« 上一頁繼續 »
CLINTON, the seat of justice of East Feliciana parish, La.; 85 m. n.w. of New Orleans. The pop, in 1880 was 1,129. There is railroad communication with Port Hudson.
CLINTON, a t, in Worcester co., Mass., 32 m. w. of Boston, on the Nashua river; pop. '80, 8,030. The people are extensively engaged in manufacturing carpets, cotton and woolen goods, boots and shoes, etc. The Boston, Clinton, and Fitchburg, and the Worcester and Nashua railroads reach the village.
CLINTON, a t. in Hunterdon co., N. J., 31 m. n.w. of Trenton, on the s. branch of Raritan river, and the New Jersey Central railroad; pop. '80, 2,975 ; of the borough, 785. It is in the midst of a fine agricultural region, and has many important manu, factories.
CLINTON, a village in Oneida co., N. Y., on Oriskany creek and the Chenango canal, and the Utica and Binghamton railroad; pop. '80, 1236. It is the seat of Hamilton college, and a place of important manufacturing business.
CLINTON, a village in Huron co., province of Ontario, Canada, 13 m. from Goderich, on a branch of the Grand Trunk railroad; pop. 1881, 2606, Near the place are valuable salt wells, and a deposit of rock-salt 20 ft. thick. There are various manu. factories.
CLINTON, CHARLES, 1690-1773; a native of Ireland, and progenitor of the Clintons of New York, of whom his grandson De Witt was the most famous. The grandfather of Charles was an adherent of Charles I., and fled to the n. of Ireland on the fall of the king. After a voyage in which a number of the emigrants starved to death, C. landed at cape Cod in 1729, and in 1731 settled in Ulster co., N. Y., where he was a farmer, a land surveyor, and a judge of the local court. In 1756, with two of his sons, he served in the campaign against Fort Frontenac.
CLINTON, DE WITT, an American statesman of English origin, son of a maj.gen. in the U. S. army, and descended, on his mother's side, from the Dutch family of De Witt, was b. in 1769, at Little Britain, state of New York. Being admitted to the bar, he became private secretary to his uncle, gen. George Clinton, till the end of his adminis tration in 1785. In 1797, he was elected a member of the New York legislature, and in 1801, chosen a senator of the United States. Subsequently, he was elected mayor of New York, from which office the violence of political parties occasioned his retirement in 1815. Between 1817 and his death in 1828, he was repeatedly governor of New York state. The formation of the great canal from lake Erie to the Hudson was mainly owing to his persevering endeavors. He was a member of most of the literary and scientific institutions of the United States, and of several of those of Great Britain and the continent of Europe. Besides various fugitive pieces, his productions consist of speeches, governor's messages, discourses before various institutions, addresses to the army, communications regarding Lake Erie canal, and judicial opinions.
CLINTON, DE WITT (ante), 1769-1828; b. N. Y., was the son of James Clinton and Mary De Witt, and grandson of Charles the immigrant from Ireland. His paternal ances. tors, although long resident in Ireland, were of English origin, and his mother was of Dutch-French blood. He was educated at Columbia college, graduating with high honors. Choosing the law for his vocation, he studied under Samuel Jones, afterwards chief justice of the United States superior court. Admitted to the bar in 1788, C. entered immediately into political life, becoming an ardent supporter of his uncle, George Clinton, who was governor of the state (from 1777 to 1795 and from 1801 to 1804), and the leader of the republican party. Young C. took an active interest in the adoption of the federal constitution, and reported for the press the proceedings of the convention held for that purpose; about the same time and afterwards acting as his uncle's private secretary. His first office was secretary of the board of regents of the university; and the next, secretary of the board of commissioners of state fortifications. He opposed the administration of John Adams, and also that of John Jay, governor of the state; but while opposing Adams's hostility to France, he raised and commanded an artillery company to resist the French in case war should come. In 1797, he was elected to the state assembly as a representative of New York city, where he made his residence, and the next year was chosen state senator for four years. By virtue of his senatorial office, C. became a member of the council of appointment, a body consisting of one senator from each district to whom the governor made nominations for state and local offices. Up to this time the governor had exercised the exclusive right to make nominations; but C. vigorously attacked the system, and succeeded in procuring an amendment to the constitution giving the members of the council of appointment equal rights of nomination with the governor. During this period C. found time to devote himself to scientific and social questions, studying natural history, and other sciences. The protection and improvement of the public