« 上一頁繼續 »
It has been sometimes alleged that moles eat vegetable as well as animal food, and that they are injurious to farmers, by devouring carrots and other roots; but it appears rather that they only gnaw roots when in the way of their mining operations, or perhaps, also, in quest of grubs which they contain. Moles are generally regarded as a pest by farmers and gardeners, owing to the injury which mole-hills do to lawns and pastures, the burying up of young plants, and the disturbance of their roots. But they are certainly of use in the economy of nature in preventing the excessive increase of some other creatures; and probably also contribute to the fertility of some pastures, by the continual tillage which they carry on. Mole-traps of various kinds are in use, which are planted, if the mole-catcher is skillful, in the often-traversed roads of the animals. Mole-catching has long been a distinct trade in Britain.
The name mole is abbreviated from the old English name mouldwarp, or mouldiwarp, still provincially used, and which is derived from the Anglo-Saxon molde, mould, and weorpan, to throw up.
Another species of mole (7. cæca) is found in the most southern parts of Europe; very similar to the common mole, but rather smaller, and having the eye always covered by the eyelid, so as to justify Aristotle's statement that the mole is blind.—A species, also very similar to the common mole, is found in North America.
Among the other talpidæ are the CHANGEABLE MOLE, or CAPE MOLE (chrysochloris capensis) of South Africa, which is remarkable as the only one of the mammalia hat exhibits the splendid metallic reflections so frequently seen in some other classes of animals; the SHREW MOLE (q.v.) and the STAR Nose (q.v.) of North America. See illus., BATS, ETC., vol. II., p. 292, figs. 18, 23 ; RODENTIA, vol. XII., p. 698, fig. 20.
MOLE. Sec NAEVUS.
MOLÉ, Louis MATTHIEU, Comte, a French statesman, and a descendant of the famous French statesman and magistrate, Matthieu Molé (b. 1584; d. 1653), was b. at Paris, Jan. 24, 1781. His father, president of the parliament of Paris, died by the guillotine in 1794. His mother was a daughter of Malesherbes. Molé was for the most part his own preceptor, and displayed a wonderfully precocious love of hard work and independent reflection. In 1805 be published Essais de Morale et de Politique, in which he vindicated the government of Napoleon on the ground of necessity. The attention of the emperor was drawn to him; lie was appointed to various offices in succession, and raised to the dignity of a count, and to a place in the cabinet. After Napoleon's return from Eiba, he refused to subscribe the declaration of the council of state banishing the Bourbons forever from France, and declined to take his seat in the chamber of peers. In 1815 Louis XVIII. made him a peer, and he voted for the death of Ney. In 1817 he was for a short time minister of marine, but afterwards acted independently of party, and was one of the principal orators in the chamber of peers. In 1830 he became minister of foreign affairs in Louis Philippe's first cabinet, but only for a short time. In 1836 he succeeded Thiers as prime minister; but, in the eyes of the liberal party, be displayed too entire a devotedness to the wishes of the king, and thus rendered his ministry very unpopular, so that in 1839 he felt it necessary to resign. In 1840 he was chosen a member of the Académie Française. From that time he took little part in political affairs, but after the revolution of 1848 exerted himself, but in vain, to rally and unite the party of order in the assembly to which he had been elected. He died at Champlatreux, Nov. 23, 1855. Molé was fiercely attacked and abused in the latter part of his political career, but it is not now believed that he was servile toward the court. He detested anarchy, and believed in the necessity of a strong government; but he loved genuine liberty, and always placed the constitution above the king. When Louis Napoleon's coup d'etat extinguished the republic, Molé proudly said that henceforth he could have nothing to do with politics.
