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assigned to the coraciadæ. The genus prionites has the following characteristics. Both mandibles slightly curved and compressed; the margins with strong denticulations; tongue long and slender, with the sides ciliated; wings short and rounded; tail long and pointed. Dr. G. R. Gray makes the momotinæ, a sub-family of the todidæ, consist of the genus crypticus (prionites of Swainson), and the genus momotus (prionites of Illiger, momota of Shaw, and rhamphastos of Linnæus).

MOMOTOM'BO, a volcano of the Marabios range, near lake Managua, 25 m. n.e. of Leon in Nicaragua. Its height is 7,200 ft., of which more than one-third is composed of the ashes and cinders ejected in past ages. It is still active, but has had no serious eruptions for many years. Among other traditions connected with it is one, embodied in Victor Hugo's La Légende des Siècles, which tells of an attenipt by Spanish priests to ascend and plant the cross on its summit; they were never heard of afterwards; and the ascent remains to this day unaccomplished.

MOMPOX', a t, of the United States of Colombia, on the Magdalena, 110 m. s.e. of Cartagena. Here the Magdalena, during its periodical foods, rises 12 or 15 ft. above its usual level; and the quay and custom-house of Mompox are built unusually high, in order to provide against this emergency. All the foreign goods destined for the consumption of the valley of the Magdalena pass through this town. Pop. estimated at 10,000.

MOMUS, in fabulous history, the god of raillery, or the jester, who ridiculed both gods and men. He is the personification of mocking censure. Being requested by Vulcan, Neptune, and Minerva, to give bis opinion as to their works, he blamed them all: Neptune, for not making his bull with horns before his eyes, in order to give a surer blow; Minerva, for building a house which could not be moved in case of bad neighbors; Vulcan, for making a man without a window in his breast, that his secret thoughts might be seen. Venus alone was blameless. For his free censures of the gods he was expelled from heaven. He is generally represented as raising a mask from his face, and holding a small figure in his hand. He is according to Hesiod the progeny of Night.

MONACHISM (Gr. monachos, a monk, from monos, alone) may in general be described as a state of religious retirement more or less complete, accompanied by contemplation, and by various devotional, ascetical, and penitential practices. It is, in truth, asceticism (q.v.), with the element of religious solitude superadded. The institution of monachism has, under different forms, entered into several religious systems, ancient and modern, That it was known among the Jews before the coming of our Lord, appears from the example of the prophet Elias, and from that of the Essenians; and it is probable that religious seclusion formed part of the practice of the Nazarites (q.v.), at least in the later periods of Jewish history. In the Brahmanical religion, it has had a prominent place; and even to the present day, the lamaseries of Thibet may be said to rival in number and extent the monasteries of Italy or Spain. The Christian advocates of monachism find in the gospel exhortations to voluntary poverty (Matt. xix. 21) and to celibacy (1 Cor. vii. 37), at once the justification and the origin of the primitive institution. Its first form appears in the practice of asceticism, of which we find frequent mention in the early part of the 2d century. The primitive ascetics, however, lived among the brethren, and it is only in the following century that the peculiar characteristic of monachism begins to appear. The earliest form of Christian monachism is also the most complete—ihat already described under the head Anchorites (q. v.); and is commonly believed to have in part originated in the persecutions, from which Christians were forced to retire into deserts and solitary places. The anchorites maintained from choice, after the cessation of the persecutions, the seclusion to which they had originally resorted as an expedient of security; and a later development of the same principle is found in the still more remarkable psychological phenomenon of the celebrated Pillar-saints (q.v.). After a time, however, the necessities of the religious life itself-as the attendance at public worship, the participation of the sacraments, the desire for mutual instruction and edification-led to modifications of the degree and of the nature of the solitude. First came the simplest form of common life, which sought to combine the personal seclusion of individuals with he common exercise of all the public duties; an aggregation of separate cells into the same district, called by the name Laura, with a common church, in which all assembled for prayer and public worship. From the union of the common life with personal solitude is derived the name cenobite (Gr. koinos bios, common life), by which this class of monks is distinguished from the strict solitaries, as the anchorites or eremites, and in which is involved, in addition to the obligations of poverty and chastity, which were vowed by the anchorites, a third obligation of obedience to a superior, which, in conjunction with the two former, has ever since been held to constitute ihe essence of the religious or monastic life. The first origin of the strictly cenobitical or monastic life has been detailed under the name of Saint Antony (q.v.), who may be regarded as its founder in the east, either by himself or by his disciples So rapid was its progress, that his first disciple, Pachomius (q.v.), lived to find himself the superior of 7,000. In the single district of Nitria, there were no fewer than 50 monasteries (Sozomen, Eccles. History, vi. 31), and before long, the civil authorities judged it expedient to place restrictions on their excessive multiplication. It seems to be admitted, that, in the east, where asceticism has always been held in high estimation, the example of Christian monasticism