health, and the enactment of laws in favor of agriculture, manufactures, and the arts, and especially the use of steam in navigation, engaged his restless mind. He labored also for the abolition of slavery, and of its kindred barbarism, imprisonment for debt. In 1799, when but 33 years of age, he was appointed a senator of the Unitd States, where he greatly increased his popularity, particularly by his wise and moderate counsel in a high excitement then existing against Spain in con. sequence of alleged violation of treaty stipulations affecting the Mississippi and its trade. Before his term in the senate expired, C. resigned to accept the office of mayor of New York, an appointment made by his uncle, the governor, and the council of appointment. He held the mayor's office four years; was removed; again appointed in 1809; again removed in 1810; finally appointed in 1811, again holding four years, through the period of the war with England. He was also a member of the state senate from 1805 to 1811; lieutenant-governor for the next two years, and for part of this time again a member of the council of appointment. In 1804, his uncle, the governor, was elected vice-president of the United States, and soon afterwards, by reason of age, retired from political life, leaving the partisan scepter of the Clintons in the hands of De Witt, who speedily became the leader of the republican party in New York, and their candidate for president, near the close of Madison's first term. Madison, backed by his war record, was easily nominated by the republican congressional caucus; but the New York section of the party insisted on running Clinton. The result was a disastrous defeat for the latter, he having but 89 electoral votes to 128 for Madison. This severe blow led C. to a temporary cessation of political work, and he turned his attention to less exciting subjects. His partisan opponents considered his political life at an end; but they were wrong. He took a leading part in establishing the free-school system of New York city, and in the establishment and promotion of various institutions of science; in the improvement and modification of criminal laws; in the extension of agriculture and manufactures; in the relief of the poor, the improvement of morals, and the advancement of all worthy objects. For many years no important movement was made in these and kindred matters with which he was not identitied, and oftener than otherwise as the master spirit. All these, however, were little in comparison with the great object on which his fame securely rests—the Erie canal. He was an early and energetic advocate of internal improvements, especially such as could connect the great lakes by navi. gable channels with the tide-water of Hudson river, and no man so eloquently or so prophetically set forth the great advantages that such works would bring to New York city. How these prophecies have been fulfilled the position of that city as the commercial center of the two Americas will attest. It would require many pages to record with what zeal, tireless energy, patience, and hope, he labored for this great object. “Clinton's folly” was the by-word of scoffers through dark years of discouragement, but he never despaired, never yielded an inch, until, a dozen years after his great political defeat, a line of cannon stationed at intervals along the much ridiculed “ditch," and starting their firing at Buffalo, awakened the people of the “Empire State" to the fact that the waters of lake Erie were pouring through the canal, bearing on their waves the message that the great lakes were on that day wedded to the ocean. In the mean time he was never entirely out of the political field. In 1816, the governor (Daniel D. Tompkins) was chosen vice-president, and resigned the governorship. C. was brought forward for the place, bearing not only the odium of advocating the “big ditch' and of the crushing defeat as a presidential candidate four years before, but the additional ignominy of having been but one year before removed from the office of mayor of New York by a council of appointment controlled by his own party. To run for governor seemed madness, yet the innate power and greatness of the man gave him an easy victory, and he was elected by a heavy majority. He was re-elected in 1820, in 1824, and in 1826. In 1822, he was out of the field, and his enemies once more celebrated his political funeral, adding, in the course of their two years' rule, the indignity of removing him from the office of commissioner of the canal then under way. This outrage was more than the people could bear, and C. was at once brought forward for governor, running against Samuel Young. The disgraced canal commissioner was elected by 17,000 majority. He died suddenly in his chair while engaged in official duty at Albany. Among his published works are Discourse before the New York Historical Society; Memoir on the Antiquities of Western New York; Letters on the Natural History and Internal Resources of New York; Speeches to the Legislature; and many historical and scientific addresses.