MOLE-CRICKET, Gryllotalpa, a genus of insects of the cricket (q.v.) family (achetido or gryllida), remarkable for burrowing habits, and for the great strength and breadth of the fore-legs. The other legs are also large and strong, but of the form usual in the family. - The best known species (G. vulgaris) common in many parts of Europe, and pretty abundant in some places in England, but very local—is almost 2 in. long; of a velvety brown color; the wings, when folded, do not cover much more than one-half of the abdomen, although large when expanded. It uses its fore-legs not only for digging burrows in earth, but for cutting through or tearing off the roots of plants which come in its way. The mole-cricket feeds both on animal and vegetable substances, and often does no small injury to crops. The chirping, and somewhat musical call of the mole-cricket, produced in the same way as that of the common cricket, is heard chiefly in the end of spring and beginning of summer, and only in the evening or at night. In some parts of Èngland this sound has gained it the name of chur-worm. Another loca] English name is croaker. The female mole-cricket prepares a curious nest, a rounded subterranean cell, about as large as a hen's egg, having a complicated system of winding passages around it, and communicating with it. In this cell she deposits from 100 to 400 eggs. The young live for some time in society. They run actively, both in the larva and pupa states. The mole-cricket is very combative, and the victor generally eats the van. quished.—A species of mole-cricket (G, didactyla) does great injury to the plantations of sugar-canes in the West Indies.-A curious Indian insect, of a closely allied genus
(schizodactylus monstrosus) has prodigiously long wings, which, as well as the wing-cov. ers, are rolled into spiral coils at the tips. See illus., BEETLES, ETC., vol. II., p. 386, fig. 13.
MOLECULE, MOLEC'ULAR VOLUMES. See ATOM; ATOMIC THEORY; CHEMISTRY.
MOLENBEEK, ST. JEAN, a t. in Belgium, in the suburbs of Brussels; pop. 37,292. It has a museum of natural science.
MOLE-RAT, Spalax or Aspalax, a genus of rodent quadrupeds of the family muride, having teeth almost like those of rats, but in many respects resembling moles, as in general form, shortness of limbs, concealment of ears, smallness or even rudimentary condition of eyes, and burrowing habits-although their food is altogether different, consisting wholly of vegetable substances, and chiefly of roots. One species (S. typhlus) inhabits the s. of Russia and some parts of Asia. It is also known as the Podolian mar. mot, blind rat, slepez, zemni, etc. The mole-rat makes tunnels and throws up hillocks like the mole, but its hillocks are much larger.-Another species, found in the Malayan archipelago, is as large as a rabbit.— Nearly allied is the Coast Rat or SAND MOLE of s. Africa (bathyergus maritimus), also as large as a rabbit, with other species of the same genus, also natives of s. Africa, which drive tunnels through the sandy soil, and throw up large hillocks.
MOLESCHOTT, JACOB, b. Holland, 1822; took a medical degree at Heidelberg, and began the practice of medicine at Utrecht, whence he removed, in 1847, to Heidelberg, where for seven years he lectured on physiology at the university. A real or supposed tendency towards materialism, in his lectures, alarmed the authorities, and he resigned. Soon after he was appointed professor at Zurich, and in 1861 he was called to the chair of physiology al Turin. His physiological researches, particularly in regard to diet, muscuiar formation, the blood and bile, are of value. Without asserting the impossibility of a spiritual life, he explains the origin and the condition of animals by the working of physical causes. His characteristic formula is, “No thought without phosphorus." His most important works are: Lehre der Nahrungsmittel, 1850, which has been translated into English by Dr. Bonner as The Chemistry of Food and Diet; Physiologie der Nahrungsmittel, 1850; Ursache und Wirkung in der Lehre vom Leben, 1867; and Von der Selbstbestimmung im Leben der Menscheit, 1871.
MOLESKIN AND COR'DUROY are varieties of fustian (q.v.), a term which is used in a generic sense to include also velveteen, velveret, thick-set, thick-set cord, beaverteer, and other stout cotton cloths for men's apparel—a class of goods largely manufactured in Lancashire. The general structure of these fabrics is described under FUSTIAN and VELVET. They are, in point of fact, all of the nature of velvet, with a nap or pile on the surface, and most of them are twilled.
When cloth of this kind leaves the loom, its surface is covered with loops like Brussels carpet, and these are then cut open with a ripping knife of a peculiar shape, which the operatives learn to use with great dexterity. The hairy and uneven appearance which the cloth acquires in this operation is subsequently improved by the shearing process. The cloth is next steeped in hot water, to get rid of the paste used in dressing the yarn, and is then ready to be passed through the brushing or teaseling machine, which consists of blocks of wood with concave surfaces covered with card-brushes, working backwards and forwards in a lateral direction against wooden rollers, encased in tin plate, over which the cloth passes. The tin plate is made rough with the burs of punched holes. In the next operation, the fustian is singed by passing the pap side quickly over a redhot metal cylinder. The brushing and singeing are repeated three and occasionally four times, to give the cloth a smooth appearance. It is then washed, bleached with chloride of lime, and dyed-usually of some shade of olive, slate, or other quiet color.
