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of a middleman or master coal-whipper; contracted for the whipping of ships of coal, and employed the men. No one but men registered on the books of the board was allowed to work on the Thames as a coal-whipper, with the exception of the crews of the ships and the servants of the coal-owners. This exceptionally-protected trade was maintained on the same basis by other acts passed in 1846 and 1851. In 1856, however, a further renewal was refused; and a committee of the house of lords, in 1857, while sympathizing with the men, declined to recommend any further special legislation for them. The coal-owners agreed with the board of trade to maintain a whipping office, to give the men a refuge from the publicans, but without interfering with the liberty of coal-shippers to employ whom they pleased; and this plan has since been acted on. The office is at the coal exchange, with a men's rendezvous near Ratcliff. The necessity for coalwhippers has been much lessened of late years by the use of a floating derrick in the Thames, by which the contents of a coal-ship can be transferred to the barges in a few . hours by steam-power.
COAM'INGS, in a ship, are small frame-works on the deck, to prevent sea and rain water from running down the hatchways, ladder-ways, and scuttles.
COAN, TITUS, D.D., b. Coun., 1801; ordained a Congregational minister in Boston in 1833, and in that year made a trip of exploration to Patagonia, where he wished to establish a mission. Circumstances being unfavorable, he returned, but soon afterwards he went to the Sandwich islands and was stationed as a missionary at Hilo. Besides his work as a missionary Dr. C. published in the American Journal of Science and elsewhere many valuable papers on scientific subjects. He d. 1883.
CÖANZA, a river of Lower Guinea, western Africa, which, after a course of about 500 or 600 m., enters the Atlantic s. of St. Paul de Loando, in lat. about 9° 10's. It is navigable for a considerable distance, but a bar at its mouth renders it inaccessible save to small vessels.
COAST-GUARD, an organization formerly intended to prevent smuggling merely, but now constituted so as to serve as a defensive force also. "The old coast-guardsmen were in the employment of the customs department; they were posted along the shore at spots commanding extensive views of the beach, and were expected to be always on the look-out for smugglers. In 1856, the coast-guard was transferred to the admiralty, and under this arrangement the admiralty may, from time to time, issue orders for the augmentation of the coast-guard, not to exceed 10,000 men in all. Lands, not exceeding three acres each, may be bought by the admiralty for coast-guard stations. The coasts of the United Kingdom have been divided into 11 districts. Each district is under a navy captain, who has an iron-clad guard-ship at some port in the district. All the revenue cruisers and defense-gunboats are attached as tenders to the ships, and are manned therefrom. The able seamen, borne on the ships' books, and employed on shore in coast-guard service, are in three classes-chief boatmen, commissioned boatmen, and boatmen. They receive high sea-pay, besides 18. 4d. per day in lieu of provisions, and house-rent and medical attendance free. In war-time, all of these men may be called upon to serve as regular sailors on board ship; but their families are allowed to live rent-free during this time. The coast-guard are taught naval gunnery, gunboat exercise, and the serving of land-batteries. The guard-ships are also employed as training-ships for the navy. The whole of the coast-guard comprised, in 1879, 4.300 men, and the charge for their maintenance and that of their ships is about £500,000.
COASTING-TRADE, the commerce carried on by sea between the different ports of the same country. In Great Britain, “coastwise' is defined to mean “from any one part of the United Kingdom to any other part thereof." Vessels engaged in this commerce are subject to different rates and regulations from over-sea traders, and the masters must keep books showing that their cargoes come strictly within the definition of coasting-trade. Formerly, no goods or passengers were allowed to be carried from one port of the United Kingdom to another, except in British vessels; but this restriction was repealed in 1854, and the coasting-trade of Great Britain is now open to all the world. In other countries, the exclusive policy still prevails. The regulations under which the coasting-trade are conducted are contained in the customs consolidation act, 16 and 17 Vict. c. 107 (see M'Culloch's Commercial Dictionary).