CLINTON, GEORGE, 1739–1812; b. N. Y.; youngest son of Charles Clinton. His first noteworthy adventure was connected with privateering in the French war of 1763. He was an officer in the expedition against fort Frontenac, and after the war went into the law and politics. He was chosen to the colonial assembly and to the continental congress, was made brig.gen. in the revolutionary army, and in 1777 was elected first governor of the state of New York. He was re-elected, and occupied the executivo chair in all for 18 successive years, and in 1800 was chosen for one more term, making 21 years as governor. In 1804, he was elected vice-president of the United States, hold ing the office until his death, or during all except 104 months of Madison's two administrations.
CLINTON, Sir HENRY, 1738-95; grandson of Francis, sixth earl of Lincoln. Sir Henry was a maj.gen. of the British army in the American revolution, was in the battle of Bunker Hill, and took possession of New York after the defeat of Washington's forces in the battle of Long Island, Aug. 26, 1776. In 1778, he succeeded sir William Howe as commander-in-chief. He returned to England in 1782, and in 1793 he was made governor of Gibraltar, where he died.
CLINTON, HENRY FYNES, a very distinguished classical scholar, was b. Jan. 14, 1781, at Gamston, in Nottinghamshire; educated at Southwell school, and afterwards at Westminster. In 1799, he went to Oxford, and in 1805 took his degree of M.A. Next year, he entered parliament as member for Aldborough, which he continued to represent until 1826. He died Oct. 24, 1852. C.'s two great works are the Fasti Hellenici (1824-34), and Fasti Romani (1845-50). They are known to all European scholars, and contain an immense store of learning.
CLINTON, JAMES, 1736–1812; b. N. Y.; fourth son of Charles the immigrant, and father of De Witt. He went into the English army, serving as a captain in the French war, distinguishing himself in the capture of fort Frontenac. In the revolution he took the side of the colonies, and was made brig.gen. He was wounded at the capture of fort Clinton by the British, but escaped with a part of the garrison across the Hudson river. He was engaged against the Indians in gen. Sullivan's Iroquois expedition, and was present at the siege of Yorktown and the surrender of Cornwallis, and at the evacuation of New York by the English. He was a delegate to the New York convention which adopted the federal constitution.
CLINTON STATE PRISON, in Clinton co., N. Y., in the t. of Dannemora; pop. of township, '80, 2194. The prison comprises a number of buildings inclosed in a stockade which surrounds 37 acres of land. This location was chosen for the purpose of employing convicts in the mining and manufacture of iron, there being abundance of that ore on the tract belonging to the prison, or to the state. It is also in a densely wooded region, and the timber furnishes the charcoal used in the furnaces. The prison was begun in 1844.
CLIO, a genus of shell-less pteropodous mollusks, of which one species, O. borealis, is extremely abundant in the Arctic seas, and constitutes a principal part of the food of whales, so that indeed the name whale's food is often given to it by whale-fishers. It is scarcely an inch long; the head is furnished with six retractile tentacula; the organs of locomotion are two delicate fins, attached to the neck, and which in swimming are brought almost in contact, first above, then below. It is an active little creature, often coming for an instant to the surface of the water in calm weather, and then suddenly diving away into the depths. Myriads are seen together, and the water is sometimes so full of them that a whale cannot open its mouth without engulfing them in great numbers. C. australis is almost as abundant in the southern seas as 0. borealis in the northern. See illus., MOLLUSKS, vol. X., p. 102, fig. 4.
CLI'O, in Grecian mythology, the daughter of Jupiter and Mnemosyne, the mother of Hyacinthus and Hymenæus. She was the muse of history and epic poetry, and was represented as bearing a half-opened roll of a book.
