its formation, sent missionaries to the n. of India. Dr. Carey was one of its first, and also one of its most eminent missionaries. India is now a field of labor for many missionary societies, not only of Britain, but also of America and of the continent of Europe.
The London Missionary Society sent its first missionaries to the South Sea islands, and the mission was maintained for about 16 years, amidst many difficulties, without any appar. ent success; but its success was afterward great and rapid, first in Tahiti, and afterward in other islands, so that now many of the islands of the South Seas are entirely Christian The London missionary society soon entered also upon other fields of labor, and now maintains missions to many parts of the world. It was at first composed of members of almost all Protestant denominations; but the formation of other societies, and the engage. ment of churches as such in missionary enterprise-as the Wesleyan Methodist church
- have left this society now in a great measure to the English independents. One of the most important societies founded during the present century, the Church Missionary Society, formed by members of the Church of England, has sent forth missionaries to many fields. They have been particularly successful in New Zealand, the w. of Africa, and about Hudson's bay; and they recently entered Abyssinia. The various churches in Scotland also support vigorous mission agencies. The late Dr. Livingstone, of the London missionary society, explored vast regions in Central Africa. Fired by his example, the friends of missions in Scotland subscribed £12,000 to found Livingstonia, a memorial mission station on lake Nyassa, under the management of the Free Church foreign mis. sions committee; and an expedition arrived there and established itself in 1876. Various other missionary societies, Catholic and Protestant, have selected stations in the region of the great lakes. The Wesleyan Methodists have missions in many parts of the world. They have been particularly successful in the Fiji islands, and in parts of the w. of Africa.—The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions was formed in 1810, and was soon followed by other missionary societies in America, some of which rival those of Britain in magnitude and importance. One of the first enterprises of the American board was the mission to the Sandwich islands, founded in 1819, which has resulted in the general Christianization of these islands, and in their civilization to a degree which, considering the shortness of the time, may well be regarded with admiration. The American Baptist Missionary Society has occupied Burmah and the eastern peninsula as one of its principal spheres of labor, and there its missionaries have enjoyed remarkable success in the Christianization and civilization of the people called Karens. Protestant missionary societies have also been formed on the continent of Europe, of which the first was that of Basel, in 1816, and the next was that of Berlin, in 1823; and some of these have also maintained successful missions in heathen countries. The instances of most marked and extensive success of missions are those which have been already noticed, and that of Madagascar, where missionaries of the London missionary society enjoyed the protection and favor of king Radama I., and the church planted by them continued to exist, notwithstanding severe persecution, and the martyrdom of not a few of its members, during the next reign, and is a wonderfully flourishing church at the present day. In the s. of Africa, also, important results have been attained. Access has recently been obtained to China, and a number of Protestant churches and societies have entered energetically upon that field. Preparation had been previously made for this, by missionary labors amongst the Chinese in the eastern peninsula, and by the study of the language, the compilation of grammars and dictionaries, and the translation of the Bible into the Chinese language. Indeed, it must be reckoned as among the services rendered to mankind by Christian missionaries in modern times, that they have not only translated the Bible and other religious books into many languages, but have reduced many barbarous tongues to writing, and have prepared grammars and dictionaries, thereby contributing not a little, independently of their highest aim, to the promotion of knowledge, civilization, and the welfare of the human race.
The progress of Christian missions to Mohammedan countries has hitherto been very small, although numerous converts from Mohammedanism, as well as from heathenism, have been made in India. Of late, some have thought they observed a movement among the Mohammedans of India, apparently tending toward Christianity; but at the same time there has been a new awakening of Mohammedanism itself in the eastern peninsula and the islands of the Malayan archipelago. Missions to the Jews have for several years engaged not a little of the attention of some portions of the Christian church, particularly in England and Scotland. Missions have been planted in places where Jews are numerous, and already with considerable success.