had a powerful influence in forwarding the progress of Christianity; although it is also certain that the admiration which it excited occasionally led to its natural consequence among the members, by eliciting a spirit of pride and ostentation, and by provoking, sometimes to fanatical excesses of austerity, sometimes to hypocritical simulations of rigor.

The abuses which arose, even in the early stages of monachism, are deplored by the very Fathers who are most eloquent in their praises of the institution itself. These ubuses prevailed chiefly in a class of monks called Sarabaitæ, who lived in small communities of three or four, and sometimes led a wandering and irregular life. On the other hand, a most extraordinary picture is drawn by Theodoret, in his Religious Histories, of the rigor and mortification practiced in some of the greater monasteries. The monks were commonly zealots in religion; and much of the bitterness of the religious controversies of the east was due to that unrestrained zeal; and it may be added that the opinions which led to these controversies originated for the most part among the theologians of the cloisters. Most famous among these were an order called Acæmetæ (Gr. sleepless), from their maintaining the public services of the church day and night without interruption. See MONOPHYSITES, MONOTHELISM, NESTORIANS, IvaGE-WORSHIP.

It was in the cenobitic rather than the eremetic form that monachism was first introduced into the west, at Rome and in northern Italy by Athanasius, in Africa by St. Augustine, and afterwards in Gaul by St. Martin of Tours. Here also the institute spread rapidly under the same general forms in which it is found in the eastern church; but considerable relaxations were gradually introduced, and it was not until the thorough reformation, and, as it may be called, religious revival effected by the celebrated St. Benedict (q.v.), in the beginning of the 6th c., that western monachism assumed its peculiar and permanent form. In some of the more isolated churches, as, for instance, that of Britain, it would seem that the reformations of St. Benedict were not introduced until a late period ; and in that church as well as in the church of Ireland, they were a subject of considerable controversy. One of the most important modifications of monachism in the west, regarded the nature of the occupation in which the monks were to be engaged during the times not directly devoted to prayer, meditation, or other spiritual exercises. In the east, manual labor formed the chief, if not the sole external occupation prescribed to the monks; it being held as a fundamental principle, that for each individual the main business of life was the sanctification of his own soul. In the west, besides the labor of the hands, mental occupation was also prescribed, not, it is true for all

, but for those for whom it was especially calculated. From an early period, there. fore

, the monasteries of the west, and particularly those of Ireland, or of the colonies, founded by Irish monks, as lona and Lindisfarne, became schools of learning, and training-houses for the clergy. At a later period, most monasteries possessed a scriptorium, or writing-room, in which the monks were employed in the transcription of MSS. ; and although a great proportion of the work so done was, as might naturally be expected, in the department of sacred learning, yet it cannot be doubted that it is to the scholars of the cloister we owe the preservation of most of those among the master-pieces of classic literature which have reached our age.