CLIPPER is a name familiarly given to a ship built expressly for speed. The requirements of trades in which the merchandise carried was of a perishable nature, and rendered a quick passage desirable, were probably among the first causes which directed scientific attention to the lines of vessels for the purpose of ascertaining the form adapted to offer least resistance to the water. For many years the fruit-clippers have been celebrated for their rapid passages; and the opium-clippers, and slavers, have attained an unenviable notoriety for speed. The modifications of the old form of vessel have been gradual, the desideratum aimed at being the combination of the greatest carrying capacity with the form best adapted for speed. Perhaps the most successful improvements have been those of the Aberdeen builders, the Americans, and Mr. Scott Russell. A C., as compared with an ordinary sailing-ship, is longer and narrower (though of late the tendency has been to increase the beam); very sharp at the bows, which are generally hollowed more or less below the water-line; gracefully fined away towards the stern, which is usually elliptical; and, altogether, presenting the contrast of the race-horse to the beast of burden. Some of the C. ships now running from Liverpool to America and to Australia are among the most magnificent vessels in the world. The Lightning, during a voyage from Melbourne to Liverpool, ran 2,550 English miles in one week, or at the rate of 154 m. an hour during the whole period. The Americans have fully done their part in introducing rapid C. ships, both for ocean and for river navigation, for steamers and for sailing-ships.
CLIPPING THE COIN. See COINING.
CLIS'THENES, or CLEISTHENES, an Athenian, grandson of the tyrant Sicyon, who, after the expulsion of Hippias from Athens, took the side of the common people against the would-be tyrant Isagoras, and effected some changes in the constitution which tended to increase the rights and privileges of citizens, his object being to destroy the old aristocracy. He is said to have been the first to introduce the punishment of ostracism, and the first to suffer from it. He was banished by the Athenians, and 700 families of his followers also were sent away; but Isagoras finally failed of his purpose, and Clisthenes and the banished families were recalled.
CLI'THEROE, a parliamentary and municipal borough in the w. of Lancashire, on the left bank of the Ribble, 28 m. n. of Manchester. It lies on a low eminence of carboniferous liinestone, at the base of Pendle hill, which is 1803 ft. high. Pendle forest is celebrated as the locality of the exploits of the Lancashire witches. The main street runs along the ridge of the eminence, and at its s. end are the ruins of a castle, founded in the time of William Rufus by the Lacys. C. has print works, cotton manufactures, and limekilns. It sends lime to all parts of the kingdom. About 5 m. w. of C. lies Stonyhurst college, the principal seat of the Jesuits in England. Pop. '81, of the parliamentary borough, 14,463. It returns one member to parliament.
CLITUMNUS (now CLITUMNO), a small river in Umbria, Italy, celebrated for the clearness of its waters and the beauty of the cattle raised upon its banks. Its source is near Spoleto, and after a course of 9 m. it takes the name of Timia. It was once so famous that Caligula, Honorius, and other great people made special visits to its banks. Near the river was a grove of cypresses, and close above the water was a temple to Clitumnus, supposed to be the same now occupied as a Christian chapel. The white cattle peculiar to the valley of the Clitunnus were held in great demand for sacrifices to the gods.
CLITUS, or CLEITUS, foster-brother of Alexander the Great, who saved Alexan. der's life at the battle of Granicus 334 B.C. when, with a blow of his sword, he severed the arm of Spithridates which was stretched out to slay the king. He held high positions in Alexander's armies, and in 328 was made sairap of Bactria; but on the night before he was to leave for his satrapy a feast was given by Alexander in honor of the Dioscuri. Both the king and Clitus became excited with wine, and a wrangle ensued in which Alexander thrust him through with a spear and killed him.