COASTING-TRADE (ante). This trade in the United States is far more extensive than in any other country. Of the 38 states now in the union, 18 border on the Atlantic ocean and the gulf of Mexico, and two border on the Pacific, to which may be added the territory of Washington, and the enormous coast-line of the newly acquired territory of Alaska. There is an immense amount of coastwise trade, especially along the Atlantic and the gulf. In the time of the early settlements such trading was done in small shallops, sloops, and schooners, and there was very little of it. The introduction of steam-vessels' made a great change, and the trade rapidly grew in importance. At the present time many hundreds of steamers and more hundreds of sailing craft are constantly plying from Maine to Texas, transferring the cotton, sugar, and rice of the southern to northern, and the lumber, grain, and manufactured goods of the northern to southern markets. The swift propeller brings the oranges and strawberries of Florida
to Maine, and takes back the ice of the Penobscot. In summer, these coasting steamers do a large share of the passenger as well as trade traffic. The thoroughness of the coast survey, and the recent introduction of the weather service whereby mariners are duly forewarned of danger, have done much to prevent the disasters which were common not long ago, and even the dreaded cape Hatteras has lost much of its terror.
COAST-LINE, the ocean boundary of any continent, island, or section of land. Such lines vary in length with the amount of indentation by gulfs and bays. Europe has nearly 20,000 m. of coast-line; Africa, 15,000; Asia, 30,000; North America, 23,000, and South America, 15,000.
COAST RANGE, or Coast MOUNTAINS, in California, running in a course almost parallel with the ocean from near the boundary of Oregon into Lower California. The range has a width of 30 to 40 m., and has numerous spurs which usually run toward the ocean. Between these are well-watered and exceedingly fertile valleys. The chief peaks of the range are San Bernardino, 11,600 ft.; Helena, 3,700. The principal passes are from 686 to 3,780 ft. above sea level. The mountains are usually rocky and steep. Those near the sea are covered with timber, while those far inland are nearly bare.
COAST SURVEY, a scientific department of the government of the United States, established for the purpose of making geodetic and hydrographic surveys to determine the coast-line, and of making charts of harbors and tide-waters, and of the bottom of the ocean along the coast. It extends its observations to all parts of the globe, as may be thought serviceable to navigation; and it makes such other observations (as of the tides and currents, and of the nature of the sea and river bottoms) as will permit calculations of changes to be expected in the future. Its office is also to indicate positions for the erection of light-houses and all other useful signals, and to make various meteorological and other observations. The inception of the organization was contemplated in the message of president Jefferson to congress in 1807. An act was passed authorizing him to cause a survey of the coasts of the United States, including islands, shoals, and places of anchorage within 20 leagues of the shore, and of St. George's bank; and to take soundings and observations upon currents beyond such limits, to the gulf stream. This act appropriated $50,000 for the object. Plans were requested from scientific men, and that proposed by Mr. F. R. Hassler, a native of Switzerland, was adopted. It was, in the first place, to determine the positions of certain prominent points of the coast by astronomical observations, and to connect them by trigonometrical lines from which to make a nautical survey; but nothing was done till 1811, when he went to Europe to obtain instruments and material for the work. He was, however, detained till the close of the war with Great Britain. On his return he was appointed superintendent of the coast survey, but did not begin active labors till 1817, when, in the vicinity of New York, he measured a base-line west of the Palisades on the Hudson, for the triangulation of New York harbor; but the work was not extended beyond this, for want of funds, except that a few detached surveys were made by the navy, and by the topographical engineers of the army. An interval of ten years elapsed, and in 1832, after a small appropriation had been made by congress, Mr. Hassler resumed the active duties of his office, and was authorized to employ, in addition to the naval and army officers designated for that service, such astronomers and other persons as he might deem necessary. He continued to superintend the survey till his death, in 1843. The work which he accomplished was to extend the survey at New York as far eastward as Point Judith, R. I., and as far s. as cape Henlopen, Del. The triangulation extended over an area of 9,000 sq.m., determining the positions of about 1200 stations, to be used in the delineation of about 1600 m. of shore line. Mr. Hassler was succeeded by prof. A. D. Bache. In 1845, surveys were begun on the coasts of Virginia and North Carolina, and during the next two years they were extended to Georgia and the gulf states, and afterwards to the Florida reefs and keys. Many observations on the gulf stream were taken during the time of the superintendency of prof. Bache, and extended observations were made upon the tides and currents in various rivers, for the purpose of deducing the laws by which they are governed. The magnetic force and direction in parts of the earth included in the survey were observed, and various meteorological observations were taken for the purpose of investigating the laws of storms. The civil war interrupted the operations of the survey along the coast of the southern states, but many of the coast-survey officers were with the United States vessels, and their knowledge was of the utmost importance in naval operations. Two years after the close of the war, prof. Bache died (1867), and prof. Benjamin Pierce, of Harvard university, was appointed his successor. Since then a more comprehensive system has been prosecuted, extending across the continent; and the Pacific coast has been the subject of extended triangulation, although still far from complete; and the hydrographic survey has been actively carried on. See HYDROGRAPHY, GEODESY, and TRIANGULATION.