In the remarkable religious movement which characterized the church of the 12th c. (see FRANCIS OF AssisI, FRANCISCANS), the principle of monachism underwent a further modification. The spiritual egotism, so to speak, of the early inonachism, which in some sense limited the work of the cloister to the sanctification of the individual, gave place to the more comprehensive range of spiritual duty, which, in the institute of the various bodies of friars (q.v.) which that age produced, made the spiritual and even the temporal necessities of one's neighbor equally with, if not more than, one's own, the object of the work of the cloister. The progress of these various bodies, both in the 12th c. and since that age, is detailed under their several titles. It only remains to detail the later history of monachism, properly so called. The monastic institutes of the west are almost all offshoots or modifications of the Benedictines (q.v.); of these, the most remarkable are the Carthusians, Cistercians, Grandmontines, Clugniacs, Premonstratensians, and above all Maurists, or Benedictines (q.v.) of St. Maur. In more modern times, other institutes have been founded for the service of the sick, for the education

the poor, and other similar works of mercy, which are also classed under the denomination of monks. The most important of these are described under their several heads.

The inclosure within which a community of monks reside is called a monastery (q.v.) Gr. monasterion, Lat. monasterium. By the strict law of the church, called the law of cloister or inclosure, it is forbidden to all except members of the order to enter a monastery; and in almost all the orders, this prohibition is rigidly enforced as regards the admission of females to the monasteries of men. To such a length is this carried in the Greek church, that in the celebrated inclosure of Mount Athos, not only women, but all animals of the female sex are rigorously excluded. The first condition of admission to short time as postulants." After this preliminary trial, they enter on what is called the moritiate, the length of which in different orders varies from one to three years; and at The age for profession has varied at different times and in different orders; the councii of Trent, however, has fixed 16 as the minimum age. Originally, all monks were lay.



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men; but after a time, the superiors, and by degrees other more meritorious members, were admitted to holy orders. The distinction of priest-monks and lay-brothers has been already explained under the head FRIAR: but in both alike, where the order is one of those solemnly approved by the church, the engagement taken at the final profession is life-long and irrevocable.

The monastic institute, from the very earliest time, embraced women as well as men. The former were called in Greek by the name nonis or nonna, and in Latin nonna (from which the English nun), as also sanctimonialis. The cloistered residence of nuns is called by various names, as NUNNERY, CONVENT, a name also applied to the houses of

The general characteristics of the monastic institute for females are substantially identical with those of the male orders; and as the principal varieties of institute are detailed under their respective heads, it is needless to particularize them here.

It is hardly necessary to say that the reformed churches in the 16th c. discarded the practice of monachism, and suppressed the monastic houses. In some of the German states, the temporalities of the suppressed monasteries were retained, and were granted at pleasure by the sovereign, to be enjoyed together with the titular dignity. Some of the German churches, however, in later times, have revived the institute both for men and for women, as has also been done in the Anglican church both in the time of Laud and in our own day. In all these Protestant revivals of monachism, however, the engagement is revocable at the will of the individual. At the French revolution, the monastic establishments of France were utterly suppressed; and in most of the other Catholic countries of Europe the example has been followed to a greater or less extent. In England and Ireland and America, on the contrary, the institute has made rapid progress within the last 20 years. Most of the orders, however, introduced into these countries are of the active class. See illus., PRIESTS, ETC., vol. XII.,

MONACO, a small principality of Italy, on the coast of the Mediterranean sea, a few miles 1.e. of the city of Nice. The climate is fine, so that oranges, lemons, etc., are produced in abundance. Pop. '73, 5, 741. From the 10th to the 18th c. Monaco was held by the Genoese family of Grimaldi. In 1815 it was ceded tò Sardinia, which, however, recognized its independence, but reserved to itself the right of garrisoning the town of Monaco. At this period it cousisted of thiee communes, Monaco, Mentone, and Roccabruna, with an area of 52 sq.m., and a pop. of about 7,000. In 1848 Mentone and Roccabruna were annexed to Sardinia, in spite of a protest by his “serene higliness, Carlo Honorio, third prince of Monaco. The lialian war of 1859 placed the whole territory for a brief period under Victor Emmanuel; but Carlo Honorio having sold Mentone and Roccabruna (Feb. 2. 1861) to the French emperor for 4,000,000 francs, Sardinia was obliged to renounce her hold upon them. The sovereign prince of Monaco now possesses nothing but the city and a small patch of territory, with a total area of 6 sq.m.; pop. ’83, 10,108. The town is a beautiful place on a rocky promontory, with 2,879 inhabitants.