The different names given to fustian cloths depend upon their degree of fineness, and the manner in which they are woven and finished. Thus, smooth kinds, of a strong twilled texture, are called moleskins when shorn before dyeing, and beaverteens when cropped after dyeing. Corduroy, or king's cord, is produced by a peculiar disposition of the pile-threads. In all fustians, there is a warp and weft thread, independent of the additional weft-thread forming the pile; but in corduroys, the pile-thread is only “thrown in” where the corded portions are, and is absent in the narrow spaces between them.
Until a comparatively recent period, the quantity of fustian cloths annually consumed in the British islands must have been very large, but the increased price of cotton, and the introduction of cheap woolen fabrics, have now very much curtailed the use of them.
MOLESTA'TION, in Scotch law, means disturbing the possession of heritage, and an action of molestation is a remedy for the trespass.
MOLESWORTH, GUILFORD LINDSAY, b. England, 1828; educated at the college of civil engineers at Putney. In 1852 he became chief assistant engineer of the Lcndon, Brighton, and South Coast railroad, but soon resigned to conduct the constructions at Woolwich arsenal during the Crimean war. After practicing his profession in London for a number of years, he went to Ceylon, and in 1862 became chief engineer of the gov
ernment railroad in that island. In 1867 he was appointed director of public works; and in 1871 consulting engineer to the Indian government. He has published a Pocket-book of Engineering Formula.
MOLESWORTH, Sir WILLIAM, Right Honorable (eighth baronet), English statesman, was b. 1810. Lineally descended from an old Cornish family of large possessions (the first baronet was president of the council in Jamaica in the time of Charles II., and subsequently governor of that island), he early showed promise of distinction. His university career at Cambridge was, however, cut short by his sending (under circumstances of great provocation) a challenge to his tutor to fight a duel. He continued his education at the university of Edinburgh, and subsequently at a German university. After making the usual tour of Europe, he returned home, and threw himself, in 1831, into the movement for parliamentary reform. Next year, although only just of age, he was elected member of parliament for Cornwall (East). He sat for Leeds from 1837 to 1841, and then remained out of parliament four years, during which interval he used to say he gave himself a second and sounder political education. He was the intimate friend of Bentham and James Mill, and was regarded as the parliamentary representative of the “philosophical radicals.” Having been a great admirer of Hobbes, he accumulated materials for a life of the “Philosopher of Malmesbury,” which remains in MS. uncompleted. In 1839 le commenced and carried to completion, at a cost of many thousand pounds, a reprint of the entire miscellaneous and voluminous writings of that eminent author. The publication was a valuable contribution to the republic of letters, and the works of Hobbes were placed by Molesworth's munificence in most of our university, and provincial public libraries. The publication, however, did him great disservice in public life, his opponents endeavoring to identify him with the freethinking opinions of Hobbes in religion, as well as with the great philosopher's conclusions in favor of despotic government. In 1845 he was elected for Southwark (which he continued to represent until his death), and entered upon a parliamentary career of the greatest energy and usefulness. He was the first to call attention to the abuses connected with the transportation of criminals, and as chairman of a parliamentary committee brought to light all the horrors of the convict system. He pointed out the maladministration of the colonial office, explained the true principles of colonial self-government, prepared drauglit constitutions for remote dependencies, and investigated the true and natural relations between the imperial government and its colonial empire. Molesworth's views, although at first unpalatable to the legislature, have been adopted by successive administrations, and are now part and parcel of the colonial policy of Great Britain. In January, 1853, he accepted the office of first commissioner of public works, in the administration of the earl of Aberdeen; and in 1855 the post of secretary of state for the colonies, in that of viscount Palmerston. This appointment gave great satisfaction to our dependencies; but before he could give proof of his administrative capacity, he was (Oct. 22, 1856) struck by the hand of death, while yet in the full vigor of life and intellect. He established the London Retiero, a new quarterly, in 1835; and afterwards purchased the Westminster Revier, the organ of the “philosophical radicals.” The two quarterlies being then merged into one, under the title of the London and Westminster, Molesworth contributed to it many able articles on politics and political economy.