COAST VOLUNTEERS, or ROYAL NAVAL Coast VOLUNTEERS, was a corps organized for the special defense of the coasts of the United Kingdom, separate from, but in connection with the coast-guard (q.v.). By an act of parliament passed in 1853, the admiralty was empowered to raise a number, not exceeding 10,000, of C. V., to consist of sea-faring men and others, to be entered for five years' service, and to be exercised 28 days in each year, either on shipboard or on shore; but not to be sent more than 50 leagues from the coasts of the United Kingdom, unless in cases of emergency, when the distance might be extended to 100 leagues. One year's active service entitled them to discharge in ordinary cases; but in emergencies, they might be called out a second year on receipt of higher pay. Their pay, allowance, and rank during exercise and active service was the same as able seamen's. The bounty to be paid on entering, and the arrangements for arms, clothing, and accoutrements, were left for the admiralty to settle from time to time. An act passed in 1875 invested the com-. mand of the C. V. in the coast-guard, the officers of which were to superintend the training and exercising. As a matter of fact, the force was a very small one (600), and a failure; and was ultimately abolished.
COAT OF ARMS, in the military trappings of the middle ages, held the place of the paludamentum of the ancient Roman captains. It was a coat worn by princes and great barons over their armor, and descended to the knee. It was made of cloth of gold or silver, of fur or of velvet, and bore armorial insignia. The “coat of arms," as understood by heraldry in the present day, is nothing more than a relic of the ancient armorial insignia, divested of the coat on which it used to be embroidered. See SHIELD, HERALDRY.
COATBRIDGE, a rising and prosperous t. of Scotland, in the parish of Old Monkland, about 8 m. directly e. of Glasgow, on the Monkland canal and Caledonian railway. The town is straggling, has some good houses, and a number of small villages or suburbs on its outskirts. There are six churches besides the parish church, two academies, and several other schools, banks, etc. The town is in the center of a mineral district, is surrounded by about 50 smelting-furnaces, and contains 8 malleable-iron works, one tin-work (the only one in Scotland), and several other works connected with the iron manufacture. C., owing to the great increase in the iron trade, has grown very rapidly in size and prosperity within the last 30 years. Pop. '41, 1599; '51, 8,564; '61, 10,501; '81, 17,500; and still rapidly increasing.
COATI, or COATI-MONDI (nasua), a genus of quadrupeds of the family ursido (the bear family); by some naturalists.referred to viverride (the civet family), although their plantigrade character allies them rather to the former. They are most nearly allied to the raccoons, and, like them, are exclusively American. They are chiefly remarkable for the elongation of the snout, which is a sort of flexible proboscis, and is turned about in search of food, and employed in rooting up the earth to obtain worms and insects. · They are often domesticated in South America, and are very affectionate, active, troublesome, and amusing. See illus., DEER, ETC., p. 686, fig. 3.
COAT OF MAIL, in the armor of the middle ages, was a suit made of metal scales or rings, linked one within another. See ARMOR.