MO'NAD (Gr. monas, unity), a term borrowed from the Peripatetic philosophy, although employed by moderns in a sense different from that of the Peripatetics, who used it to designate the universe, understood in the pantheistic sense. By moderns, and especialy by Leibnitz (q.v.), from whose system alone the name has derived importance, it is used to describe the primary elements of all matter. The monads are simple uncompounded substances, without figure, without extension, without divisibility, by the aggregation of which all bodies are formed, and into which all compounded things may ultimately be resolved. The monads are created things, but as being uncompounded, are indestructible; and although subject to change, the change is buit external or relative. They are of two classes—the first are destitute of consciousuess, although possessing an internal activity which is called by the name of perception; the second possess, in addition to perception, a certain consciousness, which is called by the name “apperception" or conscious-perception. The monads of this class are souls, and according to the degree of their consciousness is the distinction between the souls of the higher and those of the lower intelligences. The Deity is the PRIME MONAD, or MONAD OF MONADS. The theory of monads enters largely into the philosophic system of Leibnitz, and indeed furnishes the key to much in that system which is otherwise obscure.

MONAD, Monas, the generic name of many kinds of microscopic organisms, very minute, and supposed also to be of very simple organization. They appear, even under a powerful microscope, as mere points, moving rapidly through the fluid in which they exist, and often becoming aggregated in clusters; or they are seen to be gelatinous and globular, or nearly so, with a tail or thong-like filament, by the vibrations of which they move. When the fluid is tinted by means of some harmless coloring matter, the existence of several cells or vesicles is discerned within the minute body. Ehrenberg, therefore, classed them among polygastric infusoria (sce INFUSORIA), and no naturalist doubted their right to a place, although one of the lowest, in the animal kingdom. They are now universally regarded as vegetable, and are ranked among alge. The organisms formerly known as globe animalcules (volvox) are clusters of monads produced by gemmation from one, and invested with a common envelope. Monads are of various colors. Their gemmation takes place according to fixed laws, so that the groups assume particular forms, characteristic of the different kinds. Thus, in the breast-plate animalcule" (gonium pectorale), so called from the form which the group frequently presents, a divi. sion takes place into four, and the number in a group is always either four or sixteen, a group of sixteen always dividing into four parts, each of which contains four monads.

- The minute moving points often seen under the microscope are probably often not monads, but spores or germs.

MONAD'NOCK, GRAND, a mountain in the s.w. corner of New Hampshire, which from a base of 5 by 3 m. rises to a height of 3,450 feet. It is composed of talc, mica, and slate, can be seen from the state house at Boston, and is a landmark at sea. Thirty lakes, some containing numerous islands, can be seen from its summit.

MONA'GAS, José TADEO, 1786–1868; b. Venezuela; served under Bolivar in the war of independence, 1810–20. After a number of unsuccessful attempts to overthrow the government, he was chosen to the presidency in 1846. He sent ex-president Paez, against whom he had formerly headed a revolution, into exile, and abrogated the consti. tution, making himself dictator. He succeeded in maintaining himself in this office till 1859. He declared against and overthrew the government of gen. Falcon in 1868, and was again elected to the presidency, but died before taking his seat.