MOLESWORTH, WILLIAM NASSAU, b. England, 1816; was educated at Cambridge and entered the English church. He was presented to St. Andrews, Manchester, in 1841, and to St. Clement Spotland, Rochdale. He was a strong advocate of co-operation, and had an interest in the well-known experiment of co operation at Rochdale. His most important writings are A History of the Reform Bill of 1832 and History of England from the Year 1830, 3 vols., 1871-73. He d. 1877.
MOLFET'TA, a city of southern Italy, in the province of Bari, situated on the Adriatic, 18 m. n.w. of Bari ; pop. '81, 29,697. The neighborhood yields excellent fruits, especially almonds and oranges, and has extensive olive plantations. Fish abound along the coast. The city contains a magnificent cathedral, and is partly inclosed by walls; it is conjectured that it occupies the site of some early forgotten town, from the numerous vases, urns, and other relics of antiquity found in its vicinity.
UOLIÈRE, JEAN BAPTISTE (properly, Jean Baptiste Poquelin—the name of Molière not having been assumed till he had commenced authorship, was b. at Paris, Jan. 15, 1622. His father, Jean Poquelin, was then an upholsterer, but subsequently became a valet-de-chambre to the king. Regarding the boyhood of Molière almost nothing is known, but his credulous biographers have put together whatever traditionary gossip they could find floating on the breath of society. Voltaire, while recording these contes populaires, as he calls them, pronounces them très-faux. All that we really are certain of is that in his 14th year he was sent to the Jesuit collége de Clermont in Paris, where he had for a fellow-student prince Armand de Conti, and that, on leaving the college, he attended for some time the lectures of Gassendi. He was charmed, we are told, by the freedom of thought permitted in speculative science, and, in particular, conceived a great admiration for Lucretius, the Roman poet-philosopher, whom he undertook to translate. Of this translation, only a single passage remains, intercalated in the Misanthrope (act ii. scene 4). · About 1641 he commenced the study of law, and appears to have even passed as an advocate; but the statement of Tallement des Réaux that he actually ventured into the precincts of theology, is generally rejected. Molière detested priests. So gay, humorous, and sharp-eyed a humanitarian would have felt quite miserable under the restraints of a monkish life. In 1645 he suddenly appeared upon the stage as member of a company of strolling players, which took the name of the Illustre Théâtre, and performed at first in the faubourgs of Paris, and afterwards in the provinces. For the next 12 years we can only catch an occasional glimpse of him. He was playing at Nantes and Bordeaux in 1848, at Narbonne and Toulouse in 1649, at Lyons in 1653 (where his first piece, L'Etourdi, a comedy of intrigue, was brought out), at Lyons and Narbonne again in 1655, at Grenoble during the carnival, and also at Rouen in 1658. During these now obscure peregrinations, he seems, although an industrious actor, to have been also a diligent student. He read Plautus, Terence, Rabelais, and the Italian and Spanish comedies, besides—without which, indeed, all the rest would have been of little avail-making a constant use of as quick eyes as ever glit. tered in a Frenchman's head. At Paris, by the powerful recommendation of his old schoolfellow, the prince de Conti, Molière's company got permission to act before the king, who was so highly pleased, that he allowed them to establish themselves in the city under the title of the Troupe de Monsieur. In 1659 Molière brought out Les Précieuses Ridicules, the fine satire of which-lapsing at times, however, into caricature—was instantly perceived and relished. Courage, Molière !” cried an old man on its first representation; “voilà la véritable comédie.” The old man was a prophet. Veritable comedy dated in France from that night. Ménage, the critic, is reported to have said to Chapelain the poet, as they were going out of the theater: "Henceforth (as St. Remi said to Clovis), we must burn what we have worshiped, and