COATZACOAL'CO, a river of Mexico rising in the Sierra Madre, flowing partially across the isthmus of Tehuantepec, and emptying into the gulf of Mexico. This river, and the region around, have been several times explored with the view of constructing a canal across the isthmus from the gulf to the Pacific, the river being considered an important element in the work.
COBALT (from Cobalus, a malicious sprite or gnome) is a metal of no use in the arts and manufactures, but which forms compounds of commercial importance. C. (symbol Co) is found naturally in combination with arsenic, iron, and nickel, as speiss C., (CoNiFe)As, ; in combination with arsenic, iron, and sulphur, as C. glance, the arsenide and sulphide of C. (CoFe/AsS)2, in ores of nickel (q.v.); and in the metallic state, it is found in meteoric stones or aërolites (q.v.). The metal has been obtained in laboratory experiments, and presents a gray color with a reddish tinge, is highly magnetic, and is as bard and infusible as iron. It is a brittle metal, and forms no alloys of commercial use. The protoxide of C. (CoC) is employed in painting on porcelain, for producing a rich blue color. Zaffre is the impure oxide obtained by partially mixing C. ore with two or three times its weight of fine sand. Smalt is the term applied to a deep blue glass, which owes its color to the presence of a silicate of C., and which, when reduced to a very fine powder, is employed occasionally by laundresses to correct the yellow color of newly washed linen, and by paper-makers as a blue pigment for staining writing-paper. Smalt is also used in the production of the blue colors in porcelain, pottery glass, encaustic tiles, fresco painting, etc., and forms the principal ingredient in old Sevres blue, Thenard's blue, turquoise blue, and variegated blue. See BLUE. A compound containing the oxides of C. and zinc is of a beautiful green color, and is known as Rinman's green. The chloride of C., dissolved in much water, may be employed as a sympathetic ink. In dilute solutions, it is of a faint pink color, which is not observable when it is used for writing upon paper; but when heated before the fire, it loses water, and becomes blue, and the writing is then capable of being read. On allowing the paper thereafter to lie in a damp place, or exposing it to the vapor of steam from a kettle, water is again absorbed, and the writing returns to its invisible state. The addition of a little perchloride of iron to the ink, makes the writing appear green; a solution of zinc imparts a red tint; and a salt of copper, a yellow shade.
COBAN', a t. of Central America, Guatemala, in the dep. of Vera Paz, in a fertile valley on the Rio Dolce, 55 m. n. of the town of Guatemala. The inhabitants are nearly
all Indians, are generally industrious and some of them wealthy, and possess plantations of sugar-cane, bananas, pimentos, and various kinds of fruit-trees. Pop. estimated at 14,000.
COBB, a co. in n.w. Georgia on the Chattahoochee river, intersected by the Western and Atlantic railroads; 529 sq.m.; pop. '80, 20,748—6,010 colored. Surface hilly and in part mountainous, soil fertile. Gold has been found. The main products are wheat, corn, cotton, and butter. Co. seat, Marietta.
COBB, DAVID, 1748–1830; b. Mass. ; graduated at Harvard, and became a physician. He was an officer in the revolutionary army, member of congress, judge of the common pleas, and lieutenant-governor of Massachusetts.
COBB, HOWELL, 1815-68; b. Ga., graduated at Franklin college, and admitted to the bar in 1836. In 1843, he was sent to congress, where he served until 1851. In 1849, he was elected speaker of the house. He was one of the leaders of the southern party in congress, and favored the extension of slavery into the territory acquired from Mexico. In 1851, he was chosen governor of Georgia, and again to congress in 1855. He was secretary of state in Buchanan's cabinet, resigning Dec., 1860, to join the south in the approaching war. He was the first president of the confederate congress, and afterwards a maj.gen., but made no military reputation.
COBB, SYLVANUS, D.D., 1799–1866; b. Me.; a minister in the Universalist church. He edited a newspaper for 20 years, and wrote a Commentary on the New Testament, and other works. His name is more widely known through the literary work of his son Sylvanus, 1823–87, a prolific writer of tales and sketches.
COBB, Thomas R. See page 885.