MONAGHAN, an inland co. of the province of Ulster, Ireland, situated between Tyrone on the n., Armagh and Louth on the e., Meath and Cavan on the s., and Fermanagh on the west. Its greatest length from n. to s. is 37 m.; its greatest breadth e. and w. is 28; the total area being 500 sq.m., or 319,757 acres, of which 285,885 are arable. The population, which in 1861 was 126, 340, had fallen in 1881 to 102,748. The general surface is undulatory, the hills, except in the n.w. and e., being of small elevation, although often abrupt; the highest point does not exceed 1254 ft. above the sea. It is interspersed with lakes of small extent, and for the most part of little depth, and, although the streams are numerous, there is no navigable river within its boundaries. In its geological structure the level country belongs to the great central limestone district; the rest is of the same transition formation which is met with in the northern tract of Leinster. No minerals are found in a remunerative quantity; there is a small coal-field in the southern border, but it has not been found profitable to work. The soil is very varied in its character, and for the most part is wet and imperfectly drained, although commonly capable of much improvement; but in general it is found suitable for the production of cereal crops (with the exception of wheat, which is little cultivated), and of fax. The total area under crops in 1876 was 139,739 acres. There were 60,569 acres under oats, and 12,204 acres under flax. The cattle in the same year numbered 85,569; sheep, 15,999; pigs, 32,056. The annual valuation of property in 1874 was £262,432. Monaghan is well supplied with good roads, and is connected by railway with Dublin, Belfast, and Galway, and directly with the coast at Dundalk. I'he Ulster canal passes through the county. The principal towns of this county are Monaghan (q.v.), Carrickmacross, Clones, and Castle-Blayney. It returns two members to parliament, the constituency being, at the enumeration of 1880–81, 5496, Monaghan, at the invasion, formed part of the grant of Henry II. to De Courcey, and was partially o cupied by him; but it speedily fell back into the hands of the native chiefs of the sept MacMahon, by whom (with some alternations of re-conquest) it was held till the reign of Elizabeth, when it was erected into a shire. Even still, however, the authority of the English was in many places little more than nominal, especially in the north; and in the rising of 1641 the MacMuhons again resumed the territorial sovereignty. The historical antiquities of the county are of little interest or importance. It possesses two round towers, one very complete, at Clones, the other at Inniskeen; and there are many remains of the ancient earth-works commonly referred to the ante-English period. The total number of children attending the superior and primary schools in the county of Monaghan during 1879 was 23,118, of whom 17,010 were Roman Catholice.

MONAGHAN, chief t. of the county of the same name, is situated on the great north line from Dublin to Londonderry, distant from the former 76 m. n.n.w. Pop. in '81, 3,369. Monaghan, before the union, was a town of some importance, having a charter from James I., and returning two members to the Irish parliament. It is still the center of an active inland trade, and can boast some public buildings of considerable pretensions, among which are the jail, market house, and court-house. A Roman Catholic college and a cathedral dedicated to St. Mac Carthain also deserve special notice. The general market is on Monday; three markets for agricultural produce are held weekly, and there is also a monthly fair.