MISSIONS, CHRISTIAN FOREIGN (ante). The foundation of the work of missfons is the command of Christ given to his disciples immediately before his ascension, “Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature.” Tracing the apostles and early Christians in their fulfillment of this command, we find at the close of the 1st c. many large churches in Asia Minor, Macedonia, Italy, Greece, and the islands of the Mediterranean, and in Northern Africa. In the beginning of the 2d c. the persecutor Pliny, in his oflicial report to the emperor Trajan, says : “Many persons of every rank are accused [of Christianity). Nor has the contagion of this superstition pervaded cities only, but the villages and open country." Justin Martyr, A.D. 106, says, “ There is not a nation, Greek or barbarian, among whom prayers and thanksgivings are not offered to the Father and Creator in the name of the crucified Jesus.” Tertullian, in his. “Apology" about the middle of the ad c. says, “Though of yesterday, we have filled every sphere of life-the exchange, the camp, the populace, the palace, the forum.” Such an extension of Christianity in the face of stripes, imprisonment, and death, speaks strongly for the missionary zeal of those early times. During the 2d and 3d centuries we find that missionaries have been successful in Gaul, southeri: Germany, Arabia, and
Ethiopia. Early in the 4th c. Constantine, constrained by the prevalence of Christianity among all classes of his people, immediately subsequent to the terrible persecution by Diocletian, published, A.D. 312, his edict of toleration throughout the Roman empire. There is evidence that the Nestorians began in the 4th c. and for a thousand years carried on missions in central and eastern Asia. But no missions were more successful in these early times than those from Ireland to continental Europe in the 5th and 6th centuries. In the 5th c., the gospel was preached in Ireland by Patrick, who, born of Christian parents, and instructed in the gospel, having been twice taken captive by pirates, and carried to Ireland as a slave, felt impelled, after escaping the second time, io return to the land of his bondage, and make known there the gospel. He preached with such power that the island became nominally Christian before his death. Born in France, or in Scotland, he was ordained in France; he seems to have had no close attachment to the Roman church; and his successors long resisted the efforts of the pope to bring them under control. He established schools for educating the people in the gospel, and for training a native ministry and missionaries. At his death there were in Ireland many of these institutions, from which missionaries went forth in the 6th and 7th centuries to evangelize the barbarians of central Europe. Here also they established many schools, one of which was at Erfurt, where Luther studied centuries later. Columba went in the 6th c. from the institution of Bangor, Ireland (sometimes confounded with Bangor in Wales), with 12 associates, founded the celebrated school in Iona, which attained a high reputation for biblical studies, and from which missionaries went to the northern and southern Picts of Scotland, to the eastern coast of England, and to the European continent. Columbanus from the same institution took 12 young men, and carried the gospel to the Burgundians, Franks, Swiss, and Italians; also to the Bavarians and other Germanic nations. His pupil Gallus, also an Irishman, was the apostle of Switzerland. Neander says that when Columbanus entered Germany at the close of the 7th c. it was almost wholly heathen, but before 720 the gospel had been proclaimed by himself and his countrymen, and “all the German tribes were obedient to the faith as taught by the Irish missionaries.” “Their teachings," as shown by Ebrard, “consisted in reading the Scriptures in the original text, translating them wherever they went, expounding them to the congregations, and recommending their diligent perusal. These were their only rule of faith.” These missions and institutions were in the 8th c. absorbed by the Roman church, and in the 12th c. the Irish clergy were subjected to its sway. Iceland, Christianized in the 10th c., sent out missionaries in the exploring ships of the Norsemen, and is believed to have carried the first knowledge of Christ to the Greenlanders in the 12th century.
Returning to the Roman empire we find that the cessation of persecution, though most just and beneficent, opened the way for evils which hitherto had lacked opportunity of development. The state having become reconciled to the church, the church in turn became reconciled to the state, caught its spirit and imitated its modes. Christ had said to his disciples, “ The princes of the Gentiles exercise authority, but it shall not be 80 among you." The church lost sight of this, and pastors, who had hitherto served the flock, and won honor by their service, began to change the crook into the rod. Not at once, or rapidly, but gradually the spirit of doinination grew. Those who gained power sought to extend it by increasing the number of nominal converts, and proselytism rather than conversion became the passion of the time. Gregory the Great in 596 sent Augustine with 40 monks to effect the conversion of the Anglo-Saxons. The Irish missions from the school of Iona had already introduced the gospel along the eastern shores of England. Ethelbert, king of Kent, had married a Christian princess, and yielding to the eloquence of Augustine, or the persuasions of his wife, was baptized. Many of his subjects followed his example, 10,000 being received into the church on one occasion, Augustine was made archbishop, and claimed to govern the older Christian churches, as well as bis own converts. Those churches indignantly objected, saying, “We are all prepared to hearken to the pope of Rome and to every pious Christian, so as to manifest to all perfect charity. What other duty we owe to him whom you call pope, we do not kuow.” The influence of Augustine with the Saxon kings, however, gave him the advantage in the contest, and before the Norman invasion few ventured to dissent from the Roman forms of worship. In 718 Gregory II. sent Boniface to Germany, not so much to convert heathen as to bring over to the Roman see the churches which had received the gospel through missionaries from Ireland, Burgundy, and Byzantium. Thenceforward the secular arm was often used for the extension of the faith, and where power was lacking for coercion, resort was often had to other measures which were at utter variance with the spirit of Christianity.
Before the close of the 14th c. not only was nearly all of Europe nominally Christian, but Mongolia, Tartary, Persia, and China had been visited and greatly influenced by bishops and friars sent out from the Roman Catholic church. The discovery of America in 1492 and the doubling of the cape of Good Hope opened the way for missions in new fields. The Spanish and Portuguese prosecuted their voyages of discovery, of traffic, or of conquest, taking with them missionaries authorized to effect the conversion of the natives. Mexico, Central and South America, and parts of India were among the coun. tries thus visited. The institution, in 1530, of the order of Jesuits, who pledged themselves to go wherever the pope might send them, gave a great impulse to missions among