COBBE, FRANCES POWER, b. 1822; an English authoress, a great-granddaughter of Charles Cobbe, archbishop of Dublin. She became interested in religious studies, and was for a long time a personal friend and admirer of Theodore Parker, editing the English edition of his works, and being with him at Florence in the last days of his life. She traveled in Italy and the east, giving her observations in the The Cities of the Past, Among her other works are Studies New and ol of Ethical Subjects; Hours of Work and Play; Essay on Intuitive Morals; Religious Duty; and Darwinism in Morals, and other Essays. She is noted for fluency and force of style.
COB'BETT, WILLIAM, a celebrated English political writer, was b. in Mar., 1762, at Farnham, in Surrey, where his father was a small farmer. From his infancy, he was trained in habits of industry and self-dependence. Taking a dislike to rural occupations, he went to London, where he was employed a few months as a copying-clerk-a kind of employment so distasteful to him, that he enlisted into the 54th foot, and with it went out to Nova Scotia shortly after. In this regiment he remained about eight years, in the course of which time his uniform good conduct, activity, and intelligence had secured him the high promotion of sergeant-major. During his soldier-years, he indulged in none of the dissipations common to barrack-life, but devoted the whole of his leisure to the work of self-education. On his return to England, about the end of 1791, he obtained his discharge, married, and went to America in the following year. He settled in Philadelphia, where he commenced his career as a political writer. Under the signature of “ Peter Porcupine,” he was at this early stage as keen a tory as in later life he was a radical, and he lashed French republicanism and American democracy with a scorn as coarse and personal sometimes as it was always bitter. In America, he was twice prosecuted for libel. He left America in June, 1800, and returned to England. In Jan., 1802, appeared the first number of his famous Weekly Political Register, which he continued without intermission until his death in 1835. At first, tory, the Register gradually changed its politics, until at last it became the most fierce and determined opponent of the government, then presided over by Pitt, and the most uncompromising champion of radicalism. In 1810, having previously been twice tried and found guilty of libel on certain members of the government, he was sentenced to imprisonment for two years in Newgate, and to pay a fine of £1000, for having in the Register made some severe remarks upon the flogging of five militiamen. In 1817, in consequence of pecuniary embarrassments, and the dread of being sent to Newgate again, under the six acts for the suppression of freedom of discussion, C. went once more to America, where he remained more than two years. his articles for the Register being transmitted with unfailing regularity across the Atlantic. In 1829–30, C. delivered political lectures in several of the principal towns of England and Scotland, and everywhere met with a most enthusiastic reception as the boldest and most powerful advocate of the people's rights. In 1832, he was returned to the first reformed parliament as one of the members for Oldham. His speeches in parliament, however, did not add to his reputation. He died June 18, 1835. Among C.'s best known works are his English Grammar; Rural Rides; Cottage Economy; Advice to Young Men and Women; and Parliamentary History. C. was by no means a man of the first order of intellect; he was shut out altogether from the higher and more refined departments of human thought. But in dealing with matters of common-sense merely, he exhibited a native vigor far surpassing that of any writer of his day. Nor can there be any doubt that, in spite of his crotchets, he rendered lasting service to the cause of the people. See Smith's Life of C. (1878).
COBDEN CLUB. See page 885.