worship what we have burned.” In 1660 appeared Sganarelle, ou le Cocu Imaginaire; and in 1661 L'Ecole des Maris-partly founded on the Adelphi of Terence, in which Molière completely passes out of the region of farce into that of pure comic satire—and Les Fâcheux. In the following year, Molière married Armande-Grésinde Béjart, either the sister or daughter (for it is still undetermined) of Madeleine Béjart, an actress of his troupe, with whom he had formerly lived in what the French politely call “intimate relations.” That, however, there is the slightest ground for supposing that the great comedian incestuously married his own daughter, nobody now believes, though the revolting calumny was freely circu. lated even in Molière's lifetime. His literary activity continued as brisk as before. Among several pieces belonging to this year, the most celebrated is L'Ecole des Femmes, which excited, not without reason, the most violent indignation among the clergy and the devout, for there was an excessive indecency in the expression, and the author indulged in a caricature of religious mysteries that could not but be offensive. Molière defended himself with incredible audacity in his Impromptu de Versailles. Le Tartufe, written in 1664, was prohibited from being brought upon the stage; but Molière was invited by his literary friends, Boileau and others, to read it in a semi-public manner, which he did with the greatest approbation. In 1665 Louis XIV. bestowed a pension of 7,000 livres on Molière's company, which now called itself the Troupe du Roi. Next year appeared Le Misanthrope, the most artistic of all his comedies; shortly after followed by Le Médecin Malgré Lui." When Tartufe was at last brought upon the stage in 1669, it obtained a superb success. The truth, the variety, the contrast of the characters, the exquisite art shown in the management of the incidents, the abundance of the sentiments, and the wonderful alternations of feeling-laughter, anger, indignation, tenderness-make this, in the opinion of most critics, Molière's masterpiece. To the same year belongs L'Avare. In 1670 appeared Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme, a very pleasant satire on a very prevalent vice among wealthy tradesmen-viz., the vulgar ambition to pass for fine gentlemen. Then came Les Fourberies de Scapin (1671), followed by Les Femmes Savantes (1672), full of admirable passages; and Le Malade Imaginaire (1673), the most popular, if not the best of all Molière's comedies. While acting in this piece, he was seized with severe pains, which, however, he managed to conceal from the audience; but on being carried home, hemorrhage ensued, and he expired at ten o'clock at night (Feb. 17, 1673). As Molière had died in state of excommunication, and without having received the last aids of religion-which, however, he had implored—the archbishop of Paris refused to let him be buried in consecrated ground; but the king interfered—a compromise was effected, and he was privately interred in the cemetery of St. Joseph, being followed to the tomb by a hundred of his friends with lighted torches. In 1792 his remains were transferred to the museum of French monuments, from which they were removed to Père Lachaise in 1817. Molière ranks as the greatest French comic dramatist, perhaps the greatest of all comic dramatists. Among the best editions of Molière's works are those of Auger (1819-25), Aimé-Martin (1833-36), Moland (1871), and Despois (1874 et seq.). A complete English translation of Molière's works is that by Van Laun, in 6 vols. (Edin. 1875–76). The best biographies are by Taschereau (1825–27), and Bazin (1851). The books devoted to Molière and his works would themselves form a large library.
MOLINA, Fray ALONSO DE, 1496–1584; b. Spain; entered the order of St. Francis. He went to Mexico to convert the natives soon after the Spanish conquest, and familiarized bimself with the Aztec language. He made translations into Aztec of the catechism and of a confessional manual. He also wrote a grammar of that language, but his great work is his Aztec-Spanish Dictionary, completed in 1571.