CLIVE, ROBERT, Lord, Baron of Plassey, one of the greatest warrior-statesmen of whom England can boast, the founder of British supremacy in India, was b. at Styche, in Shropshire, 1725. At school he exhibited little aptitude for learning, but was noted for his mischievous propensities and his fearless disposition. The monotony of a clerk. ship in the India Civil Service at Madras, where he arrived in 1744, had literally nearly been the death of him; it was with great joy, therefore, that he abandoned the pen for the sword, when, some three years after his arrival, the troubles accumulating upon the English in India gave him an opportunity of doing so. C. had now found his true sphere. The bold, fearless character had now scope enough for its development; the intellect which, chained to the desk, had seemed of the dullest and most common place kind, in the freedom of the field became at once quick, comprehensive, and original. When C. grasped the sword, English influence in India was almost extinct; the French and their allies had scarcely left them even a material footing. Yet, in less than a halfa dozen years after, C. had, in Aug., 1751, with 200 English infantry and 300 sepoys, marched out of Fort St. David, on his hazardous enterprise to attack Arcot, a city of 100,000 inhabitants, and garrisoned by 1,200 or 1,500 of Chunda Sahib's best troops, amply supplied with artillery, the decisive battle of Plassey had been fought, and English power established on the ruin of that of France and the native princes. The daring displayed in the capture of Arcot, and the intrepidity and fortitude exhibited in its defence by C. and his little band, reduced to 200 men, against an army of 10,000, was the foundation of England's subsequent greatness and glory in India. C.'s name henceforward was a tower of strength in India, where he was surnamed by the natives Sabat Jung, or “the Daring in War." Victory marched with him alike against native warriors, French, and Dutch. Unscrupulous as to his means, he would undoubtedly have found himself involved in many difficulties had not his questionable actions been invariably crowned, and thus in the lax political notions of the time-justified, by success. Nothing remaining for him to do in India, he returned to England in 1760, and received the warm thanks of the company and an Irish peerage from the government for his services. His wealth, arising from shares in various spoils, presents, and grants of territory from native princes, was enormous. After his departure from India, the company's affairs, through the dishonesty of its servants, high and low, fell into a state of the greatest confusion, and C., in 1764, was chosen to set them right. He proved himself as competent an administrator as he was a warrior. Uncompromising and resolute, he bore down every opposition to his plans, all the more sternly that he found it in some cases assuming the form of threats. In less than 18 months, he had “restored perfect order and discipline in both the civil and military services, and brought back prosperity to the well-nigh ruined finances of the company." He returned to England in 1767, and was received with the distinction to which his im portant services entitled him. But the energetic way in which he had righted matters in India, gave offence to those who suffered from the suppression of dishonest practices, many of whom were not without considerable influence in the mother-country. This influence they employed to stir up ill-feeling against C.; and his proceedings in India were made the subject of animadversion in parliament in 1772, and, in the following year, matter for the inquiry of a select parliamentary committee; who, however, failed to find that C. had acquired his great wealth by abuse of power, as his enemies had asserted. The form of acquittal, however, was not quite satisfactory to C., who never got over the disgrace implied in the trial; and ended his life by suicide, Nov. 22, 1774.
CLOACA. See the article BIRDS. A similar anatomical arrangement is found in one order of mammals, the monotremata (q.v.), in all reptiles, and in many fishes.
CLOACA MAXIMA. This was a subterranean passage of vast extent, by which the whole, or a great part, of the filth of ancient Rome was conveyed to the Tiber. Drains from the lower parts of the city around the forum, and from the other valleys, were commenced by Tarquinius Priscus; but the construction of the C. M. is attributed by Livy to Tarquinius Superbus. Niebuhr is of opinion that it was at first intended to drain the valley of the forum; but it appears to have been subsequently extended, and connected with the smaller cloaca. Running from the forum past the temple of Vesta, it terminated at the Tiber, where the mouth of it is still visible. It consisted of 3 large arches, one within the other. The space inclosed by the innermost vault was upwards of 13 ft. in width, and of a corresponding height. The arches were built of large blocks of stone, fixed together without cement, of the uniform size of rather more than 5 ft. 5 in. long, and 3 ft. high. The species of stone used bears evidence to the antiquity of the construction, being the material which was employed in the most ancient public edifices. The sewer was kept in a state of efficiency by a continual stream of superfluous water from the aqueducts. Large portions of this and of the other cloacæ remain, in some places still visible, but generally buried, by the accumulation of soil, at a considerable depth below the present level of the streets. During the republic, the surveillance of the Roman cloace was one of the duties performed by the censors. The C. M. was subjected to repair by Cato and his colleague in the censorship. Agrippa, when ædile, obtained praise for his exertions in cleansing and repairing the cloacæ, and is recorded to have passed through them in a boat. Under the empire, officers called curatores cloacarum urbis were appointed for their supervision. So thoroughly was the city undermined by these large sewers, that Pliny calls it urbs pensilis, a city suspended in the air rather than resting upon the earth. Drains of the same description, but of smaller dimensions, existed in some others of the ancient Roman cities.