COB'DEN, RICHARD, an eminent English politician, who was very aptly designated "the apostle of free-trade,” was b. at Dunford, near Midhurst, Sussex, in 1804. His father, who was the owner of some little property, which he cultivated himself, died while the subject of this article was yet young, leaving his family in comparatively poor circumstances. Richard was received into a wholesale warehouse belonging to his uncle, where he soon exhibited great aptitude for business. After some time, he became a partner in a Manchester house, his presence here being speedily made manifest by the superior quality and tastefulness of the printed calicoes of the firm. In 1834–35, C. traveled in Turkey, Greece, and Egypt, and also visited the United States, the result of his travels appearing in two pamphlets, entitled respectively England, Ireland, and America, and Russia; the latter intended as an antidote against the “Russophobia " then prevalent. In these pamphlets, he also ridiculed the workings of diplomacy, and asserted England's mission to be the avoidance of war and the extension of commerce. In 1837, he contested unsuccessfully, on free-trade principles, the borough of Stockport; and in 1838 he carried in the Manchester chamber of commerce a motion to petition parliament for the repeal of all duties on corn. This was followed by similar action all over the country; and in the following year, petitions bearing some two millions of signatures for the repeal of the corn-laws were carried to London by 200 delegates. The motion of Mr. Villiers for repeal being rejected by a large majority of the house of commons, the friends of free-trade determined to form the anti-corn-law league (q.v.), of which C. became the most active and prominent member. To his lectures all over the country, and his speeches in parliament (to which he was returned in 1841 by the constituency which rejected him in 1837), all characterized by great information, clear: ness, and acute and convincing reasoning, was in great part due, as sir Robert Peel acknowledged, the abolition of the corn-laws at so early a period as 1846. Having accomplished this great work, C. again visited the continent, and during his absence he was elected both for Stockport and the West Riding of Yorkshire. He chose the latter constituency, which he continued to represent till 1857, when, on an appeal to the country by lord Palmerston to support him in his Chinese policy, of which C. was a strenuous opponent, he was rejected. Shortly after the repeal of the corn-laws, the public testified its gratitude to him for the services he rendered in this matter by subscribing for him a magnificent testimonial of between £60,000 and £70,000. C. now gave up business, and devoted himself exclusively to politics. He continued to labor assiduously for the extension of free-trade principles, for parliamentary and financial reform, for repeal of the taxes on knowledge, and was particularly earnest in enunciating national and international peace views; and to this feeling with regard to war, he owed his rejection at the general election of 1857. In 1859, having in the interval, on account of ill health, retired from politics altogether, he was, during his absence in America, elected to Rochdale. Lord Palmerston, who was at this time called upon to form a new ministry, with a just appreciation of the great services which C. had rendered to his country, offered him a seat in the cabinet, which C., as the uncompromising opponent of the noble lord's foreign policy, felt bound to decline. After his election for Rochdale, the state of his health did not permit him to take any part in parliamentary proceedings, but as her majesty's plenipotentiary, he (1859–60) arranged and concluded a treaty of commerce with France. C. spoke out strongly in favor of the north during the American civil war. He died April 2, 1865. See Supp., COBDEN CLUB.
COBI'JA, a t. of Bolivia, claims notice chiefly as being the only seaport of the republic. It is situated in lat. 22° 34' s., long. 70° 21' w., and forms the capital of the department La Mar. Its pop. is less than 3,000, and its trade inconsiderable, for, besides the disadvantage of an open roadstead to seaward, there extends inland the almost impracticable desert of Atacama. Hence most of the maritime commerce of the state (see BOLIVIA) passes, and that in the face of transit- duties, through the Peruvian harbors to the northward.
COBI'TIS. See LOACH.
COB'LE, or COB'BLE, is a low flat boat with a square stern, mostly used by salmon. fishers.
COBLEIGH, NELSON EBENEZER, D.D., LL.D., 1814–74, b. N. H. ; a graduate of Wesleyan university; professor in McKendree college, Ohio; in Lawrence university, Wis.; president of East Tennessee Wesleyan university; and editor of two Methodist newspapers, Zion's Herald, Boston, 1858, and the Methodist Advocate, Atlanta, Ga., 1872.
COBLENZ, a city of Rhenish Prussia, beautifully situated at the junction of the Rhine and the Moselle, the former of which is here crossed by a bridge of boats, and the latter by a fine stone bridge. Being a bulwark of Germany against France, C. is defended by extensive fortifications, forming a fortified camp capable of affording accommodation for 100,000 men. For defense-purposes, C. is connected with the almost impregnable castle of Ehrenbreitstein (q.v.), on the opposite side of the Rhine. Several detached forts also guard the city at various points. In the old town of C., many of the streets are irregular, narrow, and dirty; but in the new town they are generally well built, moderately wide, and cleanly. Among its principal buildings are the church of St. Castor, founded early in the 9th c.; the town.ball; the old castle of the electors of