MOLINA, Louis, a celebrated Spanish Jesuit theologian, was b. at Cuença, in New Castile, in the year 1535; and having entered the Jesuit society in his 18th year, studied at Coimbra, and was appointed professor of theology at Evora, where he continued to teach for 20 years. He died at Madrid in 1600 in the 65th year of his age. Molina's celebrity is mainly confined to the theological schools. His principal writings are a com. mentary on the Summa of St. Thomas (Čuença, 2 vols. 1593); a minute and comprehensive treatise On Justice and Right (Cuença, 6 vols. 1592; reprinted at Mainz in 1659); and the celebrated treatise on The Reconciliation of Grace and Free-Will, which was printed at Lisbon in 1588, with an appendix, printed in the following year. Although it is to the last-named work that Molina's celebrity is mainly due, we must be content with a very brief notice of it. The problem which it is meant to resolve is almost as old as the origin of human thought itself, and has already led, in the 4th c., to the well-known Pelagian controversy (q.v.). In reconciling with the freedom of man's will the predestination of the elect to happiness, and of the reprobate to punishment, Molina asserts that the predestination is consequent on God's foreknowledge of the free determination of man's. will, and, therefore, that it in no way affects the freedom of the particular actions, in requital of which man is predestined, whether to punishment or to reward. God, in Molina's view, gives to all men sufficient grace whereby to live virtuously, and merit happiness. Certain individuals freely co-operate with this grace; certain others resist it. God foresees both courses, and this foreknowledge is the foundation of one or of the other decree. This exposition was at once assailed in the schools on two grounds-first as a revival of the Pelagian heresy, inasmuch as it appears to place the efficacy of grace in the consent of man's will, and thus to recognize a natural power in man to elicit supernatural acts; second, as setting aside altogether what the Scriptures represent as the special election of the predestined, by making each individual, according as he freely accepts or refuses the grace offered to all in common, the arbiter of his own predestination or reprobation. Hence arose the celebrated dispute between the MOLINISTs and the Thomists. It was first brought under the cognizance of the inquisitor-general of Spain, by whom it was referred to pope Clement VIII. This pontiff, in 1697, appointed the celebrated congregation, De Auriliis, to consider the entire question; but notwithstanding many lengthened discussions, no decision was arrived at during the life-time of Clement; and although the congregation was continued under Paul V., the only result was a decree in 1607 permitting both opinions to be taught by their respective advocates, and prohibiting each party from accusing the adversaries of heresy. The dispute, in some of its leading features, was revived in the Jansenist controversy (see JANSEN); but with this striking difference, that whereas the rigorous Jansenists denied the freedom of the will when acted on by efficacious grace, all the disputants in the scholastic controversy-even the Thomists-maintain that, in all circumstances, the will remains free, although they may fail to explain how this freedom is secured under the action of efficacious grace. See AQUINAS.
MOLINE', a t. in Rock Island co., Ill., on the e. bank of the Mississippi and on the line of the Western Union, Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific, and the Rockford, Rock Island and St. Louis railroads; pop. of township about 7,800. Fine water-power is obtained by a dam reaching from the shore to an island in the river, and from 20 to 25 factories are constantly in operation manufacturing steam-engines, pumps, plows, paper, and many other articles. The place has 3 banks, 4 newspapers, a public library, many churches, and a very fine public school.
MOLINELLA, a t. in the province of Bologna, in n. Italy, between the Reno and Po rivers. Pop. 10,751. The chief industry is the manufacture of cheese and hemp. The town was anciently situated on separate islands formed by changes in the course of the Po; these islands have been joined and built over.
MO'LINISM, the name given to the system of grace and election taught by Louis Molina (4.v.). This system has been commonly taught in the Jesuit schools; but a modification of it was introduced by the celebrated Spanish divine Suarez (q.v.), in order to save the doctrine of special election. Suarez held, that although God gives to all grace absolutely sufficient for their salvation, yet he gives to the elect a grace which is not alone in itself sufficient, but which is so attempered to their disposition, their opportunities, and other circumstances, that they infallibly, although yet quite freely, yield to its influence. This modification of Molina's system is called CONGRUISM. Molinism must not be confounded either with Pelagianism or semi-Pelagianism, inasmuch as Molinism distinctly supposes the inability of man to do any supernatural act without grace (q.v.).
MOLI'NO DEL REY. An outpost of Chapultepec, about 24 m. from the city of Mexico, where occurred a battle Sept. 8, 1847, between the American troops under gen. Winfield Scott and the Mexicans commanded by gen. Santa Anna. Scott's force numbered about 10,000 men; the Mexicans about 7,000 picked men, with a reserve of 12,000. Scott had captured Contreras and Churubusco, and sat down under the walls of Chapultepec from Aug. 20 to Sept. 7, while an armistice existed to enable Nicholas P. Trist, peace commissioner, to conclude an amicable arrangement if possible. At the close of the armistice, the peace negotiations having proved ineffectual, Scott attacked Molino del Rey, which comprised a number of massive stone buildings, about 500 yards in extent, commanded by the defenses of the great fortified castle of Chapultepec, where were