CLOACI'NA, in Roman mythology, the goddess of sewers, mentioned in very early times. Pliny derives the name from a verb which meant to wash or purify. See CLOACA MAXIMA.
CLOCK BELL-METAL is principally an alloy of copper and tin with smaller quantities of bismuth, antimony, lead, and zinc. A common alloy is 80 parts of copper, 10 tin, 54 zinc, and 41 lead. The bismuth and antimony make the bell more brittle, but they communicate a better tone; and where the proportion of tin rises as high as 20 per cent., or 1 part of tin to 4 of the other metals, a very much more sonorous bell is obtained.
CLOCKS, CURIOUS. Among remarkable clocks, one of the best known is that in the Strasbourg cathedral. Another, illustrating the elaborateness to which clock-work is sometimes carried, was placed on exhibition in New York in the summer of 1880. It is the work of Felix Meier, who spent more than 10 years on its construction. It is 18 ft. high, 8 wide, and 5 deep. It has 2,000 wheels, runs by 700-lb. weights, and is wound up once in 12 days. Above the main body of the clock is a marble dome, upon which Washington sits in his chair of state, protected by a canopy which is surmounted by a gilded statue of Columbia; on either side of Washington is a servant in livery, guarding the doors, which open between the pillars that support the canopy; on the four corners of the main body of the clock are black walnut niches; one of the niches contains the figure of an infant, the second the figure of a youth, the third of a man in middle life, the fourth of an aged gray beard, and still another, directly over the center, contains a skeleton, representing father Time. All of these figures have bells and hammers in their hands. The infant's bell is small and sweet-toned; the youth's bell larger and harsher; the bell of manhood strong and resonant; that of old age diminishing in strength, and the bell of the skeleton deep and sad. A figure of William C. Bryant, and another of prof. Morse rest upon the pillars that support the planetary system. The astronomical and mathematical calculation, if kept up, would show the correct movement of the planets for 200 years, leap years included. When the clock is in operation it shows local time in hours, minutes, and seconds; the difference in time at Chicago, Washington, San Francisco, Melbourne, Pekin, Cairo, Constantinople, St. Petersburg, Vienna, London, Berlin, and Paris; the day of the week, calendar day of the month, month of the year, and seasons of the year, the signs of the zodiac, the revolutions of the earth on its own axis, and also around the sun; the revolutions of the moon around the earth, and with it around the sun; also, the moon's changes from the quarter to half, three-quarters, and full; the correct movement of the planets around the sun, comprising Mercury, which makes the revolution once in 88 days; Venus, once in 224 days; Mars, once in 686 days; Vesta, once in 1,327 days; Juno, once in 1,593 days; Ceres, once in 1,681 days; Jupiter, once in 4,332 days; Saturn, once in 10,758 days; Uranus, once in 30,688 days. There is, therefore, a movement in this wonderful piece of machinery which cannot regularly be repeated more than once in 84 years. But the inventor has a crank attachment to the clock, by means of which he can hasten the working of the machinery, in order to show its movements to the public. By turning continuously 12 hours a day, for 16 days and 8 hours, a perfect revolution of the planet Uranus around the sun would be made. At the end of every quarter hour the infant in his carved niche strikes with a tiny hammer upon the bell which he holds in his hand. At the end of each half hour the youth strikes; at the end of three-quarters