MONARCHIANS, “believers in one fountain or source of being,” were persons in the early Christian church who did not admit a distinction of persons in the divine Being: Believing strictly in the unity of God, they rejected the orthodox doctrine of the trinity. Traces of their opinions appeared at a very early period of the Christian era, and are alluded to by Justin Martyr as held both by Jews and Christians. He condemns the former for saying that when God communed with the patriarchs it was God the Father who appeared. He makes the same complaint against certain Christians. From this it is manifest that in Justin's day there were nominal Christians, who spoke of the Son as only an unsubstantial energy of the Father. This leading opinion of the monarchians is thought to have been brought into Christianity chiefly through Alexan. drian Jews and Gnostics, or, in some instances, to have been derived directly from pagan philosophy. From pagan religion it could not have come, unless very indirectly, as that took little thought of the unity of God. But whatever its origin, it was embraced by two classes, who differed greatly in their application of the theory: the one, who may be called rationalistic, admitted the divinity of Christ only as being at most a mere power; the other, some of whom were Patripassians, identified the Son with the Father, and allowed at most only a trinity of manifestation. " The one,” says Schaff, “prejudiced the dignity of the Son, the other the dignity of the Father; yet the latter was by far the more profound and Christian, and accordingly met with the greater acceptance.” 1. Those of the first class saw in Christ a mere man filled with divine power; but conceived this divine power as present in bim not merely from his baptism, but from the beginning, and admitted his supernatural conception through the Holy Ghost. 2. The second class, whom Tertullian called Patripassians, while they professed Unitarian opin. ions, strove also to hold fast the divinity of Christ; and, as they thought, accomplished their object by merging bis independent personality in the essence of the Father. Sabellius, about the middle of the 3d c., denying both trinity of essence and permanent trinity of manifestation, taught that the unity of God, without distinction in itself, after the creation, unfolds itself in the course of the world's development in three different forms and periods of revelation, and after the completion of redemption, returns into unity. The Father (he said) reveals God in the giving of the law and the Old Testament economy; the Son reveals God in the incarnation; and the Holy Ghost reveals God in inspiration. He illustrated this trinity of relations by comparing the Father to the sun, the Son to its enlightening power, and the Spirit to its warming influence. Athanasius pointed out coincidences of thought in the stoic philosophy with the doctrine of Sabellius, which, however, is generally admitted to have been thought out independently in his own mind. He may be regarded as the most original, ingenious, and profound of the monarchians. His system has been revived by Schleiermacher in a very modified form; and is substantially held in still later times by some who, holding to Christ's supreme divinity, deny the union in him of the human and divine natures, and suppose that he was God dwelling in human flesh and subject to its limitations and infirmities. It will be seen that the general principle of monarchianism admits various modifications in theory, and may be pressed in one extreme into a denial of any proper divinity in Christ, and in the opposite extreme to a position scarcely distinguishable from the standard doctrine which has been upheld in the church. See INCARNATION, TRINITY.

MONARCHY (Gr. monarchia, from monos, alone, and archo, to govern; literally, the government of a single individual) is that form of government in a community by which one person exercises the sovereign authority. It is only when the king, or chief magis. trate of the community, possesses the entire ruling power that he is, in the proper acceptation of the term, a monarch. Most of the oriental governments past and present, Russia at present, and Spain and France as they were in the last century, are in this strict sense monarchies. The degenerate form of monarchy is tyranny, or government for the exclusive benefit of the ruler. When the head of the state, still possessing the status and dignity of royalty, shares the supreme power with a class of nobles, with a popular body, or with both, as in our own country, the government, though no longer in strictness monarchical, is called in popular language a mixed or limited monarchy, the term absolute monarchy being applied to a government properly monarchical. The highest ideal of government would perhaps be attained by an absolute monarchy, if there were any security for always possessing a thoroughly wise and good monarch; but this condition is obviously unattainable, and a bad despot has it in his power to inflict infinite evil. It therefore becomes desirable that a governing class, composed, if possible, of the wisest and most enlightened in the country, should share the supreme power with the sovereign. A limited monarchy has this advantage over an aristocratic republic that, in difficult crises of the nation's existence, royalty becomes a neutral and guiding power, raised above the accidents and struggles of political life.

Monarchy, most usually hereditary, has sometimes been elective, a condition generally attended with feuds and distractions, as was the case in Poland. The elective system is still followed in the choice of the pope. Constitutional monarchy may be in its origin elective, or combine both systems, as when one family is disinherited, and the scepter declared hereditary in the hands of another under certain conditions. See KING, REPUBLIC

MONASTERY has been described under the head of Monachism (q.v.) as the generic name of the residence of any body of men, or even, though more rarely, of women, bound by monastic vows. It may be useful, however, to detail the various classes of monastic establishments of the western church, and to point out the leading characteristics of each. The name, in its most strict acceptation, is confined to the residences of monks, properly so called, or of nuns of the cognate orders (as the Benedictine), and as such, it comprises two great classes, the abbey and the priory. The former name was given only to establishments of the highest rank, governed by an abbot, who was commonly assisted by a prior, sub-prior, and other minor functionaries. An abbey always included a church, and the English word minster, although, like the cognate German münster, it has now lost its specific application, has its origin in the Latin monasterium. A priory supposed a less extensive and less numerous community. It was governed by

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